Taking Sides: Clashing Views in Health and Society / Edition 11by Eileen Daniel
Pub. Date: 09/13/2013
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Higher Education
The Taking Sides Collection on McGraw-Hill Create™ includes current controversial issues in a debate-style format designed to stimulate student interest and develop critical thinking skills. This Collection contains a multitude of current and classic issues to enhance and customize your course. You can browse the entire Taking Sides Collection on Create, or… See more details below
The Taking Sides Collection on McGraw-Hill Create™ includes current controversial issues in a debate-style format designed to stimulate student interest and develop critical thinking skills. This Collection contains a multitude of current and classic issues to enhance and customize your course. You can browse the entire Taking Sides Collection on Create, or you can search by topic, author, or keywords. Each Taking Sides issues is thoughtfully framed with Learning Outcomes, an Issue Summary, an Introduction, and an Exploring the Issue section featuring Critical Thinking and Reflection, Is There Common Ground?, and Additional Resources and Internet References. Go to McGraw-Hill Create™ at www.mcgrawhillcreate.com, click on the "Collections" tab, and select The Taking Sides Collection to browse the entire Collection. Select individual Taking Sides issues to enhance your course, or access and select the entire Daniel: Taking Sides: Clashing Views in Health and Society, 11/e ExpressBook for an easy, pre-built teaching resource by clicking here. An online Instructor's Resource Guide with testing material is available for each Taking Sides volume. Using Taking Sides in the Classroom is also an excellent instructor resource. Visit the Create Central Online Learning Center at www.mhhe.com/createcentral for more details.
Table of Contents
Clashing Views in Health and Society, Eleventh Edition
Unit: The Health Care Industry
• Issue: Issue Does the Affordable Health Care Violate Religious Freedom by Requiring Employers’ Health Insurance Plans to Cover Birth Control?
YES: Wesley J. Smith, from “What About Religious Freedom: The Other Consequences of Obamacare,” The Weekly Standard (October 29, 2012)
NO: Aram A. Schvey, from ”Much Ado About Nothing?” Human Rights (January 2013)
Senior fellow in the Discovery Institute’s Center on Human Exceptionalism Wesley J. Smith believes birth control cases are just the beginning for far more intrusive violations of religious liberty to come, for example, requiring businesses to provide free abortions to their employees. Attorney and Policy Counsel for Foreign Policy and Human Rights at the Center for Reproductive Rights Aram A. Schvey argues that access to affordable contraception is a cornerstone of women’s independence and equality and that the Affordable Care Act does not violate religious freedom.
• Issue: Should Health Care Be Rationed in the U.S.?
YES: Daniel Callahan, from “Rationing: Theory, Politics, and Passions,” Hastings Center Report (March/April 2011)
NO: James Ridgeway, from “Meet the Real Death Panels,” Mother Jones (July/August 2010)
Ethicist and Philosopher Daniel Callahan believes that while some individuals may be hurt by health care rationing, these decisions must and will be made eventually. Author James Ridgeway argues that health care should be treated as a human right instead of a profit-making opportunity.
• Issue: Should Prescription Drugs Be Advertised Directly to Consumers?
YES: Paul Antony, from “PhRMA Chief Medical Officer Testifies on DTC Advertising,” Error! Hyperlink reference not valid.www.phrma.org/
NO: Marc-André Gagnon and Joel Lexchin, from “The Cost of Pushing Pills: A New Estimate of Pharmaceutical Promotion Expenditures in the United States,” PLoS Medicine (January 2008)
Paul Antony, chief medical officer at the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA), claims that direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription medications has been beneficial to American patients and is a powerful tool in educating consumers and improving their health. Professors Marc-André Gagnon and Joel Lexchin argue that drug companies spend almost twice as much on advertising to consumers as they do on research and product development.
• Issue: Are We Winning the War on Cancer?
YES: John R. Seffrin, from “Winning the War on Cancer: Public Health or Public Policy Challenge?” Vital Speeches of the Day (September 2006)
NO: Reynold Spector, from “The War on Cancer: A Progress Report for Skeptics,” Skeptical Inquirer (January/February 2010)
American Cancer Society President John R. Seffrin claims we are winning the war against cancer and that it is possible to eliminate the disease as a major public health problem. Physician and professor of medicine Reynold Spector argues that the gains made against cancer have been limited and that overall there has been very little progress in the war on cancer.
• Issue: Should Marijuana Be Legalized for Medicinal Purposes?
YES: Kevin Drum, from “The Patriot’s Guide to Legalization,” Mother Jones (July/August 2009)
NO: Christian Science Monitor Editorial Board, from “Legalize Marijuana? Not So Fast,” The Christian Science Monitor (May 22, 2009)
Political columnist and blogger Kevin Drum contends that medical marijuana is now legal in more than a dozen states without any serious problems or increased usage. The editorial board of The Christian Science Monitor maintains that the drug can lead to dependence and can cause lung damage and other health concerns.
Unit: Health and Society
• Issue: Is the Use of “Smart” Pills for Cognitive Enhancement Dangerous?
YES: Alan Schwarz, from “Drowned in a Stream of Prescriptions,” The New York Times (February 2, 2013)
NO: Joshua Gowin, from “How ‘Smart Drugs’ Enhance Us,” Psychology Today (September 29, 2009)
Pulitzer Prize-nominated reporter Alan Schwarz maintains that “smart pills” such as Adderall can significantly improve the lives of children and others with ADHD but that too many young adults who do not have the condition fake the symptoms and get prescriptions for the highly addictive and dangerous drugs. Psychologist Joshua Gowin argues that these drugs aren’t much different from a cup of coffee and should be treated accordingly.
• Issue: Should Embryonic Stem Cell Research Be Permitted?
YES: Jeffrey Hart, from “NR on Stem Cells: The Magazine Is Wrong,” National Review (April 19, 2004)
NO: Ramesh Ponnuru, from “NR on Stem Cells: The Magazine Is Right,” National Review (April 19, 2004)
Professor Jeffrey Hart contends there are many benefits to stem cell research and that a ban on funded cloning research is unjustified. Writer Ramesh Ponnuru argues that a single-celled human embryo is a living organism, which directs its own development and should not be used for experimentation.
Unit: MindBody Relationships
• Issue: Should Addiction to Drugs Be Labeled a Brain Disease?
YES: Alan I. Leshner, from “Addiction Is a Brain Disease,” Issues in Science and Technology (Spring 2001)
NO: Alva Noë, from “Addiction Is Not a Disease of the Brain,” National Public Radio (September 9, 2011)
Alan I. Leshner, director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse at the national Institutes of Health, believes that addiction to drugs and alcohol is not a behavioral condition but a treatable disease. Professor Alva Noë counters that addiction is a phenomenon that can only be understood in terms of the life, choices, needs, and understanding of the whole person.
• Issue: Do Religion and Prayer Benefit Health?
YES: Thomas J. Cottle, from “Our Thoughts and Our Prayers,” The Antioch Review (Spring 2010)
NO: Michael Shermer, from “Prayer and Healing: The Verdict Is in and the Results Are Null,” Skeptic (vol. 12, no. 3, 2006)
Psychologist and educator Thomas J. Cottle believes that prayer can fill patients with a spirit of security when confronted with illness. Author Michael Shermer contends that intercessory prayer offered by strangers on the health and recovery of patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery is ineffective. He also addresses flaws in studies showing a relationship between prayer and health.
Unit: Sexuality and Gender Issues
• Issue: Is It Necessary for Pregnant Women to Completely Abstain from All Alcoholic Beverages?
YES: Melinda Beck, from “Stricter Thinking on Alcohol During Pregnancy,” The Wall Street Journal (January 24, 2012)
NO: Julia Moskin, from “The Weighty Responsibility of Drinking for Two,” The New York Times (November 29, 2006)
Journalist Melinda Beck provides evidence that even moderate quantities of alcohol can damage a developing fetus and cites new research indicating that even small amounts of alcoholic beverages consumed during pregnancy may be harmful. Journalist Julia Moskin argues that there are almost no studies on the effects of moderate drinking during pregnancy and that small amounts of alcohol are unlikely to have much effect.
• Issue: Should Pro-Life Health Providers Be Allowed to Deny Prescriptions on the Basis of Conscience?
YES: John A. Menges, from “Public Hearing on HB4346 Before the House State Government Administration committee,” Illinois House State Government Administration Committee (February 15, 2006)
NO: R. Alta Charo, from “The Celestial Fire of ConscienceRefusing to Deliver Medical Care,” The New England Journal of Medicine (June 16, 2005)
Pharmacist John A. Menges believes that it is his right to refuse to dispense any medication that is designed to end a human life. Attorney R. Alta Charo argues that health care professionals who protect themselves from the moral consequences of their actions may do so at their patients’ risk.
• Issue: Should the Cervical Cancer Vaccine for Girls Be Compulsory?
YES: Cynthia Dailard, from “Achieving Universal Vaccination Against Cervical Cancer in the United States: The Need and the Means,” Guttmacher Policy Review (Fall 2006)
NO: Gail Javitt, Deena Berkowitz, and Lawrence O. Gostin, from “Assessing Mandatory HPV Vaccination: Who Should Call the Shots?” Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics (Summer 2008)
The late Cynthia Dailard, a senior public policy associate at the Guttmacher Institute, argues that universal vaccination is needed because virtually all cases of cervical cancer are linked to the human papillomavirus. Most infected people are unaware of their infection, which is linked to nearly 10,000 cases of cervical cancer. Professors Gail Javitt, Deena Berkowitz, and Lawrence Gostin believe that mandating the cervical cancer vaccine raises significant legal, ethical, and social concerns. They are also concerned about the long-term safety and effectiveness of the vaccine.
• Issue: Do Ultrathin Models and Actresses Influence the Onset of Eating Disorders?
YES: Janet L. Treasure, Elizabeth R. Wack, and Marion E. Roberts, from “Models as a High-Risk Group: The Health Implications of a Size Zero Culture,” The British Journal of Psychiatry (April 2008)
NO: Fred Schwarz, from “Not Our Stars but Ourselves: Skinny Actresses and Models Do Not Make Girls Anorexic,” The National Review (February 23, 2009)
Physician Janet L. Treasure and psychologists Elizabeth R. Wack and Marion E. Roberts maintain that the promotion of an ultrathin ideal produces an environment that favors eating disorders. Journalist Fred Schwarz disagrees and contends that skinny models and actresses do not make girls and women anorexic since the disease predates the era of an ultrathin beauty standard.
• Issue: Is There a Valid Reason for Routine Infant Male Circumcision?
YES: Hanna Rosin, from “The Case Against the Case Against Circumcision; Why One Mother Heard All of the Opposing Arguments, Then Circumcised Her Sons Anyway,” New York Magazine (October 26, 2009)
NO: Michael Idov, from “Would You Circumcise This Baby? Why a Growing Number of Parents, Especially in New York and Other Cities, Are Saying No to the Procedure,” New York Magazine (October 26, 2009)
Writer Hanna Rosin argues that male circumcision decreases the risk of disease transmission and that people who oppose the operation are filled with anger that transcends the actual outcome. Michael Idov, author and contributing editor of New York Magazine, counters that newborns feel pain and that there is no valid medical reason to perform the surgery.
Unit: Public Health Issues
• Issue: Is There a Link Between Vaccination and Autism?
YES: Robert F. Kennedy Jr., from “Deadly Immunity,” Rolling Stone (June 30July 14, 2005)
NO: Matthew Normand and Jesse Dallery, from “Mercury Rising: Exposing the Vaccine-Autism Myth,” Skeptic (vol. 13, no. 3, 2007)
Environmentalist and attorney Robert F. Kennedy Jr. argues that childhood vaccines containing thimerosal are linked to autism and that the government has colluded with pharmaceutical companies to cover up this information. Psychology professors Matthew Normand and Jesse Dallery contend that studies have failed to uncover any specific link between autism and mercury-containing thimerosal vaccines.
• Issue: Do Cell Phones Cause Cancer?
YES: Ronald B. Herberman, from “Tumors and Cell Phone Use: What the Science Says” (September 25, 2008), http://cellphones.procon.org/sourcefiles/Herberman_Testimony.pdf
NO: Bernard Leikind, from “Do Cell Phones Cause Cancer?” Skeptic (2010)
Physician and director of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute Ronald B. Herberman maintains that radio frequency radiation associated with cell phones is a potential health risk factor for users, especially children. Physicist Bernard Leikind argues that there is no plausible mechanism by which cell phone radiation can cause cancer.
• Issue: Will Hydraulic Fracturing (Fracking) Negatively Affect Human Health and the Environment?
YES: John Rumpler, from “Fracking: Pro and Con,” Tufts Now (May 30, 2013) http://now.tufts.edu/articles/fracking-pro-and-con
NO: Bruce McKensie Everett, from “Fracking: Pro and Con,rdquo; Tufts Now (May 30, 2013) http://now.tufts.edu/articles/fracking-pro-and-con
Environmentalist and senior attorney for Environment America, John Rumpler argues that fracking is not worth the damage to health and the environment. Energy researcher and Adjunct Professor Bruce McKenzie Everett claims fracking provides substantial economic benefits and its health and environmental problems are relatively small.
• Issue: Is Breastfeeding the Best Way to Feed Babies?
YES: Jodi R. Godfrey and Ruth A. Lawrence, from “Toward Optimal Health: The Maternal Benefits of Breastfeeding,” Journal of Women’s Health (September 11, 2010)
NO: Hanna Rosin, from “The Case Against Breast-Feeding,” The Atlantic (April 2009)
Dietitian and wellness specialist Jodi R. Godfrey and physician Ruth A. Lawrence maintain that breastfeeding is the gold standard for infant feeding and that there are significant benefits to both mother and infant. Atlantic magazine editor Hanna Rosin claims the data on the benefits of breastfeeding are inconclusive and suggests a more relaxed approach to the issue.
• Issue: Are Restrictions on Sugar and Sugary Beverages Justified?
YES: Gary Taubes and Cristin Kearns Couzens, from “Sweet Little Lies,” Mother Jones (November/December 2012)
NO: Kenneth W. Krause, from “Saving Us from Sweets: This Is Science and Government on Sugar,” Skeptical Inquirer (September/October 2012)
Writers Gary Taubes and Cristin Kearns Couzens maintain that added sugars and sweeteners pose dangers to health and that the sugar industry continually campaigns to enhance its image. Journalist Kenneth W. Krause argues that individuals have the ability to make decisions about sugar consumption themselves and that government should not restrict our access to sugar and sugar-containing food products.
Unit: Consumer Health
• Issue: Is Weight-Loss Maintenance Possible?
YES: Barbara Berkeley, from “The Fat Trap: My Response” (December 29, 2011) www.refusetoregain.com/2011/12/the-fat-trap-my-response.html
NO: Tara Parker-Pope, from “The Fat Trap,” The New York Times Magazine (January 1, 2012)
Physician Barbara Berkeley believes that weight maintenance is not easy but possible as long as people separate themselves from the world of typical American eating. She also claims that some individuals are heavy because they are susceptible to the modern diet or because they use food for comfort. Journalist Tara Parker-Pope disagrees and maintains that there are biological imperatives that cause people to regain all the weight they lose and for those genetically inclined to obesity, it’s almost impossible to maintain weight loss.
• Issue: Are Energy Drinks with Alcohol Dangerous Enough to Ban?
YES: Don Troop, from “Four Loko Does Its Job with Efficiency and Economy, Students Say,” The Chronicle of Higher Education (November 1, 2010)
NO: Jacob Sullum, from “Loco Over Four Loko,” Reason Magazine (March 2011)
The Chronicle of Higher Education journalist Don Troop argues that the combination of caffeine and alcohol is extremely dangerous and should not be sold or marketed to college students and young people. Journalist and editor of Reason Magazine Jacob Sullum disagrees and claims that alcoholic energy drinks should not have been targeted and banned since many other products are far more dangerous.
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