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As progressive reformers took on America’s ills at the start of the twentieth century, a new generation of Native American reformers took on America, "talking back" to the civilization that had overrun but not crushed their own. This volume offers a collection of 21 primary sources, including journal articles, testimony, and political cartoons by Native Americans of the Progressive Era, who worked in a variety of fields to defend their communities and culture. Their voices are organized into 7 topical chapters on subjects such as native religion, education, and Indian service in World War I. Spanning the period from the 1893 Columbian Expedition to the 1920s' congressional land hearings, this rich array of voices fills an important gap in the chronology of Native American studies. An engaging introduction focusing on the intellectual leaders of the protest efforts includes background on the Progressive Era, while headnotes for each document, striking illustrations, a chronology of major events, and a bibliography support the firsthand accounts.
Table of Contents
List of Illustrations
INTRODUCTION: American Indian Activism in the Progressive Era
Indian America, 1900
The "Antithesis of Civilization"
The Progressive Era
Indian Writers Respond
Defending Tribal Religions
Political Protests and Legal Challenges
Talking Back Brings Results
The Structure of This Book
1. SPEAKING OUT AT THE WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION, 1893
Simon Pokagon, The Red Man's Greeting, 1893
2. CRITICS OF INDIAN EDUCATION
Francis La Flesche on Boarding School, 1900
Laura Kellogg Attacks the Government's System of Indian Education, 1913
Henry Roe Cloud Presents an Alternative Vision of Indian Education, 1914.
Arthur C. Parker Argues for College Education for Indians, 1913
3. DISCUSSING CHRISTIANITY AND RELIGION
Zitkala Sa (Gertrude Bonnin) Defends Paganism, 1902
Charles Eastman Compares the Morality of Indians and Modern Christians, 1916.
Francis La Flesche and Fred Lookout Defend Peyote before Congress, 1918.
4. AMERICAN INDIANS ON AMERICA'S INDIAN POLICY
Carlos Montezuma Advocates the Abolition of the Indian Office, 1914.
Arthur Parker Indicts the Government for Its Actions, 1915.
The Society of American Indians Supports Tribal Claims, 1913.
5. POPULAR IMAGES OF INDIANS: CARTOONS AND COMMENTARY, 1913–1916
Cartoons from the Quarterly Journal, 1913-1916
Chauncey Yellow Robe on the Wild West Shows, 1914.
Arthur Parker on the Alleged Racial Inferiority of Indians, 1914.
6. WORLD WAR I
Carlos Montezuma on the Draft, 1917
Chauncey Yellow Robe on the War Effort, 1918.
Zitkala Sa on the Paris Peace Conference, 1919.
Charles Eastman Sees the End of War as the Moment to End the "Petty Autocracy" of the Indian Office, 1919.
Robert Yellowtail Calls for Self-Determination, 1919.
7. AFTER THE WAR. RESERVATION INDIANS SPEAK OUT
Ojibwe Leaders Protest Government Proposals to Abolish Their Reservation, 1920.
Sioux Leaders Protest the Leasing of Tribal Lands, 1920.
Winnebago Leaders Ask for Justice, 1922.
AFTERWORD: THE PUEBLOS PROTEST THE BURSUM BILL, 1922
An Appeal for Fair Play and the Preservation of Pueblo Life, November 5, 1922.
Questions for Consideration
Chronology of Important Events for Native Americans in the Progressive Era (1890-1928)