TCP/IP for Windows 2000


The hands-on, Windows 2000-focused guide to TCP/IP.

Running TCP/IP on Windows 2000 presents unique challenges and opportunities that simply don't apply in other environments. Now there's a book that explains TCP/IP from a Windows 2000 point of view. TCP/IP for Windows 2000 explains fundamental TCP/IP concepts with exceptional detail and clarity, and delivers practical, hands-on guidance for planning and deploying TCP/IP using Windows 2000 and Active Directory. From addressing to...

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The hands-on, Windows 2000-focused guide to TCP/IP.

Running TCP/IP on Windows 2000 presents unique challenges and opportunities that simply don't apply in other environments. Now there's a book that explains TCP/IP from a Windows 2000 point of view. TCP/IP for Windows 2000 explains fundamental TCP/IP concepts with exceptional detail and clarity, and delivers practical, hands-on guidance for planning and deploying TCP/IP using Windows 2000 and Active Directory. From addressing to routing, architecture to troubleshooting, this book's step-by-step procedures and exercises will give the skill you need to deploy and maintain any Windows 2000 TCP/IP network.

  • A detailed, Windows-focused overview of TCP/IP's capabilities and architecture
  • Key concepts and techniques for IP addressing and routing
  • Detailed, step-by-step coverage of deploying DNS and DHCP
  • Proven solutions for integrating DNS with Windows 2000 Active Directory
  • Implementing Routing and Remote Access Service (RRAS)—in depth, from start to finish
  • Building secure VPNs with Windows 2000
  • Running NetBIOS over TCP/IP
  • Using WINS in mixed environments with older Windows clients

TCP/IP for Windows 2000 offers detailed procedures for every key Windows 2000 TCP/IP network administration task: what to click, where to find it, and how to customize your network to your unique needs. Whether you're building from scratch, migrating from NT4, or introducing Windows 2000 into a heterogeneous environment, you won't find a more useful book.

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Editorial Reviews

Introducing basic TCP/IP concepts and offering an overview of Windows 2000 and Active Directory, this book describes the procedures for network administration. The book covers IP addressing, subnetting, IP routing, implementing Windows Internet name service, network browsing, connectivity, management protocol, and troubleshooting. It also describes the principles of TC/IP architecture, NetBIOS over TCP/IP, host name resolution, domain name system, DNS, IPSec, and RRAS. Houde is an engineer. Hoffman is a trainer and consultant. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (
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Product Details

Meet the Author

Dave Houde is senior engineer for Alida Connection, a leading technology training and consulting firm based in Nashua, NH.

Tim Hoffman is President of Alida Connection.

Together, they have co-authored three Prentice Hall PTR books: MCSE: Internetworking with Microsoft TCP/IP on Microsoft Windows NT 4.0, MCSE: Implementing and Supporting Microsoft Proxy Server 2.0, and Network+ Certification.

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Read an Excerpt

Chapter 1: Introduction to TCP/IP

In this chapter we will look at the terminology of TCP/IP, its history and perspectives. We will speak about installation of TCP/IP on a Windows 2000 computer and briefly cover major TCP/IP utilities that are used to test the installation. We will also discuss Microsoft Network Monitor, which helps you diagnose and trou-bleshoot many TCP/IP related problems.

TCP/IP Basics

TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol and it's an industry-standard suite of protocols designed for wide area networks (WANs). Since the Internet is an example of a WAN, we can say that TCP/IP is the protocol suite for the Internet also. The most common mistake is to think that TCP/IP is one protocol or two (TCP and IP). As we will see, the TCP/IP abbreviation implies several protocols. Among them are some that you might already have heard about: HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) which is used to navigate World Wide Web, FTP (File Transfer Protocol) protocol that provides reliable file transfer over the Internet, and SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) which supports email communications. Some of the protocols that are included in the TCP/IP suite are quite exotic, for example ICMP, SNMP, and TFTP.

Although many of the ideas associated with TCP/IP are quite new, the technology itself has been with us for a relatively long time....

Standards and How They Appear

As you can see, TCP/IP has a rich history. Today, TCP/IP is often associated with the Internet. Its architecture and design are closely bound with Internet advances and growth. Since, however, there is no organization that owns the Internet, you might ask how this whole system is controlled. There are organizations that are responsible for setting up standards and controlling the advance of the TCP/IP technologies. Some examples are The Internet Society and The Internet Architecture Board.
Internet Society (ISOC)
The Internet SOCiety ( is a professional membership society with more than 150 organizational and 6,000 individual members in over 100 countries. It provides leadership in addressing issues that confront the future of the Internet, and is the organization home for the groups responsible for Internet infrastructure standards, including the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and the Internet Architecture Board (IAB). ISOC's members are bound by a common stake in maintaining the viability and global scaling of the Internet. They comprise the companies, government agencies, and foundations that have created the Internet and its technologies as well as innovative entrepreneurial organizations contributing to maintain that dynamic. The Society is governed by its board of trustees elected by its membership around the world.
Internet Architecture Board
The IAB is a technical advisory group of ISOC. Some issues discussed during IAB meetings are:
  • The future of Internet addressing
  • Architectural principles of the Internet
  • Management of top level domains in the Domain Name System
  • International character sets
  • Charging for addresses
The IAB governs the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) (http://, Internet Assigned Number Authority (IANA) (, and Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) (http://
Requests for Comments
You may wonder how the groups' decisions are documented. Requests for Comments (RFCs) are a series of notes, started in 1969, about the Internet (originally the ARPANET). The notes discuss many aspects of computing and computer communication focusing on networking protocols, procedures, programs, and concepts, but also include meeting notes, opinion, and sometimes humor. TCP/IP standards are always published as RFCs.


Although TCP/IP standards are always published as RFCs, not all RFCs specify standards. Some of them have Limited use or even Not recommended status.

When a document is published, it is assigned an RFC number. The original RFC number is never updated, but when changes are required, a new RFC is issued with a new number. Therefore, when you are looking for information in RFCs, be sure that you have the most recent one.


You can find the text of the RFCs at You can also find links to RFC sites as well as a wealth of Internet information at

Advantages of TCP/IP

As TCP/IP has become the industry standard protocol suite, many software vendors have included TCP/IP support in their products. Let's take a closer look at the Microsoft implementation of TCP/IP. Because of its myriad advantages, TCP/IP is the default protocol for Windows 2000. This text will explore the advantages that drove Microsoft to select TCP/IP for that role.

Modern networks are large and complex. They are connected with routers and need reliable protocols to communicate. Implementing TCP/IP in a corporate network gives you a standard, routable environment. Since TCP/IP offers robust, scalable architecture, you can easily expand your network. This is why most of today's large networks rely on TCP/IP.

Imagine a large enterprise network with hundreds of computers, many of which work under different operating systems such as Microsoft Windows NT, Windows 2000, UNIX, and Novell NetWare. The typical problem is to connect all these computers so users can seamlessly exchange information. Obviously, this situation requires common protocols as well as connectivity utilities and tools to access and transfer data. Since TCP/IP is supported by all modern operating systems, it has become the logical choice when connecting dissimilar systems. In addition to a common network protocol, however, compatible applications are needed on both ends. Microsoft TCP/IP includes useful utilities that provide access to foreign hosts for data transfer, monitoring, and remote control. For example: FTP, tracert, and telnet.

Remember, also, that the Internet is based on TCP/IP. The TCP/IP protocol running on a Windows 2000 computer allows it to gain Internet access (assuming, of course, it has physical connectivity to the Internet)....

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Table of Contents

1: Introduction to TCP/IP
TCP/IP Basics
Standards and How They Appear
Advantages of TCP/IP
TCP/IP Utilities and Services
Installing Microsoft TCP/IP on Windows 2000
Automatic Configuration
Manually Configuring TCP/IP
Changing TCP/IP Parameters
Testing the TCP/IP Configuration
TCP/IP Testing Sequence
Microsoft Network Monitor
Installing Microsoft Network Monitor
Using Microsoft Network Monitor to Capture and View Data
Test Yourself
2: Windows 2000 Active Directory Overview
Directory Services and the Active Directory
User Management with Active Directory
Active Directory Features
Quality of Service
Test Yourself
3: TCP/IP Architecture
ISO/OSI and DoD Overview
The Open Systems Interconnect Model
DoD Four-Layer Model
The Microsoft TCP/IP Protocol Suite
Address Resolution Protocol
ARP Packet Structure
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
Internet Group Management Protocol
Internet Protocol
Transmission Control Protocol
User Datagram Protocol
Ports and Sockets
Test Yourself
4: IP Addressing
Defining IP Addresses
Dotted Decimal Notation
Network ID and Host ID
Defining Address Classes
Class A
Class B
Class C
Class D
Class E
Assigning IP Addresses
Choosing a Network ID
Selecting the Right Amount of Network IDs
Choosing the Host ID
Valid and Invalid Host IDs and Network IDs
Configuring Microsoft TCP/IP to Support Multiple Network Adapters
Defining Subnet Masks
Default Subnet Masks
Using the Subnet Mask
Test Yourself
5: Subnetting
Defining Subnets
Planning Considerations
Design Considerations
Changing Custom Subnet Mask Defaults
Defining the Subnet Numbers
Defining Host Addresses for Each Subnet
Subnetting in Action
Test Yourself
6: IP Routing
Routing Basics
Host Routing
Routing Table
TCP/IP Dead Gateway Detection
Router's Decisions
Types of Routing
Static Routing
Configuring a Windows 2000 Server Computer to Function as a Static IP Router
Modifying the Routing Table
Dynamic Routing
Routing Internet Protocol
Open Shortest Path First
Windows 2000 Computer as a Dynamic Router
Static and Dynamic Routers in the Same Network
Using the TRACERT Utility to Verify IP Routes
Test Yourself
7: Automatic Private IP Addressing and DHCP
Automatic Private IP Addressing
The APIPA Process
The DHCP Process
DHCP Lease Duration
Installing DHCP on a Windows 2000 Server
Configuring DHCP Scopes and Options
Adding a Scope
Configuring DHCP Options
Authorizing DHCP in Active Directory
DHCP Relay Agent
Configuring a Windows 2000 Server as a DHCP Relay Agent
DHCP Planning Considerations
Client Configuration
IPCONFIG and IP Parameters
Managing the DHCP Database
Database Backup and Restoration
Compacting the Database
Files Used by the DHCP Database
Analyzing the Impact of DHCP Traffic on the Network
IP Address Lease Acquisition
Address Lease Renewal
DHCP Traffic Optimization
Test Yourself
8: NetBIOS Over TCP/IP
NetBIOS Names
NetBIOS Name Registration, Discovery, and Release
Name Registration
Name Discovery
Name Release
NetBIOS Name Scopes
NetBIOS Name Resolution
Standard Name Resolution Methods
Microsoft Name Resolution Methods
Broadcast Name Resolution
Using a NetBIOS Name Server to Resolve Names
Name Resolution Nodes
DNS Name Resolution
LMHOSTS Keywords
Enabling LMHOSTS Lookup and Importing LMHOSTS Files
LMHOSTS Name Resolution Problems
Microsoft Methods of Resolving NetBIOS Names
Disabling NetBIOS
Test Yourself
9: Implementing Windows Internet Name Service
The WINS Process
Name Registration
Name Renewal
Name Release
Name Query/Response
WINS Planning Considerations
WINS Implementation
WINS Installation
Configuring Static Entries and Proxy Agents
Static Entries
WINS Proxy Agents
WINS Client Configuration
Primary/Secondary WINS Servers
Database Replication Between WINS Servers
Configuring WINS Database Replication
Automatic Replication Partners
WINS Server Configuration
Burst Handling
The WINS Database
WINS Database Maintenance
Test Yourself
10: IP Internetwork Browsing and Domain Functions
Browsing Overview
Browser Roles
Browsing in One IP Subnet
How Does the Computer Get into the Browse List?
Master Browser
Backup Browser
What Happens When a Computer Needs to Browse?
When Does the Computer Disappear from the Browse List?
Browser Elections
Browsing Across Subnets
The IP Router Solution
Domain Master Browser
LMHOSTS File Solution
WINS Solution
DNS Solution
Domain Functions in the TCP/IP Environment
LMHOSTS Solution
WINS Solution
DNS Solution
Test Yourself
11: Host Name Resolution
TCP/IP Naming Schemes
Defining Host Names
Host Name Resolution
Standard Name Resolution Methods
Microsoft Name Resolution Methods
Name Resolution Using a HOSTS File
Name Resolution Using a DNS Server
The Microsoft Host Name Resolution Process
Configuring the HOSTS File
Test Yourself
12: Domain Name System
The Need for a Domain Name System
The Domain Name System
Name Servers
Domain Name Space
Zones of Authority
Roles for Name Servers
Primary Name Servers
Secondary Name Servers
Master Name Servers
Caching-Only Servers
DNS Name Resolution
Recursive Query
Iterative Query
Inverse Query
Caching and Time to Live
DNS Files
Database File
Reverse Lookup File
127-Reverse Lookup File
Cache File
Boot File
DNS Implementation Planning
DNS Installation and Configuration
Installing the Service
Configuring the DNS Server
Integrating DNS with Other Name Servers
Connecting DNS to a DNS Root Server
Connecting DNS to a WINS Server
Configuring a DNS Server for WINS Lookup
Delegating Zones
Configuring DNS Server Roles
Primary Name Server
Secondary Name Server
Master Name Server
Caching-Only Server
Configuring a DNS Client
Using NSLOOKUP for DNS Troubleshooting
Some Useful NSLOOKUP Commands
Test Yourself
13: DNS: Integration with Active Directory
Active Directory Service Integration
Storage and Replication
Active Directory Zone Objects
DNS Dynamic Update
Dynamic Update Process
Dynamic Update Failure
Time to Live
Resolving Name Conflicts
Secure Dynamic Update
DNS Strategies for the Windows 2000 Domain
Use Your Registered DNS Domain Name for the Active Directory Root
Use a Delegated DNS Subdomain for the Active Directory Root
Use a Single DNS Domain Name for the Internal and External Networks
Use a Different DNS Domain Name for the Internal and External Networks
Test Yourself
14: IPSec and RRAS
IPSec Negotiation and Encryption Process
Security Policies
Configuring IPSec
Routing and Remote Access Service-Routing
Configure and Enable RRAS
Configure a Static Router
Network Address Translation
Dynamic Routing
Multicast Routing
Routing and Remote Access Service-Virtual Private Networking
How Does PPTP Work?
Layer Two Tunneling Protocol
Configuring a VPN
Routing and Remote Access Service-Dial-Up Networking
Serial Line Internet Protocol
Point-to-Point Protocol
Configuring a Dial-In Server
Configuring a Dial-Up Router
Dial-Up Client Configuration
General RRAS Server Configuration
Remote Access Policies and the Active Directory
Test Yourself
15: Connectivity in Heterogeneous Environments
Microsoft TCP/IP Connectivity Utilities
Connectivity Using Microsoft TCP/IP Utilities
Data Transfer Utilities
Remote Execution Utilities
Configuring a Windows 2000 Computer to Support TCP/IP Printing
TCP-IP Printing Utilities
Submitting Print Jobs Using LPR
Configuring Print Manager with LPR
Using Windows 2000 as a Print Gateway
Test Yourself
16: Simple Network Management Protocol
Defining SNMP
SNMP Communities
The SNMP Service on Microsoft Windows 2000
Management Information Base
Installing and Configuring SNMP on Windows 2000
Test Yourself
17: Troubleshooting Microsoft TCP/IP
General Considerations
Windows 2000 Diagnostic Tools Overview
TCP/IP Troubleshooting Guidelines
Identifying the TCP/IP Configuration
Incorrect IP Address Assignment
Subnet Mask Problems
Testing IP Communications
Routing Problems
Testing TCP/IP Name Resolution
NetBIOS Name Resolution Problems
Host Name Resolution Problems
Session Communications Problems
Test Yourself
Appendix: Answers to Review Questions
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When Microsoft launched Windows 2000 in February 2000, it sharply altered the way we're required to support local network operations. While earlier versions of Windows products can communicate on the local area network (LAN) using simple broadcast level protocols (e.g., NetBEUI), Windows 2000 and its Active Directory add a new dimension of capability and complexity to networking. A Windows 2000 network administrator must be comfortable and familiar with Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and the Domain Name System (DNS) just to get the Active Directory to function on his or her LAN. The reward for his or her effort in successfully creating a Windows 2000 networking environment is a robust Windows 2000 Active Directory domain with unparalleled scalability, extensibility, and interoperability.

This book begins with the basics of TCP/IP—information that would apply to any TCP/IP installation on any platform. Following a discussion of the TCP/IP protocol suite, we discuss key issues such as TCP/IP networks, subnetting, routing, and name resolution. We provide a primer on the Windows 2000 Active Directory and launch into Windows 2000 specific implementations of Windows Internet Name Service, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, and DNSystem. The coverage of these Windows 2000-specific network services will provide the background to effectively plan and manage a Windows 2000 network on the LAN, over a wide area network (WAN), through a company intranet, and on the Internet.

Chapter 14 provides very comprehensive coverage of the Windows 2000 Internet Protocol Security and Routing and Remote Access Service. These advanced subjects will permit the administrator to provide routing, virtual private networking, and dial-up access to his or her Windows 2000 network while ensuring tight network security.

The book concludes with a good look at heterogeneous connectivity and troubleshooting—two more areas that apply to TCP/IP on Windows 2000 or any other TCP/IP-based platform.

If you need to learn about the inner workings of TCP/IP or if you want to update your TCP/IP knowledge to ensure you can be fully functional in today's robust and flexible Windows 2000 environment, mastery of the subjects covered in this book is essential. Good reading!

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