TCP/IP Primer Plus


TCP/IP Primer Plus offers its readers an in-depth examination of one of the core networking technologies in a widely accepted format.

It covers BGP in sufficient depth to equip the reader with knowledge they can translate into improved network management, and shows clearly how the standard OSI model is linked to the TCP/IP suite.

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TCP/IP Primer Plus offers its readers an in-depth examination of one of the core networking technologies in a widely accepted format.

It covers BGP in sufficient depth to equip the reader with knowledge they can translate into improved network management, and shows clearly how the standard OSI model is linked to the TCP/IP suite.

Read More Show Less

Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780672322082
  • Publisher: Sams
  • Publication date: 9/14/2001
  • Series: Primer Plus Series
  • Pages: 528
  • Product dimensions: 7.32 (w) x 8.97 (h) x 1.18 (d)

Meet the Author

Heather Osterloh has earned industry recognition as a Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA), Cisco Certified Network Professional (CCNP), Cisco Certified Design Associate (CCDA), Cisco Certified Design Professional (CCDP), Network Associate Sniffer trainer, Certified Network Expert (CNX) for Ethernet and Token Ring, Novell CNI/ECNE, Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer (MCSE) and Microsoft Certified Trainer (MCT). She also holds her Cisco Certified Internetworking Expert (CCIE), written portion and is currently waiting to take the practical lab exam.

Having spent the last 15 years training and consulting worldwide, Heather is an acknowledged leader in the networking industry. Author of one book, CCNA 2.0 Prep Kit 640-507 Routing and Switching, and of several popular Microsoft, Cisco, and Novell video series geared towards the busy professional, Heather continues to produce material that helps educate people about the world of networking. Heather also has lectured at the University of California, Berkeley; NetuCon's NetWare User Conference in San Jose; and the University of Puerto Rico; and was president of IT Academy, LLC for three years.

Heather lives in Northern California with her husband Kirk and her dogs, Cocoa and Kato.

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Read an Excerpt

Chapter 1: Overview of Industry Models and Standards

You will learn about the following in this chapter:
  • The OSI model
  • The DoD model
  • Seven-layer Architecture
  • Network Architecture and Topologies
  • Wide Area Network Technologies
  • Request For Comments

Overview of the OSI Reference Model

In the early days of networking only proprietary systems and protocols existed. Operating systems developed by large companies, such as IBM's SNA and Digital Equipment Corporation's DECNet, included proprietary protocol suites. These operating systems and their corresponding protocols primarily facilitated mini- and mainframe network communication; however, these companies made no provisions for interconnection or to allow for communication with outside systems. When IBM developed SNA and Digital Equipment Corporation developed DECNet, no one anticipated the prevalence of the mixed computing environments that exist today; thus only systems using compatible protocols and operating systems could communicate with each other and exchange data.

As you can imagine, these different proprietary systems had a hard time communicating with each other, if they were able to at all. It soon became necessary to create some type of protocol translation to enable companies to communicate and share information with one another. The Department of Defense (DoD) developed an intercommunication model in the early 1970s, which became the source model for the TCP/IP protocol suite.

However, this model has been largely replaced with the OSI Reference Model released in the early 1980s. The OSI Reference Model consists of a seven-layer architecture that defines the different networking functions that occur at each layer (see Figure 1.1). Later in this chapter you will find a further discussion of the DoD model and how it maps to the OSI model. We refer to both models throughout the book when describing the purpose and function of each protocol within the TCP/IP suite.

The OSI Reference Model enables both similar and dissimilar systems to communicate seamlessly by providing an architectural framework for vendors and manufacturers to follow when designing their hardware, protocols, and operating system environments. This provides engineers and developers with standard specifications for system intercommunication. It also provides for the use of different protocols in different network architectures and lower-layered media types. Although seamless communication is not always achieved, the OSI Reference Model considers it the primary goal.

Before the OSI model, the protocols in existence did not lend themselves easily to interconnectivity. In most cases retrofitting these protocols would be infeasible. As such, most protocols and hardware currently implemented by vendors and manufacturers conform to the guidelines of the OSI model. The smooth, swift exchange of data and seamless interconnectivity required in today's mixed computing environments depends on manufacturers and vendors adhering to a standardized reference model.

The OSI model is a conceptual framework. It consists of a series of standards defining what should happen and how to package data so it can go out on the wire to a remote host. The logical layers of the model do not specifically define what needs to be performed at each layer; they simply define which functions reside at each respective layer. How the functionality occurs at each layer depends on the vendor or the manufacturer that creates or implements the hardware or the protocols. Individual manufacturers have the liberty of interpreting and deciding how closely they wish to adhere to the specifications for a given layer. The end results do not always create seamless compatibility between dissimilar devices; however, this framework and model provides the best resource available for this compatibility.

The OSI model consists of the following seven (from top to bottom):

  • Application
  • Presentation
  • Session
  • Transport
  • Network
  • Data Link
  • Physical
Overall, each layer has distinct functions that must occur within it to prepare data to go out on the wire to communicate with a remote station. The vendor can determine the specifics within the general functions; that is, the manufacturer or developer defines how those specifics work, so vendors need to concern themselves with only their part of the puzzle. As long as an organization or vendor follows the guidelines laid out by the ISO for a developer's particular layer, the result is a product that can easily integrate with other products that follow the model.

Keep in mind that you use the OSI only when you package data for transmission to connect to a remote host, similar or dissimilar (in other words, one using the same protocols and same operating system that you are-or are not). The OSI Reference Model is not used when accessing data locally on a system. For example, to access file and print services, you would simply access as usual a local computer's hard drive and open a local application. In a situation such as this, no user intervention is required to access the data. However, if you want to perform that same function on a remote host you must somehow send a message to the other device to access files or a printer, and have that device respond to you by transferring the data.

To redirect the request of accessing a file or print services, you need a redirector. The redirector redirects this request to the remote host for processing. The remote host prepares the request for transmission across the internetwork by adding header and control information so the destination knows what to do with the data and how to respond.

Overview of the Department of Defense Model

The history of the DoD model began long before the OSI model, which has since superseded it. Beginning in 1973 the Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) began a program to formulate technologies that could interlink various kinds of packet networks. This research was called the "Internetting Project" and, as you might surmise from the name, resulted in today's Internet.

The model developed by DARPA as an initial standard by which the core Internet protocols would conform became known as the DoD model. This four-layer model consists of the following (from top to bottom):

  • The Process layer
  • The Host-to-host layer
  • The Internet layer
  • The Network Access layer
As shown in Figure 1.2, the DoD model maps roughly to the OSI model from top to bottom....
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Table of Contents

(NOTE: Each chapter concludes with a Summary and Review Questions.)


1. Overview of Industry Models and Standards.

Overview of the OSI Reference Model. Overview of the Department of Defense Model. Benefits of the OSI's Layered Design. General Description of OSI Layers. Data Link Architecture and Topologies. Wide Area Networking (WAN) Technologies. Request For Comments (RFCs). Internet Versus intranet. Groups Responsible for Internet Technology.

2. IP Addressing.

Understanding Binary to Decimal Conversion. IP Addressing. Network Address Translation (NAT).

3. Network Layer/Internet Protocols.

IP. ICMP. ICMP Header and Message Formats. ICMP Message Types.

4. Address Resolution.

ARP. Proxy ARP. ARP Header. RARP. RARP Operation. RARP Header. BOOTP. DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol).

5. IP Routing.

IP Routing Basics. Routing Protocols and Best Path.

6. Routing Protocols.

Introduction to Routing Protocols. RIP. OSPF. IGRP. EIGRP. BGP.

7. Transport/Host-to-Host Layer.

Transport Layer Protocols.

8. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).

Introduction to TCP. TCP Header. Fundamentals of TCP Operation. Connection-oriented Characteristics. TCP Ports.

9. User Datagram Protocol (UDP).

UDP Operation. UDP Ports. UDP Header.

10. Upper-layer Protocols.

Introduction to Upper-layer Protocols. Application Layer. Presentation Layer. Session Layer.

11. Telnet.

Remote Access. Basic Services.

12. File Transfer Protocol (FTP).

Introduction to File Transfer. FTP Session. Data Representation. FTP Commands. FTP Replies. FTP Operation and Examples. Anonymous FTP.

13. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP).

X.400 Naming Model. SMTP Format. SMTP Commands. SMTP Replies. MIME.

14. Name Resolution.

Why Do We Need Name Resolution? DNS Delegation of Authority. Queries and Mappings. Caching. Domain Server Message Format. DNS Examples. NetBios.

15. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP).

HTTP and the World Wide Web. HTTP Features. HTTP Components. HTTP Sessions. HTTP Message Format. HTTP Response Messages, Status, and Error Codes. HTTP Error Messages.

16. Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP).

Introduction to File Transfer Protocols. TFTP Packet Types. TFTP Operation. TFTP Extensions.

17. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol).

Introduction to Network Management. SNMP. SNMP Message Format.

18. Open Network Computing Protocols.

Introduction to Open Network Computing Protocols. NFS Features. NFS Operation. XDR. RPC. NFS Examples.

Appendix A. RFCs Organized by Chapter.

Chapter 1: Overview of Industry Models and Standards. Chapter 2: IP Addressing. Chapter 3: Network Layer/Internet Protocols. Chapter 4: Address Resolution. Chapter 5: IP Routing. Chapter 6: Routing Protocols. Chapter 7: Transport/Host-to-Host Layer. Chapter 8: Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). Chapter 9: User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Chapter 11: Telnet. Chapter 12: File Transfer Protocol (FTP). Chapter 13: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP). Chapter 14: Name Resoultion. Chapter 15: Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). Chapter 16: Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP). Chapter 17: Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). Chapter 18: Open Network Computing Protocols.

Appendix B. Abbreviations and Acronyms.

A. B. C. D. E. F. G-H. I. J-L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W. X-Z.

Appendix C. TCP/UDP Port Numbers.

Appendix D. Glossary.

Numeric. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J-K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W. X-Y. Z.

Appendix E. Answers.

Chapter 1. Chapter 2. Chapter 3. Chapter 4. Chapter 5. Chapter 6. Chapter 7. Chapter 8. Chapter 9. Chapter 10. Chapter 11. Chapter 12. Chapter 13. Chapter 14. Chapter 15. Chapter 16. Chapter 17. Chapter 18.


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