Teach Decoding: Why and How / Edition 2

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Overview

Teach Decoding: Why and How is an excellent resource for preservice and inservice teachers who need a text that clearly outlines how to teach decoding skills so that children can apply them. Based on the work of Jeanne Chall, Isabelle Liberman, Keith Stanovich, L. C. Ehri, and many others, Dr. J. Lloyd Eldredge details in his book why phonics knowledge is so important in decoding and why decoding abilities are so vital in the reading process.

Other benefits this book offers readers:

  • A better understanding of the teaching and applications of decoding in line with the No Child Left Behind initiative
  • Explanations and illustrations of how decoding can aid in remediation and intervention in reading-clinic settings
  • The alignment of decoding with language development and the study of language arts skills, including speaking, listening, reading, and writing
  • A continuing focus on how decoding instruction impacts fluent reading and reading comprehension
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780131176850
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 7/9/2004
  • Edition description: REV
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 288
  • Sales rank: 1,435,719
  • Product dimensions: 7.50 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 0.70 (d)

Meet the Author

J. Lloyd Eldredge is a professor in the College of Education at Brigham Young University. He teaches both graduate and undergraduate literacy courses. Dr. Eldredge is a former elementary school teacher, school principal, and school superintendent. He has also served as the Utah Director of Chapter I, the Utah Director of Early Childhood Education, and the Utah Director of Elementary Education.

His interests are in literacy education and motivation. He was one of the first educators to implement and research "whole language" practices in the public schools. The editors of The Reading Teacher acknowledge his article on "alternatives to traditional reading instruction" as the first "whole language" article published in that journal. However, his work has been focused on keeping literacy instruction balanced so children can both learn about the written language and use it in meaningful ways. During the past 21 years he has focused his research on phonemic awareness, a reconceptualization of decoding instruction in the early years of schooling, holistic teaching practices, oral reading, fluency, and the effects of various forms of "assisted reading" strategies (dyad reading, group assisted reading, and taped assisted reading) on young and "at-risk" readers. His work has been published in many journals, including Journal of Educational Research, Reading Research and Instruction, Journal of Reading, The Reading Teacher, and Reading Research Quarterly.

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Read an Excerpt

Teach Decoding. Why and How was written to help preservice and practicing teachers understand decoding and teach it in a balanced, comprehensive literacy program. Designed for those who want to help children develop the ability to decode while they also engage in reading and writing activities relevant to them, this book covers all aspects of decoding, and provides an in-depth view of each aspect. At present, there are no other books that do this.

Decoding is defined as the process of translating written text into language. There are various ways text can be decoded: word recognition, analogy, context, phonics, morphemic analysis, and syllabic analysis/phonics. This book will examine each of these ways, and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each approach. Decoding Strategies

Some decoding approaches are more efficient than others. Some are used more by proficient readers and some are used more by emerging readers. Proficient readers decode by automatic, fluent word recognition. The end goal of all decoding instruction is to help students decode like proficient readers.

There are also many strategies used to teach students how to decode. These strategies, informal and formal, are described. In addition to commonly known holistic strategies—the shared book experience, writing using invented spelling, and the Language Experience Approach—other less-well-known strategies such as dyad reading and group-assisted reading are presented. These strategies are unique because they allow students to read interesting but "frustration level" text while improving their decoding and comprehension abilities in the process. Text Organization

Among other things, the first four chapters present research evidence to support the positions taken on "best literacy practices," decoding, phonemic awareness, phonics, word recognition, fluency, and reading comprehension. These chapters also provide a historical view of decoding, and an introduction to assessment and teaching. Many of the strategies introduced in the last seven chapters have been tried and tested in experimental classrooms. These strategies have had a positive effect on children's attitudes, and on their reading and writing achievement.

Teaching decoding is an essential part of a literacy program. A balanced and comprehensive approach to literacy instruction incorporates decoding and phonics as a part of the following literacy principles.

  • Children learn much about reading and writing by attempting to read and write. Therefore, it is perfectly appropriate for teachers to involve children in reading and writing before they develop all the skills needed by independent readers and writers.
  • If young children are unable to spell words correctly as they write, teachers either transcribe their work or encourage them to "spell" words by sounds.
  • Children are intrinsically motivated to read and write, and enjoy reading and writing more when teachers immerse them in early literacy experiences.
  • The use of shared book experiences, tape-assisted reading, and other "connected-text" strategies enhances literacy development.
  • Phonemic awareness is necessary for the development of phonics knowledge, writing, and spelling. There are different levels of phonemic awareness. Certain levels are necessary for successful literacy development. Teachers can identify these levels and provide activities to improve phonemic awareness.
  • Phonics knowledge is necessary for the development of word recognition and literacy growth. There are different ways to teach phonics, some more effective than others. There are also different ways for students to apply their phonics knowledge for the identification of unfamiliar words. Phonics knowledge provides students with a system for storing and retrieving words in lexical memory.

Traditional decoding approaches emphasize the teaching of skills, rather than the application of skills. These approaches also take considerable classroom time, leaving little time for children to read and write. Teach Decoding: Why and How describes how to teach encoding and decoding through writing and reading, and also by direct instruction. The mini-lessons for writing and the direct instruction for phonics described in this book take only 10 minutes a day. Because so little time is required for these brief lessons, teachers are able to allocate more classroom time for children to use language, thus achieving a better "balance" for children and teachers alike.

Perhaps the most important message of the book is "teach decoding!" Don't assume that the ability to decode will develop by chance.

Read More Show Less

Table of Contents

1. Perspectives on Literacy Instruction.

2. Decoding.

3. Phonemic Awareness and the Alphabetic Principle.

4. Phonics and the Alphabetic Principle.

5. Developing Phonemic Awareness through Stories, Games, and Songs.

6. Using Writing to Teach Phonemic Awareness and Phonics.

7. Decoding Instruction: Word Recognition, Analogy, and Context.

8. Decoding Instruction: Phonics, Morphemic Analysis, and Syllabic Analysis.

9. Improving Decoding, Fluency, Comprehension, Motivation, and Writing.

10. Teaching Phonics in Ten Minutes a Day.

11. Assessment.

Appendix A: 919 High-Frequency Words Obtained from Children's Literature Books.

Appendix B: 275 High-Frequency Irregular Words Obtained from Children's Literature Books.

Appendix C: Sample Words Containing Low-Frequency Letter-Sound Relationships.

Appendix D: Word Lists for Chapter 10 Phonics Lessons.

Appendix E: Sample Story Grammar Test.

Appendix F: Individual Sight Word Test.

Appendix G: Individual Phonics Test.

Appendix H: Group Phonics Test.

References.

Index.

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Preface

Teach Decoding. Why and How was written to help preservice and practicing teachers understand decoding and teach it in a balanced, comprehensive literacy program. Designed for those who want to help children develop the ability to decode while they also engage in reading and writing activities relevant to them, this book covers all aspects of decoding, and provides an in-depth view of each aspect. At present, there are no other books that do this.

Decoding is defined as the process of translating written text into language. There are various ways text can be decoded: word recognition, analogy, context, phonics, morphemic analysis, and syllabic analysis/phonics. This book will examine each of these ways, and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each approach.

Decoding Strategies

Some decoding approaches are more efficient than others. Some are used more by proficient readers and some are used more by emerging readers. Proficient readers decode by automatic, fluent word recognition. The end goal of all decoding instruction is to help students decode like proficient readers.

There are also many strategies used to teach students how to decode. These strategies, informal and formal, are described. In addition to commonly known holistic strategies—the shared book experience, writing using invented spelling, and the Language Experience Approach—other less-well-known strategies such as dyad reading and group-assisted reading are presented. These strategies are unique because they allow students to read interesting but "frustration level" text while improving their decoding and comprehension abilities in the process.

Text Organization

Among other things, the first four chapters present research evidence to support the positions taken on "best literacy practices," decoding, phonemic awareness, phonics, word recognition, fluency, and reading comprehension. These chapters also provide a historical view of decoding, and an introduction to assessment and teaching. Many of the strategies introduced in the last seven chapters have been tried and tested in experimental classrooms. These strategies have had a positive effect on children's attitudes, and on their reading and writing achievement.

Teaching decoding is an essential part of a literacy program. A balanced and comprehensive approach to literacy instruction incorporates decoding and phonics as a part of the following literacy principles.

  • Children learn much about reading and writing by attempting to read and write. Therefore, it is perfectly appropriate for teachers to involve children in reading and writing before they develop all the skills needed by independent readers and writers.
  • If young children are unable to spell words correctly as they write, teachers either transcribe their work or encourage them to "spell" words by sounds.
  • Children are intrinsically motivated to read and write, and enjoy reading and writing more when teachers immerse them in early literacy experiences.
  • The use of shared book experiences, tape-assisted reading, and other "connected-text" strategies enhances literacy development.
  • Phonemic awareness is necessary for the development of phonics knowledge, writing, and spelling. There are different levels of phonemic awareness. Certain levels are necessary for successful literacy development. Teachers can identify these levels and provide activities to improve phonemic awareness.
  • Phonics knowledge is necessary for the development of word recognition and literacy growth. There are different ways to teach phonics, some more effective than others. There are also different ways for students to apply their phonics knowledge for the identification of unfamiliar words. Phonics knowledge provides students with a system for storing and retrieving words in lexical memory.

Traditional decoding approaches emphasize the teaching of skills, rather than the application of skills. These approaches also take considerable classroom time, leaving little time for children to read and write. Teach Decoding: Why and How describes how to teach encoding and decoding through writing and reading, and also by direct instruction. The mini-lessons for writing and the direct instruction for phonics described in this book take only 10 minutes a day. Because so little time is required for these brief lessons, teachers are able to allocate more classroom time for children to use language, thus achieving a better "balance" for children and teachers alike.

Perhaps the most important message of the book is "teach decoding!" Don't assume that the ability to decode will develop by chance.

Read More Show Less

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