Teach Yourself Geology

Overview

Get the hard facts on this fascinating Earth science

Teach Yourself Geology addresses the implications

of climate change and the many recent developments in research on geology on other planets. Written in jargon-free language, you'll understand key geological concepts, even if you are new to the subject.

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Overview

Get the hard facts on this fascinating Earth science

Teach Yourself Geology addresses the implications

of climate change and the many recent developments in research on geology on other planets. Written in jargon-free language, you'll understand key geological concepts, even if you are new to the subject.

Read More Show Less

Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780071582759
  • Publisher: Teach Yourself
  • Publication date: 7/24/2008
  • Edition description: New
  • Edition number: 3
  • Pages: 288
  • Product dimensions: 5.10 (w) x 7.80 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Meet the Author

David Rothery is a volcanologist, geologist, planetary scientist and Senior Lecturer at the Open University, in Great Britain. His international collaborative research on active volcanoes has taken him to places as diverse as Hawaii, the Americas, Indonesia and Italy.

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Table of Contents

Acknowledgements x
01 Introduction: a mighty matter of legend 1
Rock types and the rock cycle 3
Layout of this book 4
02 The solid Earth 5
The atmosphere and its development 6
The Earth's interior 7
Seismic waves 8
The Earth's core 10
Evidence from magnestism 12
The Earth's crust and mantle--compositional layers 13
Summary of compositional layers 16
Another kind of layering--strong and weak 17
The Earth's heat 19
Radiogenic heating 20
Radiometric dating and the age of the Earth 21
The origin of the Earth and the Solar System 21
A warning 23
03 Earthquakes 25
How earthquakes happen 26
Measuring earthquakes 27
Protecting structures from earthquake damage 29
Earthquake preparedness 33
Prediction and prevention 33
'Tidal waves' 35
04 Plate tectonics 36
Moving plates 37
Plates colliding 38
Plates moving apart 40
Magnetic stripes on the ocean floor 42
The break-up of a continent 43
The life-cycle of an ocean 44
Plates sliding past each other 46
The global picture 47
What makes it happen? 49
05 Volcanoes 51
Magma origin and eruption 52
Magmatic gases and explosive eruptions 54
Volcanic hazards 56
Ignimbrite eruptions 64
Volcanoes associated with continental rifting 66
Volcanism at ocean ridges 67
Hawaiian volcanism 70
Iava hazards 72
Predicting eruptions 72
Widespread effects of eruptions 74
06 Igneous intrusions 75
Minerals 76
Crystallization of minerals in cooling magma 78
Granite 79
Basaltic intrusions in the oceanic crust 83
Dykes and sills 84
Grain sizes in igneous rocks 86
07 Metamorphism 88
Thermal metamorphism 89
Regional metamorphism 92
Metamorphic facies 93
Textures of metamorphic rocks 94
08 Erosion and transport 97
Chemical breakdown of minerals during weathering 98
Physical weathering 99
Sand-sized grains in wind and water 101
Moving ice 103
Glacial landscapes 104
Erosion by rivers and streams 105
Drainage patterns 106
Marine erosion 107
09 Deposition of sedimentary rocks 110
Ripples and dunes 111
Turbidity currents 114
Current directions 116
Waves 117
Finer and coarser sediments 117
Other means of transport 118
Using sediments to interpret ancient environments 119
Depositional environments associated with rivers 119
Flash floods 122
Deltas and estuaries 123
Prograding deltas 125
Logging a sedimentary sequence 127
Beaches and other coastal environments 127
Evaporite deposits 128
Limestone 130
Turning sediment into rock 132
10 Deformation of rocks 136
Different types of steep fault 137
Low-angle faults 140
Thrust belts and collision zones 142
Brittle faults versus shear zones 145
Folds 146
Shapes and styles of folding 146
Unconformities 149
11 Physical resources 151
Reserves and resources 152
Origins of oil and gas 154
Oil and gas reservoirs 155
Exploration for oil and gas 156
The origin of coal 158
Mining techniques 159
Ores and their origins 161
Ore exploration 163
Mining of ores 164
Diagenetic and sedimentary ore bodies 165
Non-metallic raw materials 167
Making good the damage 168
Water resources 168
12 Past life and fossils 170
The origin of life 171
The first bacteria 172
More complex cells 173
Multicellular organisms 173
The major animal phyla appear 174
Vascular plants and life on land 176
The mammals take over 177
Mass extinctions and adaptive radiations 178
How fossils form 179
Exceptional preservation 182
Plant fossils 183
The use of fossils in stratigraphy 184
13 A short history of the Earth 188
The Earth's first crust 189
Archean plate tectonics? 192
The growth of cratons 192
The Proterozoic Eon 194
Phanerozoic plate configurations 194
Climate change 201
The future history of the Earth 203
14 Geology on other planets 205
Impact craters 206
The Moon 209
Mercury 210
Venus 210
Mars 212
The asteriods 214
Lo 215
Large icy bodies 216
Geology among the stars 219
15 Going into the field 220
Things to do in the field 221
Field equipment 223
Field safety 227
Fieldwork code of practice 228
Geological maps and guidebooks 228
Suggestions for field projects 229
Appendix 1 Minerals 231
Appendix 2 Rock names 239
Igneous rocks 239
Metamorphic rocks 241
Sedimentary rocks 243
Appendix 3 Geologic time 245
Glossary 247
Taking it further 253
Websites 253
Index 256
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