Teach Yourself Statistics / Edition 3

Teach Yourself Statistics / Edition 3

by Alan Graham
     
 

ISBN-10: 007158305X

ISBN-13: 9780071583053

Pub. Date: 10/21/2008

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Companies,Inc.

Bet the odds on Teach Yourself

Teach Yourself Statistics introduces you to the

key concepts and principles of statistics. It will help you understand statistics as they occur in your everyday life.

Overview

Bet the odds on Teach Yourself

Teach Yourself Statistics introduces you to the

key concepts and principles of statistics. It will help you understand statistics as they occur in your everyday life.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780071583053
Publisher:
McGraw-Hill Companies,Inc.
Publication date:
10/21/2008
Series:
Teach Yourself: Math & Science Series
Edition description:
New
Pages:
310
Product dimensions:
5.10(w) x 7.70(h) x 0.90(d)

Table of Contents

Forewordxii
1Introducing Statistics1
Some good reasons to learn about statistics1
What sort of statistical questions can be asked?2
Can you summarize the data?2
Is there a significant difference between these two sets of results?3
Is there a close relationship between the two things under consideration?3
How are statistical questions investigated?4
Choosing and using your calculator6
2Some basic maths8
Algebra8
Why letters?8
Algebraic logic10
Graphs15
Notation21
(Capital) Sigma21
X bar22
Summary23
Comments on exercises23
3Graphing data28
Bar charts28
Pie charts34
Pictograms36
Histograms36
Stemplots39
Scattergraphs42
Time graphs44
Summary44
Comments on exercises45
4Choosing a suitable graph47
Types of data47
Discrete and continuous data47
Single and paired data50
Types of statistical judgement52
Summarizing52
Comparing53
Inter-relating55
Getting the right graph56
Bar charts and pie charts56
Stemplots and histograms60
Summary62
Comments on exercises63
5Summarizing data65
Introducing averages - finding a middle value65
Calculating and choosing averages68
Mode68
A simple mean (X)70
A weighted mean (X)71
Median (Md)74
Spread76
5-figure summary77
Boxplot79
Range81
Inter-quartile range (dq)81
Mean deviation83
Variance ([sigma][superscript 2]) and Standard deviation ([sigma])84
Summary87
Comments on exercises88
6Lies and statistics89
Misleading graphs89
Data set A90
Data set B93
Data set C97
Confusing percentages99
Inappropriate averages104
Summary108
Comments on exercises108
7Choosing a sample109
The sampling frame110
Random sampling112
Generating random numbers115
Using random numbers to select a sample116
Register of Electors117
Sampling variation121
Systematic sampling121
Human error and sampling error124
Summary129
8Collecting information130
Secondary source data131
Social Trends131
Data accuracy133
Primary source data135
Experimental design135
Questionnaire design138
Summary142
Comments on exercises142
9Reading tables of data144
Spreadsheets145
What is a spreadsheet?145
Why bother using a spreadsheet?146
Using a spreadsheet146
What else will a spreadsheet do?150
Turning the tables151
Reading the small print158
Summary160
Comments on exercises160
10Regression: describing relationships between things164
Paired data164
The 'best-fit' line167
Making predictions172
Summary178
Calculating the regression coefficients using the formula179
Comments on exercises181
11Correlation: measuring the strength of a relationship187
Scatter187
Product-moment correlation coefficient191
Rank correlation197
Cause and effect202
Summary207
12Chance and probability208
Measuring probability208
Odds208
Statistical probability210
Myths and misconceptions about probability213
Mutually exclusive outcomes and adding probabilities215
Independence and multiplying probabilities218
Summary226
Comments on exercises226
13Probability models228
Compared to what?228
The uniform distribution229
The Normal distribution233
Calculating probabilities from the Normal curve238
The binomial distribution242
The binomial expansion247
Linking the binomial distribution and the binomial expansion248
Summary252
Comments on exercises252
14Deciding on differences254
Picturing differences255
Contexts for investigating differences260
Some basic terminology261
What is a test of significance?266
Stage 1 Set up the hypothesis266
Stage 2 Calculate the test statistic, S268
Stage 3 Look up the critical value268
Stage 4 Is S [less than or equal] C?269
The z test269
The binomial test275
Summary280
Comments on exercises281
Appendix286
Choosing the right statistical technique286

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