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Teach Yourself the Internet and World Wide Web VISUALLY
By Kelleigh Wing Paul Whitehead Ruth Maran
John Wiley & SonsISBN: 0-7645-3410-6
Chapter OneCreate Web Pages
Do you want to learn more about creating and publishing your own Web pages? This chapter introduces you to the basics of Web publishing.
Reasons for Creating Web Pages 108 Steps for Creating Web Pages 110 Programs for Creating Web Pages 112 The Home Page 114 Web Page Content Considerations 116 Hyperlinks 118 Images 120 Style Sheets 122 Prepare to Publish Web Pages 123 Web Presence Providers 124 Test Your Web Pages 126 Publicize Your Web Pages 128
REASONS FOR CREATING WEB PAGES
Creating and publishing your own Web pages allows millions of people around the world to view your information.
SHARE PERSONAL INFORMATION
Many people create Web pages to share information about their families, pets, vacations or favorite hobbies. Some people create Web pages to present a résumé to potential employers.
Many people create Web pages to display collections of jokes or humorous stories. You can also create Web pages to display information, pictures, sound clips and videos about a favorite celebrity, sports team or TV show.
Many scientists and business professionals make their work available on the Web. If you are experienced in an area that many people are unfamiliar with, you can create Web pages to share yourknowledge.
You can create Web pages to display information about an organization or club that you belong to. You can include a schedule of upcoming events and detailed information about the goals of the organization.
Companies often place pages on the Web to provide information about their company and the products and services they offer. Companies can use Web pages to keep the public informed about new products and interesting news. Many companies display their press releases on the Web.
Many companies use Web pages to advertise jobs that are available within the company. Some companies allow readers to submit résumés through their Web site.
Many companies create Web pages that allow readers to order products and services over the Internet. Companies can display descriptions and pictures of products to help readers determine which products they want to purchase.
Companies can display their office addresses and phone numbers on their Web pages. This helps readers contact the company to ask questions and express opinions.
STEPS FOR CREATING WEB PAGES
There are several steps you should follow to create and publish Web pages.
1 PLAN YOUR WEB PAGES
Decide what you want to accomplish with your Web pages. Decide on a main topic or theme for your Web pages and then determine the type of information you want to include.
2 GATHER INFORMATION
Collect the information you want to include on your Web pages, such as text, pictures, diagrams and contact numbers. Make sure the information you gather directly relates to the main topic or theme you chose for your Web pages.
3 ORGANIZE INFORMATION
Divide the information you gathered into sections. Each section should be a separate Web page. Each Web page should discuss a different concept or idea and should contain enough information to fill a single screen.
4 ENTER TEXT
Enter the text you want to appear on your Web pages in a text editor or word processor. Each Web page should be a separate document. You can then convert the documents into Web pages.
5 ADD IMAGES
You can add images to enhance the appearance of your Web pages. You can create your own images and obtain images at computer stores or on the Internet. For more information on images, see page 120.
6 ADD HYPERLINKS
You can add hyperlinks that readers can select on your Web pages to display other pages on the Web. Hyperlinks allow readers to easily move through information of interest. For more information on hyperlinks, see page 118.
7 PUBLISH WEB PAGES
When you finish creating your Web pages, you can transfer the pages to a computer that makes pages available on the Web. You should then test the Web pages to ensure your hyperlinks work properly and your information appears the way you want.
PROGRAMS FOR CREATING WEB PAGES
You can choose between several types of programs to create Web pages.
Web pages are HTML documents, which consist of text and special instructions, called tags. Each tag gives a specific instruction and is surrounded by angle brackets < >.
HTML documents have the .html or .htm extension (example: index.html).
TEXT EDITOR OR WORD PROCESSOR
A text editor is a simple program you can use to create and edit documents that contain only text. Popular text editors include Notepad for Windows and Simple Text for Macintosh.
A word processor is a program that provides advanced editing and formatting features to help you create documents. Any formatting you apply to text will not appear when you view documents you create on the Web. Popular word processors include Microsoft Word and Corel WordPerfect.
To create a Web page using a text editor or word processor, you must type the text for the Web page and then add HTML tags to specify how you want the text to appear on the Web page. You need a Web browser to see how the Web page will appear on the Web.
An HTML editor is a program you can use to create Web pages. HTML editors offer menus and toolbars that you can use to add HTML tags to your Web pages. Many HTML editors include a validator that can check your Web pages for HTML errors. You need to know HTML to create a Web page using an HTML editor.
Some HTML editors allow you to see how Web pages you create will appear on the Web, while others require you to use a Web browser to view your Web pages.
You can obtain HTML editors at the following Web sites:
A visual editor is a program you can use to graphically create Web pages. Visual editors make it easier to create Web pages because they enter the HTML tags for you. You do not need to know HTML to create a Web page using a visual editor.
Visual editors allow you to instantly see how a change you make will affect the Web page.
You can obtain visual editors at the following Web sites:
HoTMetaL PRO softquad.com
Microsoft FrontPage microsoft.com/frontpage
THE HOME PAGE
The home page is the main Web page in a Web site. The home page is usually the first page people see when they visit a Web site.
The home page is usually named index.html or index.htm. You should check with the company that makes your pages available on the Web to determine what name to use.
Always include a brief summary of your Web pages on the home page. You should state whether the purpose of your Web pages is to entertain or inform readers. You should not assume that readers will understand the purpose of your Web pages just by reading the title.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Your home page should include a table of contents that lists the information in your Web site. You should include hyperlinks that allow readers to quickly access information of interest.
Web browsers have a feature, called bookmarks or favorites, that allows readers to store the addresses of Web pages they visit. You can include an image or phrase on your home page to remind readers to bookmark your Web page. This allows readers to quickly return to your Web site.
MAKE A GOOD IMPRESSION
Your home page should include interesting, well-organized information. You should also make sure any links or multimedia you added to the home page work properly. If readers find your home page disorganized or difficult to use, they may not view the other pages in your Web site.
You can add many types of enhancements to help add interest to your home page. You can add items such as a hit counter that records the number of visitors to your home page, a clock that displays the current time in your city or a guest book where visitors can record their comments.
WEB PAGE CONTENT CONSIDERATIONS
When creating Web pages, you should carefully consider the content of the pages.
EXAMINE YOUR FAVORITE WEB PAGES
Before you start creating Web pages, examine some of your favorite Web pages. Determine what you like about the Web pages and consider how you can use these ideas on your pages.
EMPHASIZE IMPORTANT INFORMATION
If some parts of your Web page are more important than others, use the available formatting features to make the information stand out. Do not bury important ideas or concepts in long paragraphs.
Carefully check your Web pages for spelling and grammar errors. Spelling mistakes will make readers think that you are careless and that your Web pages are inaccurate. You may want to print your Web pages to help you proofread the pages.
AVOID "UNDER CONSTRUCTION" LABELS
You should avoid using "under construction" labels for Web pages that are not complete. You will frustrate readers when they visit a Web page that does not contain useful information. Do not make a page available on the Web until the page is complete.
You should update your Web pages on a regular basis. If the information on your Web pages never changes, people will only read the pages once and will not revisit them in the future. You should include the date on your Web pages to let readers know when you last updated the pages.
CONSIDER WEB PAGES WITHOUT IMAGES
Some people turn off the display of images to browse the Web more quickly, while other people use Web browsers that cannot display images. Always design your Web pages so that readers who do not see images will still get valuable information from your pages.
INCLUDE CONTACT INFORMATION
Always include your name and e-mail address on Web pages you create. This allows readers to contact you if they have questions or comments.
CONSIDER TRANSFER SPEED
When creating your Web pages, try to keep the file size of the pages and images as small as possible. This will speed up the display of your Web pages by reducing the time it takes for the information to transfer.
You can link text or an image on your Web page to another page in your Web site or to any page on the Web.
When viewing your Web pages, readers can immediately view a related page by selecting a hyperlink. Hyperlinks are also referred to as links.
CREATE DESCRIPTIVE LINKS
Make sure the text or image you use to create a hyperlink clearly indicates where the link will take the reader. Do not use the phrase "Click Here" for a hyperlink, since this phrase is not very descriptive and forces readers to examine the surrounding text to determine where the link will take them.
INCLUDE TEXT LINKS
If your Web page contains image links, you should also provide corresponding text links for your readers. Some readers turn off the display of images to browse more quickly, while others use Web browsers that cannot display images.
REASONS FOR HYPERLINKS
You should include navigational links to help readers move through your Web pages. Navigational links can include hyperlinks to a table of contents or to your home page.
If your Web page contains technical terms your readers may not understand, you should consider including definition links that will take readers to a footnote or brief explanation.
LINKS TO LARGE IMAGES
You can create a hyperlink that will take readers to a large image. For example, you can link a small version of an image, called a thumbnail image, to a larger version of the image. This lets readers decide if they want to wait to view the larger image.
You can create a hyperlink that allows readers to quickly send you an e-mail message. This is a great way to gather comments about your Web pages. Many companies display e-mail links for each person in the company on a Web page. This helps readers contact the appropriate person.
You can add an image to a Web page. An image that appears on a Web page is called an inline image.
Many Web sites offer images that you can use for free on your Web pages. You can use a scanner to scan images into your computer or create your own images. You can also buy a collection of ready-made images at a computer store. Make sure you have permission to use any images you did not create yourself.
When adding images to your Web pages, you should use GIF or JPEG images. These are the most popular types of images on the Web.
GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) images are limited to 256 colors and are often used for logos, banners and computer-generated art. GIF images have the .gif extension (example: logo.gif).
JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) images can have millions of colors and are often used for photographs and very large images. JPEG images usually have the .jpg extension (example: racecar.jpg).
WAYS TO USE IMAGES
ART AND PHOTOGRAPHS
A Web page can display drawings, paintings or computer-generated art. Graphic artists and design companies often display art on their Web pages to advertise their work. You can also display photographs of your family, pets or favorite celebrities on your Web pages.
You can have a small image repeat to fill an entire Web page. This can add an interesting background design to your Web page. You should make sure the background image you choose does not affect the readability of your Web page.
An image can help clarify a concept that is difficult to explain with words. You can include a map to give directions, a chart to show financial trends or a diagram to point out parts of a product.
You can divide an image into different areas and link each area to a different Web page. This is called an image map. When creating an image map, you should use an image that has several distinct areas that readers can select.
You can use style sheets to define the formatting and layout of your Web pages.
Style sheets are also known as Cascading Style Sheets (CSS).
Some older Web browsers cannot understand style sheets.
REASONS FOR USING STYLE SHEETS
Style sheets allow you to format text and lay out Web pages in ways you cannot accomplish using HTML tags.
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