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Teacher Performance Expectations for Educating English Learners addresses the needs of elementary and secondary teachers in multilingual classrooms, including second-language learning across multiple academic subjects.
Renowned authors María V. Balderrama and Lynne Díaz-Rico provide in a single volume the techniques necessary to prepare teachers and other professionals to teach speakers of other languages and cultural backgrounds. This timely text is designed to be a comprehensive source of teaching techniques and effective educational practices, particularly those that meet California’s standardized Teacher Performance Assessment that prospective teachers must take. This book specifically addresses those standards by presenting explicit expectations that challenge teachers in multilingual, multiethnic classrooms.
Subscribing to a teaching approach that respects and builds second-language skills upon a foundation of native-language proficiency, Teacher Performance Expectations for Educating English Learners contains the most up-to-date techniques currently available for promoting linguistic proficiency and features multiple effective teaching methods for the educator of English learners. The main tenet of the book is that successful English language learning results from a combination of rich, interesting content instruction and a fast-moving, engaging curriculum.
List of Tables.
List of Figures.
PART ONE: EXPECTATIONS FOR TEACHER PERFORMANCE.
1. Professional Preparation To Teach English Learners.
English Learners in United States Schools.
Schooling: An Academic and Linguistic
English Learners and the No Child Left
Demographics of English Learners in the United
English Learners: Geographic Distribution.
Spanish-Speaking English Learners.
Asian-Pacific English Learners.
Putting Faces to Demographics.
English Learners With Learning Challenges.
Other Challenges Facing English Learners.
Difficulties in Higher Education and
A Critical Perspective.
Challenges for Teachers.
Teaching for Social Justice.
The Professional Preparation of Teachers to
Educate English Learners.
Career Preparation for Teachers.
Professional Organizations for Teachers.
Information about Teaching English Learners.
Teaching Performance Assessment: Focusing on the
An Award-Winning ELD Teacher.
PART TWO: THE CONTEXT OF TEACHING WITH INTEGRITY.
2. Teaching with Integrity.
What is Teaching With Integrity?
Expertise in Content.
High Academic Expectations for Students.
Clarity of Vision.
Willingness to be Fully Human.
Teaching with Integrity and the Process of
Instruction for English Learners.
The Foundations of Instruction.
Assessment of Instruction.
PART THREE: FOUNDATIONS.
3. Knowledge about the Learner.
Learning about the Learner to Adapt Instruction.
Name and Identity.
Issues of Age.
First-language (L1) Proficiency.
Type of Bilingualism.
Previous L2 Experience.
Previous Academic Success.
The Learner’s Likes and Dislikes.
Cognitive Psychological Factors.
Social/Emotional Psychological Factors.
Attitudes about Learning.
Level of Oral Interaction with Peers.
PART TWO: FOUNDATIONS FOR INSTRUCTION.
4. Theories of Learning and Language Acquisition.
Theories of Learning.
Traditionalism and Rationalism.
Progressivism in Opposing Trends.
Theories of Language Acquisition.
5. The Pedagogy for English Learners.
Key Assumptions Underlying Effective Pedagogy.
Clarity in How and What To Teach.
More than Methods and Good Intentions.
Democratic Practices as Pedagogy.
Bilingualism as an Asset.
Pedagogical Theories, Principles, and
Practices for Comprehensive Instruction of
Community-Sensitive Curriculum: Funds of Knowledge.
Teaching Responsively to Learners’ Family and
Classroom Management Aligned with Humanistic Education.
Conversational Versus Academic Language.
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency.
Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English.
What Is SDAIE?
SDAIE: Overview of Core Elements.
Access to Content.
Creating Meaning Through Connections.
Assessment: Formal and Informal.
Questioning Strategies for English Learners.
Core Elements and Goals of Good Questions.
Classroom Discourse Patterns.
Socio-Cognitive Aspects of Questioning.
Questions at Various Levels.
Questions that Match Student Needs.
Increasing Wait Time.
Challenging Students to Perform Beyond Their Potential.
Definitions Pertaining to Computers in the
Benefits of Computer-Assisted Instruction.
The Best Use of Computers.
Conclusion: Pedagogy for English Learners.
PART FOUR: PLANNING STANDARDS-BASED INSTRUCTION.
6. Integrity in Planning and Designing Instruction for
Teaching with Integrity and Standards.
Standards: A Brief History.
What is Standards-Based Instruction?
What is Performance-Based Instruction?
Standards-Based Instruction and Curriculum
Standards-Based Instruction for English
What is English Language Development Instruction?
Standards for Teachers.
Standards for Teachers of English Learners.
Standards and Testing: The Stakes are High.
Testing: The Pressure Is On.
Assumptions Underlying Reform.
Standards Versus Learners’ Needs.
Identification, Assessment, Placement and
Reclassification of English Learners.
The Research on Lesson Planning.
Planning to Teach English Learners.
Teaching to the English Language
The Lesson Adapted to the English Learner.
What Teachers Need to Know to Adapt Lessons.
Conclusion: What Makes an Effective Instructional
Teaching to the Humanity of Students.
The Art and Science of Teaching.
PART FIVE: INSTRUCTIONAL APPLICATIONS.
7. Promoting Academic Achievement of English Learners.
Content Standards for English Learners.
Academic Content in Multiple Subjects.
Elementary-School Social Studies.
Physical Education in the Elementary School.
Music in the Elementary School.
Visual and Performing Arts in the Elementary School.
Middle and High School Academic-Content Instruction.
Social Sciences and the Adolescent English Learner.
Language Arts in the Secondary School.
Physical Education as Life-long Fitness.
Music in the Secondary School.
Visual Arts in the Secondary School.
8. English-Language Development.
The Connection Between English-Language.
Development Standards and Instruction.
English-Language Development Curriculum Issues.
Interlanguage Theory and ELD Teaching.
ELD Respects and Builds on the Language
Produced by the Learner.
ELD Fully Engages and Develops the Mind.
ELD Combines with Educational Psychology
to Address the Needs of the Learner.
ELD Builds Language Acquisition through
ELD is Integrated with Academic
The Four-Part Literacy Curriculum.
Student Characteristics in English-Language
Commitment to Dual-Language Proficiency.
The Political Context of ELD Pedagogy.
Oracy in English-Language Development.
Goals of Oral Language Development.
Reading Processes in English-Language
Standards-based Reading Instruction.
The Basics of Learning to Read.
The Three-Stage Reading Process and the
Writing Processes in English-Language
The Role of Writing in Academic
The Writing Workshop.
Conclusion: Best Principles and Practices in
Oracy and Literacy.
9. Dual-Language Development.
Bilingual Education: Rationale and Roots.
Linguistic Multicompetence as a Goal.
Why Become Bilingual?
The History of Bilingual Education in the United States.
Dual-Language Development Programs-Bilingualism
Maintenance Bilingual Programs.
Two-Way Bilingual Education Programs.
Transitional Bilingual Education (TBE) Programs.
Structured English Immersion (SEI) Programs.
Submersion (Sink-or Swim).
Second Language Study for Monolingual English
Foreign Language in the Elementary School
Second/Foreign Language Immersion Programs
for Language-Majority Students.
Achieving a Linguistically Multicompetent
PART SIX: ASSESSMENT AND ACCOUNTABILITY FOR STUDENTS.
10. The Assessment of English Learners.
Types of Assessment.
Achievement and Proficiency Tests.
Limitations of Assessment.
Difficulties in the Testing Situation.
Assessing English Learners with Special Needs.
Student Errors in Oral and Written Language.
Errors as Indicators of Language Learning.
Students’ Awareness of Error.
The Writing Process As Error Correction.
Error Correction through Planned
Assessing with Integrity.
11. Accountability to Families and Community.
Forming a Community of Learners.
The Classroom as a Community.
The Culture of the School and Classroom.
The Relation of Cultural Values and Schooling.
Family Involvement in Schooling.
What is Family Involvement?
Families’ Rights of Due Process.
Issues in Family Involvement.
Barriers in Families-School
Enhancing Home-School Communication.
How Families Can Assist in a Child's
A Model of Home-School Relationships.
Transformative School-Community Partnerships.
Getting to Know the Community.
Community Support for English Learners.
Working with Para-educators.
Planning that Includes Assistants.
Instructional Roles of Para-Educators.
PART SEVEN: ASSESSMENT AND ACCOUNTABILITY FOR TEACHERS.
12. Analyzing An Instructional Plan And Adapting It For English Learners.
Expectations for Adapting Instruction.
Analyzing the Lesson with the Needs of the
English Learner in Mind.
About the English Learner.
Example of the Student’s Language Skills.
Analysis of the Example of the Student’s.
Analysis of the Lesson Plan.
Adaptations to the Lesson Objectives.
Adaptations to the Lesson Activities.
Adaptations to the Lesson Assessments.
Teaching and Videotaping the Lesson.
Analyzing the Lesson.
Reflecting on Instruction.