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Teacher Performance Expectations for Educating English Learners / Edition 1

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Overview

Teacher Performance Expectations for Educating English Learners addresses the needs of elementary and secondary teachers in multilingual classrooms, including second-language learning across multiple academic subjects.

Renowned authors María V. Balderrama and Lynne Díaz-Rico provide in a single volume the techniques necessary to prepare teachers and other professionals to teach speakers of other languages and cultural backgrounds. This timely text is designed to be a comprehensive source of teaching techniques and effective educational practices, particularly those that meet California’s standardized Teacher Performance Assessment that prospective teachers must take. This book specifically addresses those standards by presenting explicit expectations that challenge teachers in multilingual, multiethnic classrooms.

Subscribing to a teaching approach that respects and builds second-language skills upon a foundation of native-language proficiency, Teacher Performance Expectations for Educating English Learners contains the most up-to-date techniques currently available for promoting linguistic proficiency and features multiple effective teaching methods for the educator of English learners. The main tenet of the book is that successful English language learning results from a combination of rich, interesting content instruction and a fast-moving, engaging curriculum.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205422197
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 11/1/2005
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 368
  • Sales rank: 716,103
  • Product dimensions: 6.90 (w) x 9.10 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Table of Contents

List of Tables.

List of Figures.

Introduction.

PART ONE: EXPECTATIONS FOR TEACHER PERFORMANCE.

1. Professional Preparation To Teach English Learners.

English Learners in United States Schools.

Schooling: An Academic and Linguistic

Challenge.

English Learners and the No Child Left

Behind Act.

Demographics of English Learners in the United

States.

English Learners: Geographic Distribution.

Spanish-Speaking English Learners.

Asian-Pacific English Learners.

Putting Faces to Demographics.

English Learners With Learning Challenges.

Other Challenges Facing English Learners.

Difficulties in Higher Education and

Management.

A Critical Perspective.

Challenges for Teachers.

Teaching for Social Justice.

The Professional Preparation of Teachers to

Educate English Learners.

Career Preparation for Teachers.

Professional Organizations for Teachers.

Information about Teaching English Learners.

Teaching Performance Assessment: Focusing on the

English Learner.

An Award-Winning ELD Teacher.

PART TWO: THE CONTEXT OF TEACHING WITH INTEGRITY.

2. Teaching with Integrity.

What is Teaching With Integrity?

Expertise in Content.

Intercultural Repertoire.

High Academic Expectations for Students.

Professional Ethics

Clarity of Vision.

Willingness to be Fully Human.

Teaching with Integrity and the Process of

Instruction for English Learners.

The Foundations of Instruction.

Teacher Planning.

Instructional Application.

Assessment of Instruction.

PART THREE: FOUNDATIONS.

3. Knowledge about the Learner.

Learning about the Learner to Adapt Instruction.

Learner's Background.

Name and Identity.

Issues of Age.

Grade-Level Performance.

First-language (L1) Proficiency.

Type of Bilingualism.

Previous L2 Experience.

Previous Academic Success.

The Learner’s Likes and Dislikes.

Cognitive Psychological Factors.

Learning Styles.

Learning Strategies.

Social/Emotional Psychological Factors.

Motivation.

Self-Esteem.

Anxiety.

Attitudes about Learning.

Level of Oral Interaction with Peers.

Social-Cultural Factors.

Societal-Contextual Factors.

PART TWO: FOUNDATIONS FOR INSTRUCTION.

4. Theories of Learning and Language Acquisition.

Theories of Learning.

Traditionalism and Rationalism.

Progressivism in Opposing Trends.

Behaviorism.

Cognitivism.

Constructivism.

Humanistic Teaching.

Sociocultural Theory.

Theories of Language Acquisition.

First-Language Acquisition.

Second-Language Acquisition.

5. The Pedagogy for English Learners.

Key Assumptions Underlying Effective Pedagogy.

Clarity in How and What To Teach.

More than Methods and Good Intentions.

Democratic Practices as Pedagogy.

Bilingualism as an Asset.

Pedagogical Theories, Principles, and

Practices for Comprehensive Instruction of

English Learners.

Curricular Strategies.

Community-Sensitive Curriculum: Funds of Knowledge.

Teaching Responsively to Learners’ Family and

Cultural Backgrounds.

Classroom Management Aligned with Humanistic Education.

Conversational Versus Academic Language.

Language Functions.

Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency.

Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English.

What Is SDAIE?

SDAIE: Overview of Core Elements.

Access to Content.

Creating Meaning Through Connections.

Comprehensibility.

Interaction.

Assessment: Formal and Informal.

Reflection/Critical Stance.

Questioning Strategies for English Learners.

Core Elements and Goals of Good Questions.

Classroom Discourse Patterns.

Socio-Cognitive Aspects of Questioning.

Questions at Various Levels.

Questions that Match Student Needs.

Increasing Wait Time.

Challenging Students to Perform Beyond Their Potential.

Learning Strategies.

Service Learning.

Computer-Based Education.

Definitions Pertaining to Computers in the

Classroom.

Benefits of Computer-Assisted Instruction.

The Best Use of Computers.

Conclusion: Pedagogy for English Learners.

PART FOUR: PLANNING STANDARDS-BASED INSTRUCTION.

6. Integrity in Planning and Designing Instruction for

English learners.

Teaching with Integrity and Standards.

Standards: A Brief History.

What is Standards-Based Instruction?

What is Performance-Based Instruction?

Standards-Based Instruction and Curriculum

Objectives.

Standards-Based Instruction for English

Learners.

What is English Language Development Instruction?

Standards for Teachers.

Standards for Teachers of English Learners.

Standards and Testing: The Stakes are High.

Testing: The Pressure Is On.

Assumptions Underlying Reform.

Standards Versus Learners’ Needs.

Identification, Assessment, Placement and

Reclassification of English Learners.

Identification.

Assessment.

Placement.

Reclassification/Redesignation.

Lesson Planning.

The Research on Lesson Planning.

Planning to Teach English Learners.

Teaching to the English Language

Development Standards.

The Lesson Adapted to the English Learner.

What Teachers Need to Know to Adapt Lessons.

Conclusion: What Makes an Effective Instructional

Plan?

Critical Stance.

Teaching to the Humanity of Students.

The Art and Science of Teaching.

PART FIVE: INSTRUCTIONAL APPLICATIONS.

7. Promoting Academic Achievement of English Learners.

Content Standards for English Learners.

Academic Content in Multiple Subjects.

Elementary-School Mathematics.

Elementary-School Social Studies.

Elementary-School Science.

Physical Education in the Elementary School.

Music in the Elementary School.

Visual and Performing Arts in the Elementary School.

Middle and High School Academic-Content Instruction.

Secondary-School Mathematics.

Social Sciences and the Adolescent English Learner.

Secondary-School Science.

Language Arts in the Secondary School.

Physical Education as Life-long Fitness.

Music in the Secondary School.

Visual Arts in the Secondary School.

Conclusion.

8. English-Language Development.

The Connection Between English-Language.

Development Standards and Instruction.

English-Language Development Curriculum Issues.

Interlanguage Theory and ELD Teaching.

ELD Respects and Builds on the Language

Produced by the Learner.

ELD Fully Engages and Develops the Mind.

ELD Combines with Educational Psychology

to Address the Needs of the Learner.

ELD Builds Language Acquisition through

Social Functions.

ELD is Integrated with Academic

Instruction.

The Four-Part Literacy Curriculum.

Student Characteristics in English-Language

Development Classrooms.

Commitment to Dual-Language Proficiency.

The Political Context of ELD Pedagogy.

Oracy in English-Language Development.

Goals of Oral Language Development.

Listening Processes.

Speaking Processes.

Reading Processes in English-Language

Development.

Standards-based Reading Instruction.

Emergent Literacy.

The Basics of Learning to Read.

Reading Strategies.

The Three-Stage Reading Process and the

Reader’s Schemata.

Teaching Literature.

Writing Processes in English-Language

Development.

The Role of Writing in Academic

Literacies.

The Writing Workshop.

Conclusion: Best Principles and Practices in

Oracy and Literacy.

9. Dual-Language Development.

Bilingual Education: Rationale and Roots.

Linguistic Multicompetence as a Goal.

Why Become Bilingual?

The History of Bilingual Education in the United States.

Dual-Language Development Programs-Bilingualism

and Biliteracy.

Maintenance Bilingual Programs.

Two-Way Bilingual Education Programs.

Transitional Bilingual Education (TBE) Programs.

Early-Exit Programs.

Structured English Immersion (SEI) Programs.

Newcomer Programs.

Submersion (Sink-or Swim).

Second Language Study for Monolingual English

Speakers.

Foreign Language in the Elementary School

(FLES).

Second/Foreign Language Immersion Programs

for Language-Majority Students.

Achieving a Linguistically Multicompetent

Society.

PART SIX: ASSESSMENT AND ACCOUNTABILITY FOR STUDENTS.

10. The Assessment of English Learners.

Types of Assessment.

Assessment Terms.

Classroom Assessments.

Achievement and Proficiency Tests.

Limitations of Assessment.

Difficulties in the Testing Situation.

Test Bias.

Technical Concepts.

Validity.

Reliability.

Practicality.

Assessing English Learners with Special Needs.

Student Errors in Oral and Written Language.

Errors as Indicators of Language Learning.

Anticipating Errors.

Students’ Awareness of Error.

Correcting Errors.

The Writing Process As Error Correction.

Error Correction through Planned

Classroom Activity.

Assessing with Integrity.

11. Accountability to Families and Community.

Forming a Community of Learners.

The Classroom as a Community.

The Culture of the School and Classroom.

The Relation of Cultural Values and Schooling.

Family Involvement in Schooling.

What is Family Involvement?

Families’ Rights of Due Process.

Issues in Family Involvement.

Barriers in Families-School

Communication.

Enhancing Home-School Communication.

Family-Teacher Conferences.

How Families Can Assist in a Child's

Learning.

A Model of Home-School Relationships.

Transformative School-Community Partnerships.

Getting to Know the Community.

Community Support for English Learners.

Working with Para-educators.

Planning that Includes Assistants.

Instructional Roles of Para-Educators.

PART SEVEN: ASSESSMENT AND ACCOUNTABILITY FOR TEACHERS.

12. Analyzing An Instructional Plan And Adapting It For English Learners.

Expectations for Adapting Instruction.

Analyzing the Lesson with the Needs of the

English Learner in Mind.

About the English Learner.

Example of the Student’s Language Skills.

Analysis of the Example of the Student’s.

Language Skills.

Analysis of the Lesson Plan.

Instructional Adaptations.

Adaptations to the Lesson Objectives.

Adaptations to the Lesson Activities.

Adaptations to the Lesson Assessments.

Teaching and Videotaping the Lesson.

Analyzing the Lesson.

Reflecting on Instruction.

Conclusion.

Glossary.

Bibliography.

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