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The field of education today is continually changing. Portfolio assessment and integrated curriculums are emerging. The use of technology in the classroom is growing. And the multicultural nature of the classroom is greater, too. Today's middle grades teachers must stay abreast of all these topics, and more, so they can be the most effective and innovative educators. This book reflects the changes that have occurred in middle level education in the past several years. With a strong research base, this book helps readers to link their knowledge of young adolescents with their understanding of the curriculum and sound institutional practices. The authors include descriptions of middle grades classrooms and examples of dialogues between teachers and young adolescents, both collected from their visits to real middle grades schools. Middle grades teachers and educational administrators.
1.Introduction: Young Adolescents and Schools.
Historical Development of Middle-Grades Schools.
Middle-Grades Schools Today.
Recommendations for Middle-Grades Schools of the Twenty-First Century.
2.Young Adolescent Development.
Personal, Social, and Moral Development.
3.Providing for Individual Differences.
Multicultural Influences on Adolescent Learning.
Motivation and Student Learning.
II.MIDDLE GRADES CONTENT.
4.The Middle-Grades Curriculum.
The Nation's Goals.
An Approach to Integrated Curriculum.
An Integrated Curriculum at Work.
Potential Impact of Standards on Integrated Curriculum.
III.INSTRUCTION AND LEARNING.
5.Teachers as Decision Makers.
Teachers' Thought Processes and Actions.
Interactive Thoughts and Decisions.
The “Big Picture” Perspective.
Teachers' Implicit Theories and Beliefs about Textbook Use.
An Eighth Grade Teacher's Decision to Use Critical Literacy.
6.Instructional Planning: Yearly, Unit, Weekly, and Daily Planning.
What Is Teacher Planning?
What Factors Affect Teachers' Plans?
How Do Teachers Plan?
Team Planning in the Middle Grades.
Types of Planning in the Middle Grades.
7.Instructional Planning: Lesson Planning.
Characteristics of a Lesson.
Components of an Effective Lesson.
Purpose of Assessment.
Classroom Assessment Techniques.
Team and Classroom Assessment Systems.
9.Using Technology to Improve Instruction.
Status of Technology on U.S. Schools.
Students' Reported Use of Computers.
Technology and Special-Needs Students.
Other Forms of Instructional Media.
10.Teacher-Centered and Teacher-Assisted Strategies.
Nature of the Teaching-Learning Process.
Nature of the Content.
11.Peer-Assisted and Student-Centered Strategies.
Roles of Peers in Student Learning.
Teaching Peer-Assisted and Student-Centered Strategies.
Types of Questions.
Functions of Questions.
To Question or Not to Question.
Alternatives to Questioning.
Effective Questioning Strategies.
13.Student-Centered Learning Environment.
Historical Overview of Classroom Interaction.
Students' Perceptions of Text-Based Discussions.
Interpersonal Needs and Cognitive Growth
The Discussion Web.
Effective Middle-Grades Classroom Managers.
Before School Starts.
Beginning of School.
During the Year.
The Role of the Team.