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Overview

Teaching and Learning in the Elementary School is built on the most current research and "best" practice. It thoroughly examines all of the fundamental teaching skill categories - planning for instruction, assessing student learning, grouping for instruction, and creating a safe and effective learning environment - while constantly reinforcing the idea that effective elementary school teaching requires continual, thoughtful, and reflective decision-making. In this popular volume, three well-known authors paint a realistic portrait of elementary school teaching as a call to motivate, to encourage, to simulate, to build self-esteem, and to care for elementary school children. For General Elementary Methods courses.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780131589629
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 6/27/2007
  • Series: Pearson Custom Education Series
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 9
  • Pages: 432
  • Product dimensions: 7.50 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

Preface

In this textbook we emphasize the social importance of the elementary school teacher. Amid the social unrest swirling around them-families falling apart, communities in conflict over local issues, children suffering from neglect and abuse, domestic violence, and battered mothers—stand elementary school teachers, each Monday through Friday during the school year, teaching their charges the three Rs, how to think critically and creatively, how to live with one another, what it means to be an American, and a whole lot more! For countless numbers of children, only their teacher stands between them and the abyss of ignorance and anomie. Accordingly, in this text we paint a realistic picture of what it means to be an elementary school teacher today.

As in previous editions, two important themes permeate this book: that elementary school teaching is basically a call to the service of humanity, and that the most effective elementary school teaching involves continual, thoughtful, and reflective decision making. This means that you must understand that teaching is a profession and, among other things, that there is no "magical bag of tricks" that can be passed from one person to another that will work for every teacher in every situation in every classroom with every group of children.

Children need teachers who care deeply about them and who can inspire them with the confidence they need to face their future. To motivate, to encourage, to stimulate, to build strong self-esteem, and most important, to care—these descriptors really define the most important work that a teacher does with elementary school children. Sayingthis in no way diminishes the importance of the teacher's responsibility to teach essential subject matter.

The fundamental teaching skills presented in this text-centered around the categories of planning for instruction, grouping children for instruction, establishing and maintaining a safe and effective learning environment, and assessing student learning—have been derived from the best and most current research and practice. We list anticipated learning outcomes at the beginning of each chapter as mental organizers for your study.

The treatment of fundamental teaching skills in this book does not substitute for content-specific teaching methodologies. You will acquire specific teaching skills that apply to reading, mathematics, social studies, science, and the other subjects and skills of the elementary school curriculum by enrolling in special methods courses and studying the texts for those specific disciplines.

Throughout this text you will find vignettes, "verbal snapshots" of classroom situations that a teacher might encounter. Based on real incidents, these provide provocative springboards for class discussion about teaching. Teaching involves decision making, and good teaching is the result of making wise decisions at appropriate times.

Study questions, activities, and a list of references for further study appear at the end of each chapter.

NEW FOR THIS EDITION

We have tried to make this seventh edition of Teaching and Learning in the Elementary School as succinct and as user friendly as possible. Each chapter begins with an introduction and a list of anticipated outcomes and concludes with a summary. A glossary appears at the end of the book.

We have added Internet resources and emphasis on interweaving multimedia with lessons and learning. See, for example, figures on recommended Internet sites in Chapter 2 and the sample lesson plan in Chapter 7.

Subject to further directions from your course instructor, you will develop two major performance outcomes from your study of this book: (1) the first draft of your personal plan for a classroom management system (see Chapter 5), and (2) a unit plan of instruction for use in your teaching. The unit plan will help you connect the essence of content from one chapter to the next, especially in Chapters 6 through 11, which specifically incorporate this assignment. Both performance outcomes provide meaningful and useful performance exhibits of your study.

We have restructured this seventh edition to update and more efficiently present the information (revisions from previous editions are noted in parentheses). Chapter 1 includes discussion of grade-level organization (former Chapter 3) and new content about today's reforms. Chapter 2 adds information on competency testing, children who are at risk, the gifted and talented, student rights, and responsive school practices. Chapter 3 discusses skills instruction (former Chapter 11).

The bulk of Chapter 4 is new for this edition. It also includes information on professional development for elementary school teachers (former Chapter 15). Chapter 5 is updated with emphasis on defining classroom management as establishing and managing an environment for learning. It is in this chapter that, as a performance product, you will start the draft of your classroom management system.

Chapter 6 includes some of former Chapter 8, new content about unit planning, and more on the importance of reflection. Beginning with this chapter and continuing through the text you will develop your second performance product, a unit plan that you will complete in Chapter 11. Chapter 7 revises and expands our discussion of objectives, and includes content on affective learning and values teaching (former Chapter 13). Chapter 8 updates content on theoretical considerations and comparing and contrasting direct and indirect instruction (former Chapters 6 and 11). Chapter 9 adds sections on quality (mastery) learning, learning alone, learning in pairs, the learning center, and cooperative learning. Chapter 10 thoroughly explores questioning as a teaching tool and adds a section on teaching thinking. Chapter 11, on assessment, discusses portfolios, and checklists and rubrics, with a new section on marking, grading, and reporting (former Chapter 15), and includes material about reporting from former Chapter 1.

PEOPLE WE WANT TO THANK

The preparation of this seventh edition has resulted in a book that we hope you find useful now and for at least the first several years of your professional career. We appreciate the help we have received from others who have shared their ideas and successes and who have permitted us to include their names in the book, from authors and publishers who have graciously permitted us to reprint their materials, and from chapter and manuscript reviewers who have helped us immensely to avoid errors and improve the book's content. As always, though, we assume full responsibility for any errors or shortcomings that slipped through the several screenings the manuscript received.

We are deeply grateful for the important contributions of the following reviewers: Denise Ann Finazzo, Edinboro University of Pennsylvania; Elizabeth Simons, George Mason University; Norma J. Strickland, Rust College; and Fred A. Taylor, Illinois State University. We also thank Kaye Moore, California State University at Sacramento, for her invaluable assistance.

We express our special admiration to our copyeditor, freelancer Robert L. Marcum, for making our writing intelligible, and our continued appreciation to the efficacious professionals at Merrill, with whom we have had a long, productive, and satisfying professional relationship.

Read More Show Less

Table of Contents

BRIEF CONTENTS

Chapter 1

Elementary School Teaching Today: An Overview of Influences and Challenges

Chapter 2

The Teacher’s Professional Responsibilities

Chapter 3

Developing Thinking and Questioning Skills

Chapter 4

Planning and Managing the Classroom Learning Environment

Chapter 5

Planning the Curriculum

Chapter 6

Planning the Instruction

Chapter 7

Assessing and Evaluating Student Performance

Chapter 8

Organizing and Grouping Children for Quality Learning

Chapter 9

Additional Strategies and Strategy Integration

Glossary

References

Index

DETAILED CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHING TODAY: AN OVERVIEW OF INFLUENCES AND CHALLENGES

ANTICIPATED OUTCOMES

FUNDAMENTAL PURPOSES OF ELEMENTARY EDUCATION

Literacy

Citizenship Education

Personal Development

Quality Education for Each and Every Child

DIVERSITY IN THE CLASSROOM

FAMILY LIFE

SOCIOECONOMIC INFLUENCES

EQUALITY OF EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY

Student Rights

Activity 1.1 Teach but Don’t Touch

Learning Styles

Race and Racism

Gender Equity

Inclusion

Newcomers to the English Language

School Choice and Organizational Change

Grade-Level Organization

The Graded School Concept

Activity 1.2 Graded vs. Nongraded School: Study, Debate, and Vote

CURRICULUM STANDARDS AND ACHIEVEMENT TESTING

Preparing Students for High-Stakes Achievement Testing

SOCIAL TRAGEDIES

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS): The Threat Continues

Illicit Drug Use

Child Abuse and Neglect

Youth Gangs

Bullying and Violence

PARENTS, GUARDIANS, AND THE COMMUNITY

Activity 1.3 Neighborhood Violence

SERVICE LEARNING

SUMMARY

STUDY QUESTIONS AND ADDITIONAL ACTIVIES

WEB SITES RELATED TO CONTENT OF THIS CHAPTER

FOR FURTHER READING

CHAPTER 2 THE TEACHER’S PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES

Activity 2.1 Is This a Typical Day for a Fifth-Grade Teacher?

ANTICIPATED OUTCOMES

THE TEACHER AS A REFLECTIVE DECISION MAKER

Decision-Making Phases of Instruction

Reflection, Locus of Control, Sense of Self-Efficacy, and Teacher
Responsibility

COMMITMENT AND PROFESSIONALISM

IDENTIFYING AND BUILDING YOUR INSTRUCTIONAL COMPETENCES

Fundamental Assumptions

Facilitating Behaviors and Instructional Strategies: A Clarification

Structuring the Learning Environment

Accepting and Sharing Instructional Accountability

Demonstrate Withitness and Overlapping

Providing a Variety of Motivating and Challenging Activities

Modeling Appropriate Behaviors

Facilitating Student Acquisition of Data

Creating and Maintaining a Psychologically Safe Environment

Clarifying Whenever Necessary

Using Periods of Silence

Questioning Thoughtfully

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE COMPETENT CLASSROOM TEACHER: AN ANNOTATED LIST

Activity 2.2 Are Teachers Prepared to Deal with the Severe Social and
Emotional Problems Many Children Bring to School? If Not, Who Is?

SELECTING AND USING MEDIA AND OTHER RESOURCES AND TOOLS FOR INSTRUCTION

Activity 2.3 Is Technology Changing the Role of the Classroom Teacher?

The Internet

Professional Journals and Periodicals

Copying Printed Materials

The Classroom Writing Board

The Classroom Bulletin Board

Community Resources

Media Tools

Computers and Computer-Based Instructional Tools

Using Copyrighted Video, Computer, and Multimedia Programs

SUMMARY

STUDY QUESTIONS AND ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES

WEB SITES RELATED TO CONTENT OF THIS CHAPTER

FOR FURTHER READING

CHAPTER 3 DEVELOPING THINKING AND QUESTIONING SKILLS

ANTICIPATED OUTCOMES

TEACHING THINKING

Characteristics of Intelligent Behavior

Direct Teaching for Thinking and Intelligent Behavior

Direct Teaching of Skills Used in Thinking

DEVELOPING SKILL IN USING QUESTIONS

Framing and Stating Questions

Sequencing Questions

Pacing the Questioning

Activity 3.1 Create a Story

THE TEACHER’S RESPONSES TO STUDENTS

Passive (Nonjudgmental) Acceptance Response

Evaluative (Judgmental) Response

Activity 3.2 How Would You Say It?

Restating and Clarifying

Probing

Cueing

SOCRATIC QUESTIONING

QUESTIONS THAT FOCUS ON SPECIFIC PURPOSES

Procedural Questions

Questions That Check Literal Comprehension

Reflective or “Thought” Questions

QUESTIONS FROM STUDENTS

Activity 3.3 And Then You Said . . .

Activity 3.4 And Elliot Eisner Said . . .

The Question-Driven Classroom

Questioning: The Cornerstone of Critical Thinking, Real-World Problem
Solving, and Meaningful Learning

Activity 3.5 Think Time and the Art of Questioning

SUMMARY

STUDY QUESTIONS AND ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES

WEB SITES RELATED TO CONTENT OF THIS CHAPTER

FOR FURTHER READING

CHAPTER 4 PLANNING AND MANAGING THE CLASSROOM LEARNING ENVIRONMENT

ANTICIPATED OUTCOMES

A VALUES-BASED MANAGEMENT PLAN

A CLARIFICATION OF TERMS

Classroom Management: Contributions of Leading Experts

CHARACTERISTICS OF AN EFFECTIVELY MANAGED CLASSROOM

Enhancing Mental and Social Development

Facilitating the Achievement of Instructional Goals

Providing Boundaries of Intellectual and Physical Freedom

Thinking in Terms of Procedures Rather Than Rules; Consequences Rather
Than Punishment

Developing Skills of Self-Direction and Responsible Involvement

Working Toward Warm Human Relations

SERIOUSNESS OF PROBLEMS

Goofing Off

Disruptions to Learning

Defiance, Cheating, Lying, and Stealing

Bullying and Violence

Activity 4.1 Shouldn’t Punishment Fit the Crime?

CONFLICT RESOLUTION

Minimizing Conflict and Encouraging Harmonious Social Relations

Resolving Conflicts Immediately, with a Plan for Longer-Range Solutions

Providing Instruction on Conflict and Conflict Resolution

ORGANIZATIONAL ASPECTS OF CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT

Starting the School Term Well

Activity 4.2 My Emerging Plan for Classroom Management

Schedule and Routines

Activity 4.3 Ms. Badger’s Effort to Empower Children

Clarity of Directions and Goals

Physical Arrangements

Activity 4.4 First Day of Spring—What Would You Have Done?

Transitions

Activity 4.5 What’s Wrong Here?

SUMMARY

STUDY QUESTIONS AND ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES

WEB SITES RELATED TO CONTENT OF THIS CHAPTER

FOR FURTHER READING

CHAPTER 5 PLANNING THE CURRICULUM

ANTICIPATED OUTCOMES

HELPING CHILDREN MAKE SUCCESSFUL TRANSITIONS

CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION: CLARIFICATION OF TERMS

Activity 5.1 What Really is Being Learned?

Curriculum Components

PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION: THREE LEVELS

Teacher-Student Collaborative Planning

Reasons for Planning

COMPONENTS OF AN INSTRUCTIONAL PLAN

CURRICULUM CONTENT SELECTION: DOCUMENTS THAT PROVIDE GUIDANCE

Curriculum Standards

Curriculum Standards and High Stakes Testing

Activity 5.2 Examining Curriculum Documents and Standards

Student Textbooks

Activity 5.3 Examining Student Textbooks and Teacher’s Editions

BEGINNING TO THINK ABOUT THE SEQUENCING OF CONTENT

Activity 5.4 Preparing a Full Semester Content Outline

PREPARING FOR AND DEALING WITH CONTROVERSY

AIMS, GOALS, AND OBJECTIVES: THE ANTICIPATED OUTCOMES

Instructional Objectives and Their Relationship to Aligned Curriculum and
Authentic Assessment

Learning Targets and Goal Indicators: Meaning of “Quality Learning”

Overt and Overt Performance Outcomes

Balance of Behaviorism and Constructivism

TEACHING TOWARD MULTIPLE OBJECTIVES, UNDERSTANDINGS, AND APPRECIATIONS: THE
REALITY OF MODERN CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION

PREPARING INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECIVES

Components of a Complete Objective

Activity 5.5 Recognizing Verbs That Are Acceptable for Overt Objectives

Activity 5.6 Recognizing the Parts of Criterion-Referenced Instructional
Objectives

Activity 5.7 Recognizing Objectives That Are Measurable

Classifying Instructional Objectives

The Domains Of Learning and the Developmental Characteristics Of Children

Cognitive Domain Hierarchy

Affective Domain Hierarchy

Psychomotor Domain Hierarchy

Activity 5.8 Assessing Recognition of Objectives According to Domain

Activity 5.9 Preparing Instructional Objectives for Use in My Teaching

USING THE TAXONOMIES

Observing for Connected (Meaningful) Learning: Logs, Portfolios, and
Journals

Character Education and the Domains of Learning

LEARNING THAT IS NOT IMMEDIATELY OBSERVABLE

INTEGRATED CURRICULUM

Level 1 Curriculum Integration

Level 2 Curriculum Integration

Level 3 Curriculum Integration

Level 4 Curriculum Integration

Level 5 Curriculum Integration

Integrated Curriculum in a Standards-Based Environment

PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION: A THREE-LEVEL AND SEVEN-STEP PROCESS

THE SYLLABUS

Use and Development of a Syllabus

Content of a Syllabus

SUMMARY

STUDY QUESTIONS AND ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES

WEB SITES RELATED TO CONTENT OF THIS CHAPTER

FOR FURTHER READING

CHAPTER 6 PLANNING THE INSTRUCTION

ANTICIPATED OUTCOMES

THE INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT

Planning and Developing any Unit of Instruction

Unit Format, Inclusive Elements, and Time Duration

THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE SELECTION OF INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES

Decision Making and Strategy Selection

Principles of Classroom Instruction and Learning: A Synopsis

Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge

Direct versus Indirect Instructional Modes: Strengths and Weaknesses of
Each

SELECTING LEARNING ACTIVITIES THAT ARE DEVELOPMENTALLY APPROPRIATE

STYLES OF LEARNING AND IMPLICATIONS FOR INSTRUCTIONAL PLANNING

Learning Modality

Learning Style

The Three-Phase Learning Cycle

Learning Capacities: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences

THE LEARNING EXPERIENCES LADDER

Direct, Simulated, and Vicarious Experiences Help Connect Student Learning

PLANNING AND DEVELOPING AN INTERDISCIPLINARY THEMATIC UNIT

Specific Guidelines for Developing an ITU

Developing the Learning Activities: The Heart and Spirit of the ITU

The Common Thread

Initiating Activities

Developmental Activities

Culminating Activity

PREPARING THE LESSON PLANS: RATIONALE AND ASSUMPTIONS

Rationale for Preparing Written Plans

Assumptions About Lesson Planning

A Continual Process

Activity 6.1 Was This Lesson “Set in Concrete”?

Making Adjustments as Needed

The Problem of Time

The Pressure of Standards-Based and High-Stakes Testing and the Felt Need
to “Cover” the Prescribed Curriculum

Caution about “The Weekly Planning Book”

LESSON PLAN CONSTRUCTION: FORMAT, ELEMENTS, AND SAMPLES

For Guidance, Reflection, and Reference

Basic Elements of a Lesson Plan

Setting the Learning Objectives

Activity 6.2a Preparing a Lesson Plan

Activity 6.2b Self- and Peer-Assessment of My Lesson Plan
Activity 6.3 Bringing It All Together: Preparing an Instructional Unit

SUMMARY

STUDY QUESTIONS AND ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES

WEB SITES RELATED TO CONTENT OF THIS CHAPTER

FOR FURTHER READING

CHAPTER 7 ASSESSING AND EVALUATING STUDENT PERFORMANCE

ANTICIPATED OUTCOMES

THE LANGUAGE OF ASSESSMENT

Evaluation, Assessment, and Measurement

Authentic and Performance Assessment

Formative and Summative Assessment

Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests

Readiness Testing

Validity and Reliability

ASSESSMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF INSTRUCTION

Activity 7.1 Make It Right, Write!

ASSESSMENT IN THE CLASSROOM

Helping Children Deal with Test Anxiety

STUDENT PARTICIPATION IN ASSESSMENT

Using Student Portfolios

Using Checklists and Scoring Rubrics

Guidelines for Using Portfolios for Instruction and Assessment

DIAGNOSTIC ASSESSMENT AND CORRECTIVE INSTRUCTION

The Teacher as Diagnostician

Avoid Labeling

Diagnostic and Corrective Procedures

What Evidence is There That A Learning Problem Exists?

Activity 7.2 Selecting the Right One

What Specific Learning Difficulty is the Child Encountering?

What Level of Corrective Work is Required?

GRADING AND MARKING

Determining Grades

Assessment and Grading: Not Synonymous Terms

REPORTING STUDENT PROGRESS IN ACHIEVEMENT

SUMMARY

STUDY QUESTIONS AND ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES

WEB SITES RELATED TO CONTENT OF THIS CHAPTER

FOR FURTHER READING

CHAPTER 8 ORGANIZING AND GROUPING CHILDREN FOR QUALITY LEARNING

ANTICIPATED OUTCOMES

MASTERY LEARNING AND PERSONALIZED INSTRUCTION

Today’s Emphasis: Quality Learning for Every Child

Assumptions about Mastery, or Quality, Learning

Elements of Any Mastery Learning Model: The Cycle of Teaching

Strategies for Personalizing the Instruction Now!

ACCOMMODATING STUDENT DIFFERENCES: RECOGNIZING AND WORKING WITH SPECIFIC
LEARNERS

Children with Special Needs

Children of Diversity and Differences

Children Who Are Gifted

Meaningful Curriculum Options: Multiple Pathways to Success

Children Who Take More Time but Are Willing to Try

Recalcitrant Learners

LEARNING ALONE

Activity 8.1 The Self-Instructional Module

LEARNING IN PAIRS

The Learning Center

LEARNING IN SMALL GROUPS

Purposes for Using Small Groups

COOPERATIVE LEARNING

The Cooperative Learning Group (CLG)

The Theory and Use of Cooperative Learning

Roles Within the Cooperative Learning Group

What Students and the Teacher Do When Using Cooperative Learning Grouops

When to Use Cooperative Learning Groups

Cooperative Group Learning, Assessment, and Grading

Why Some Teachers Experience Difficulty Using CLGs

LEARNING IN LARGE GROUPS

Student Presentations

Whole-Class Discussion

Activity 8.2 Whole-Class Discussion as a Teaching Strategy

EQUALITY IN THE CLASSROOM

Ensuring Equity

Activity 8.3 Teacher Interaction with Students According to Student Gender (or Other Student Difference)

LEARNING FROM ASSIGNMENTS AND HOMEWORK

Purposes for Assignments

Guidelines for Using Assignments

Opportunities for Recovery

How to Avoid Having So Many Papers to Grade That Time for Effective
Planning is Restricted

PROJECT-CENTERED LEARNING: GUIDING LEARNING FROM INDEPENDENT AND GROUP
INVESTIGATIONS, PAPERS, AND ORAL REPORTS

Values and Purposes of Project-Centered Learning

Guidelines for Guiding Students in Project-Centered Learning

Writing as a Required Component of Project-Centered Learning

Assessing the Final Product

WRITING: EVERY TEACHER’S RESPONSIBILITY

Kinds of Writing

Student Journals

A COLLECTION OF ANNOTATED MOTIVATIONAL TEACHING STRATEGIES WITH IDEAS FOR LESSONS, INTERDISCIPLINARY TEACHING, TRANSCULTURAL STUDIES, AND STUDENT PROJECTS

The Visual and Performing Arts

English, Languages, and the Language Arts

Mathematics

Physical Education

Science

Social Studies/History

SUMMARY

STUDY QUESTIONS AND ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES

WEB SITES RELATED TO CONTENT OF THIS CHAPTER

FOR FURTHER READING

CHAPTER 9 ADDITIONAL STRATEGIES AND STRATEGY INTEGRATION

ANTICIPATED OUTCOMES

TEACHER TALK: FORMAL AND INFORMAL

Cautions in Using Teacher Talk

Teacher Talk: General Guidelines

Teacher Talk: Specific Guidelines

DEMONSTRATIONS

Reasons for Using Demonstrations

Guidelines for Using Demonstrations

INQUIRY TEACHING AND DISCOVER LEARNING

Problem Solving

Inquiry versus Discovery

True Inquiry

Activity 9.1 Does It Really Matter What It’s Called?

The Critical Thinking Skills of Discovery and Inquiry

INTEGRATING STRATEGIES FOR INTEGRATED LEARNING

Activity 9.2 A Study of Inquiry and Strategy Integration

EDUCATIONAL GAMES

Classification of Educational Games

Functions of Educational Games

Activity 9.3 Developing a Lesson Using Inquiry Level II, Thinking Skill Development, a Demonstration, or an Interactive Lecture

SUMMARY

STUDY QUESTIONS AND ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES

WEB SITES RELATED TO CONTENT OF THIS CHAPTER

FOR FURTHER READING

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Preface

PREFACE:

Preface

In this textbook we emphasize the social importance of the elementary school teacher. Amid the social unrest swirling around them-families falling apart, communities in conflict over local issues, children suffering from neglect and abuse, domestic violence, and battered mothers—stand elementary school teachers, each Monday through Friday during the school year, teaching their charges the three Rs, how to think critically and creatively, how to live with one another, what it means to be an American, and a whole lot more! For countless numbers of children, only their teacher stands between them and the abyss of ignorance and anomie. Accordingly, in this text we paint a realistic picture of what it means to be an elementary school teacher today.

As in previous editions, two important themes permeate this book: that elementary school teaching is basically a call to the service of humanity, and that the most effective elementary school teaching involves continual, thoughtful, and reflective decision making. This means that you must understand that teaching is a profession and, among other things, that there is no "magical bag of tricks" that can be passed from one person to another that will work for every teacher in every situation in every classroom with every group of children.

Children need teachers who care deeply about them and who can inspire them with the confidence they need to face their future. To motivate, to encourage, to stimulate, to build strong self-esteem, and most important, to care—these descriptors really define the most important work that a teacher does with elementary school children.Sayingthis in no way diminishes the importance of the teacher's responsibility to teach essential subject matter.

The fundamental teaching skills presented in this text-centered around the categories of planning for instruction, grouping children for instruction, establishing and maintaining a safe and effective learning environment, and assessing student learning—have been derived from the best and most current research and practice. We list anticipated learning outcomes at the beginning of each chapter as mental organizers for your study.

The treatment of fundamental teaching skills in this book does not substitute for content-specific teaching methodologies. You will acquire specific teaching skills that apply to reading, mathematics, social studies, science, and the other subjects and skills of the elementary school curriculum by enrolling in special methods courses and studying the texts for those specific disciplines.

Throughout this text you will find vignettes, "verbal snapshots" of classroom situations that a teacher might encounter. Based on real incidents, these provide provocative springboards for class discussion about teaching. Teaching involves decision making, and good teaching is the result of making wise decisions at appropriate times.

Study questions, activities, and a list of references for further study appear at the end of each chapter.

NEW FOR THIS EDITION

We have tried to make this seventh edition of Teaching and Learning in the Elementary School as succinct and as user friendly as possible. Each chapter begins with an introduction and a list of anticipated outcomes and concludes with a summary. A glossary appears at the end of the book.

We have added Internet resources and emphasis on interweaving multimedia with lessons and learning. See, for example, figures on recommended Internet sites in Chapter 2 and the sample lesson plan in Chapter 7.

Subject to further directions from your course instructor, you will develop two major performance outcomes from your study of this book: (1) the first draft of your personal plan for a classroom management system (see Chapter 5), and (2) a unit plan of instruction for use in your teaching. The unit plan will help you connect the essence of content from one chapter to the next, especially in Chapters 6 through 11, which specifically incorporate this assignment. Both performance outcomes provide meaningful and useful performance exhibits of your study.

We have restructured this seventh edition to update and more efficiently present the information (revisions from previous editions are noted in parentheses). Chapter 1 includes discussion of grade-level organization (former Chapter 3) and new content about today's reforms. Chapter 2 adds information on competency testing, children who are at risk, the gifted and talented, student rights, and responsive school practices. Chapter 3 discusses skills instruction (former Chapter 11).

The bulk of Chapter 4 is new for this edition. It also includes information on professional development for elementary school teachers (former Chapter 15). Chapter 5 is updated with emphasis on defining classroom management as establishing and managing an environment for learning. It is in this chapter that, as a performance product, you will start the draft of your classroom management system.

Chapter 6 includes some of former Chapter 8, new content about unit planning, and more on the importance of reflection. Beginning with this chapter and continuing through the text you will develop your second performance product, a unit plan that you will complete in Chapter 11. Chapter 7 revises and expands our discussion of objectives, and includes content on affective learning and values teaching (former Chapter 13). Chapter 8 updates content on theoretical considerations and comparing and contrasting direct and indirect instruction (former Chapters 6 and 11). Chapter 9 adds sections on quality (mastery) learning, learning alone, learning in pairs, the learning center, and cooperative learning. Chapter 10 thoroughly explores questioning as a teaching tool and adds a section on teaching thinking. Chapter 11, on assessment, discusses portfolios, and checklists and rubrics, with a new section on marking, grading, and reporting (former Chapter 15), and includes material about reporting from former Chapter 1.

PEOPLE WE WANT TO THANK

The preparation of this seventh edition has resulted in a book that we hope you find useful now and for at least the first several years of your professional career. We appreciate the help we have received from others who have shared their ideas and successes and who have permitted us to include their names in the book, from authors and publishers who have graciously permitted us to reprint their materials, and from chapter and manuscript reviewers who have helped us immensely to avoid errors and improve the book's content. As always, though, we assume full responsibility for any errors or shortcomings that slipped through the several screenings the manuscript received.

We are deeply grateful for the important contributions of the following reviewers: Denise Ann Finazzo, Edinboro University of Pennsylvania; Elizabeth Simons, George Mason University; Norma J. Strickland, Rust College; and Fred A. Taylor, Illinois State University. We also thank Kaye Moore, California State University at Sacramento, for her invaluable assistance.

We express our special admiration to our copyeditor, freelancer Robert L. Marcum, for making our writing intelligible, and our continued appreciation to the efficacious professionals at Merrill, with whom we have had a long, productive, and satisfying professional relationship.

Read More Show Less

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