Teaching English Learners: Methods and Strategies / Edition 2

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Overview

Lynne T. Díaz-Rico: Strategies for Teaching English Learners, Second Edition

Celebrated by reviewers as being “the greatest language book I have ever read,” this text has been touted as the best overview of basic principles and strategies for English language teaching.

Written in Lynne Díaz-Rico’s passionate style, the second edition of Strategies for Teaching English Learners continues to be a one-stop introduction to teaching English to speakers of other languages. It includes an introduction to the fascinating challenges of teaching English learners and offers a comprehensive overview of learning theories and teaching strategies.

Thoroughly updated, the second edition includes: a description of the unique contributions made by teachers of nonnative English speakers; up-to-date information on the demographics of English learners and the demand for English teachers worldwide; a profile of an elementary school with an innovative social justice curriculum approach; suggestions about the use of learning centers in elementary classrooms that teach English as a foreign language; an expanded definition of culture to include a contemporary emphasis on identity; a critical view about the study of gender and race in the classroom; new ways to incorporate volunteers into classroom instruction; and ways to encourage “virtual volunteering.” Also in the new edition, Chapter 15 creatively combines project-based learning and service learning as ways to link English learners with the larger community.

Strategies for Teaching English Learners Continues to Garner Praise

“One of the major strengths of this text is the cognitive/humanist/constructivist model adopted for teacher education. It is a thinking person’s text. It stimulates thinking about important issues, not just learning the technical part of teaching.” – Oneyda M. Paneque, Barry University

“This book should be required reading for any student/teacher preparing to teach in an ESL classroom. Díaz-Rico has written a wonderfully informative text that philosophically and pragmatically establishes guiding principles for ESL instruction in America both today and tomorrow.” – John McAndrew, Kutztown University

“The Díaz-Rico text provides a broad overview of both theory and praxis related to teaching English to speakers of other languages. Woven throughout the text is an emphasis on second language acquisition (SLA), as well as sociocultural considerations for educators of English learners. The author does a wonderful job of helping the reader understand the sociopolitical context in which English learning and teaching take place.” – Deanna Nisbet, Regent University

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205566754
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 10/24/2007
  • Series: Pearson Custom Education Series
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 512
  • Product dimensions: 7.63 (w) x 8.97 (h) x 0.97 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface

Strategies for Teaching English Learners: A Summary

I. Who Are English Learners and Their Teachers?

The Profession of Teaching English Learners

English Language Development

Educational Terminology

Critical Perspectives

Who Are English Learners and What Are Their Needs?

U.S. Demographics

ELD Services for English Learn International Demographics of English

Contexts for Teaching English Worldwide

Career Preparation for Teaching English Learners

Teaching ELD in the United States

Teaching English Around the World

Challenges for Teachers of English Learners

English as an International Language

Is English Natural, Neutral, and Beneficial?

Languages At Risk

Professional Organizations for Teachers of English Learners

TESOL, Inc. as an Organization

Other Professional Organizations

II. Critical Roles for Teachers

Educators as Critical Pedagogists

What Is Critical Pedagogy?

Critical Pedagogy as a Method

Contrasting Critical Pedagogy with Banking Models of Instruction

Sample Topics Used for Problem Posing

A Critical Sociological Look at Language and Power

Tollefson: Power and Inequality in Language Education Foucault: The Power of Discursive Practices

Bourdieu: Language as Social Capital

Cummins: Language Policies as Emancipatory

Fairclough: Critical Language Analysis

Teaching for Social Justice

Profession, Policy, and Power in the Education of English Learners

III. Views of Teaching and Learning

Philosophy, Psychology, Anthropology, Sociology, and Postmodern Pedagogy

Teaching the Whole Person

Philosophical Foundations of Education

Progressivism

Traditionalism

Belief Systems and Teaching

Educational Psychology: Behavioral Methods

Grammar Translation

The Rise of Experimental Behaviorism

The Audiolingual Method

Total Physical Response

Direct Teaching and Mastery Learning

Advantages of Behavioral Methods Disadvantages of Behavioral Methods

Educational Psychology: Cognitive Methods

Generative Grammar

Krashen’s Monitor Model Stages of Development

Information-Processing Theories of Mental Functioning

Alternative Theories of Mental Functioning

Brain-Compatible Learning Neurolinguistic Research Based on Study of Brain Function Cognitive Teaching Means a Focus on Learning

Comparing the Cognitive View with Behaviorism

Learning Styles and Strategies

Constructivist Learning

Humanistic Education: Affective and Emotional Factors    47

Integrating Cognitive and Affective Learning  47 w Self-
Esteem  47 w Motivation  50 w Anxiety  51
w Attitudes of the Learner  52 w Motivating Students Humanistically  53 w The Teacher as Counselor  54

Cultural Anthropology and Education    55

Communicative Competence  56 w Social Contexts for Language Learning  58 w Activity Theory  59 w Communities of Practice  59 w Culture and Schooling  59 w The Study of Classroom Discourse  59 w Culturally Responsive Teaching  60

Looking Forward: Postmodernism    60

Modernism versus Postmodernism  60 w Modernism  60
w Postmodernism  61 w Implications of Postmodernism for Educators  62 w New Roles for English Educators  64

The Future of Teaching English Learners    64

Learner Strategies  65 w Strategies Influenced by the Institution  65 w Strategies Influenced by the Sociocultural Context  65

4 Performance-Based Learning    66

Why Performance-Based Learning?    66

What Is Performance-Based Learning?    66

Standards-Based Learning    67

TESOL Standards  68 w Program Standards  69 w Instruction Aligned with TESOL Standards  69 w English-Language Development Standards  70 w Incorporating Standards into Lesson Plans  73

What Is the Best Use of Assessment?    73

The Changing Nature of Assessment  74

What Is Performance-Based Assessment?    76

Methods of Assessment    77

Assessment Terms  77 w Standardized and Less Standardized Assessment  77 w Standardized Proficiency Tests  78
w Teacher- and Student-Created Rubrics  79 w Teacher-Constructed Tests  81 w Portfolio Assessment  81 w Teacher Observation and Evaluation  82 w Grading  82 w Student Self-Assessment and Peer Assessment  82 w Other Types of Tests  82

Identification, Assessment, and Placement of English Learners in the Schools    84

Identification Procedures for English Learners  84 w Assessment for Placement  84 w Redesignation and Exit Procedures  85

Limitations of Assessment    85

Difficulties in the Testing Situation  86 w Cautions about Testing  86

Academic Expectations    87

How Teacher Expectations Are Formed and Communicated to Students and How Students Respond  87 w Student Control over Classroom Learning  90 w Intercultural Communication of Expectations  90

Planning Instruction    91

Constructivist Planning  91 w The Direct Teaching Model  92
w Modifying the Direct Teaching Model  92

Matching Performance and Assessment    93

Setting Objectives  93 w Tasks as Objectives  94 w Task Chains  94 w Assessing the Task Chain  95 w Formative Assessment  95 w Summative Assessment, Culminating Performance,
and Metalearning  96

Monitoring and Adjusting Instruction    100

5 Learner Strategies and Learner-Focused Teaching    101

Learner Control and Academic Competence    101

Learner Autonomy: Self-Motivation and Self-Management    103

Self-Management  104 w Self-Managed Instruction  104
w Self-Efficacy  104 w Student Responsibility for Learning  105

What Are Learner Strategies?    105

Indirect and Direct Strategies  106 w Strategy-Based Instruction  106

Indirect Strategies: Second-Language Acquisition and Use    107

What Are Second-Language Use Strategies?  107

Indirect Strategies: Learning Style Preferences    109

Typologies of Learning Styles  110 w Learning Styles Applied to the ESL/EFL Classroom  112 w Cultural Differences in Learning Styles  112 w Measuring Learning Styles  112 w Adapting Instruction to Learning Styles  113

Direct Strategies: Cognitive    114

Schema Building  114 w Scaffolding  115 w Alternative Information Representation and Graphic Organizers  115 w Critical Thinking  122 w Creative Thinking and Risk Taking  122

Direct Strategies: Metacognitive    124

Direct Strategies: Social-Affective    126

Student Opportunities to Cooperate  126 w Maintaining the First Language as an Affective Strategy  127

Direct Strategies: Academic Survival and Study Skills    127

Academic Survival Skills  127 w Native-Language Cultural Skills and Experiences  128 w Target-Language Culture Skills  128
w Knowledge about the Culture of Academia in the Target Language  128 w Study Skills  130 w Text Processing and Time Management  131

ELD and the Content Areas    132

Content-Based Instruction in ELD  132 w Collaboration and Reciprocity  133 w CBI-ELD: Lesson Planning  134 w Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English (SDAIE)  134

Computer-Assisted Language Learning/Computer-Mediated Communication    138

CALL and Second-Language Acquisition  139

6 Oracy Instruction    143

Literacy and Power    143

Listening Processes    177

Listening to Repeat: The Audiolingual Legacy  178 w Listening to Understand: The Task Approach  179 w Listening for Communication  180 w Before Listening  180 w While Listening  181 w After Listening  182 w Authentic Tasks in and out of the Real World  183

Speaking Processes    183

Difficulties with Spoken Discourse  184 w Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills  185 w Developing Oral Language  186
w Situations for Spoken Discourse  187 w Resources for Spoken Discourse  187 w Improving Pronunciation  188 w Before Speaking  189 w While Speaking  190 w After Speaking  191 w Speaking Games and Tasks  191 w Oral Discourse and Critical Communicative Competence  193 w Summary: The Conversant Student  198

7 Literacy Instruction for English Language Development    200

Reading Processes    144

Purposes for Reading  144 w Standards-Based Reading Instruction  145 w Emergent Literacy  146 w Language Experience Approach  147 w Direct Teaching of Reading  148
w Teaching Students Who Are Not Literate in L1  153 w  A Balanced Literacy Approach  149 w The Basics of Learning to Read  149 w The Three-Stage Reading Process  153 w Schemata for the Reading Process   149 w Focus on Acquisition Vocabulary  160 w Transition Reading  160 w Stages of Reading Development for English Learners  161 w Teaching Strategies for Comprehension  161 w Teaching Literature  162

Writing Processes    165

The Role of Writing in Academic Literacies  166 w Writing as a Social Construction  167 w What Do Writers Need?  167 w Stages of Writing Development for Young English Learners  169 w The Writing Workshop  170 w The Writing Process: Prewriting  170 w The Writing Process: Drafting  171 w Self-Correction and Revision  171 w Feedback through Peer Response and Writing Conferences  172 w The Writing Process: Editing  173 w Error Correction  173 w Publishing  174 
w Issues with ESL Writing  174

8 The Learning Process and the Imaginary    200

The Importance of the Imaginary    200

Exploring the Imagination    201

Lozanov’s Suggestopedia Revisited  201 w Lacan’s Personality Theory and the Imaginary  202 w The Imaginary and English Learning  203
w The Imaginary and the Development of Personality  203 w The Imaginative Function of Language  204

Stimulating the Imagination Directly    205

Guided Imagery  205 w Creative Environments    207
w Comics  207 w Curriculum That Stimulates the Imagination  208

Drama in the Classroom    209

Classroom Dramatics  210 w Play Scripts as Literary Text  214
w Role Play  215 w Readers Theater  217 w Puppetry  219
w Storytelling  220

Poetry and the Muse    224

A Universal Language  224 w The Sound of Poetry  225
w Poetry as Vocabulary Development  226 w Types of Poems  227
w Writing Poetry  229 w Connecting Visual and Poetic  230
w Poetry Interpretation  231

Music: Listening, Playing, Singing, Creating    233

Popular Music  233 w Culturally Authentic Music  235 w Jazz Chants    236 w Singing Games  236

The Virtues of the Imaginary    237

9 Grammar through Integrated Language Skills and Wonderful English    239

English Is Democratic and Creative    239

Why Integrated Skills?    240

Integrated Instructional Activities    241

Learner Output  241 w Content: Flexible, Thematic Curriculum  242

The History of English    244

From Old to Middle English  244 w Middle English  246
w The Dual Nature of English  246 w English: Innovative and Unregulated  249

The Curiosity and Beauty of English    252

Assets of English  253 w Complexities of English  254
w Beauty in Nuance and Sound  255

Teaching Grammar    257

Grammar as System  258 w Grammar and Emotion  258
w Grammar Games  259

Correct Usage and Discourse Competence    259

Prescriptive Language and Usage Wars  259 w A Schema for Literature, ESL, Grammar, and Usage  262 w Integrating Grammar into the Curriculum  263

10 Culturally Based Language Teaching    266

Culture and Language Teaching    266

The Skills and Responsibilities of the Intercultural Educator    267

Culturally Derived Learning Styles and Strategies    269

Values, Beliefs, and Practices  270 w Social Customs  270
w Rites, Rituals, and Ceremonies  271 w Work and Leisure Systems  271 w Health and Medicine  271 w Institutional Influences: Economic, Legal, Political, and Religious  272 w Language-Related Behaviors and Beliefs  272 w Educational Systems  272

Culturally Compatible Instruction    273

Ethnographic Study  273 w Self-Study  274 w Cultural Observations  274 w Interviews  275 w Home Visits  275
w Sources for Learning about Cultures  275 w Culturally Responsive Pedagogy  276 w Teaching Styles (Cultural Orientation)  276
w Teacher-Student Interactions  277 w Classroom Organization and Curriculum  277

Assuming a Bicultural Identity    277

Culture as Content    280

Why Teach Language Using Culture?  280 w Culture of the Target Language  280 w English Teaching Using the Native Culture  283
w Bias in Teaching about Culture  287

Crosscultural Studies    287

Achieving Ethnorelativism  288 w Deeper Crosscultural Comparison  288 w Teaching Crosscultural Content  290

Using Intercultural Communication to Teach English    290

Beyond Superficial Communication  290 w Intercultural Conflict  290

11 Discourse in the Classrooms of English Learners    292

What Is Classroom Discourse?    292

Language Teachers at the Edge  292 w The Language and Culture of Schooling  293 w Linguistic Features of Classroom Discourse  294

What Discourse Genres Are Common in U.S. Classrooms?    294

The Recitation Pattern: A Typical Learning Encounter  295
w Sociohistorical Features of the Recitation Pattern  296
w Instructional Features of the Recitation Pattern  296
w Recitation Pattern: Critique  297 w Recitation Pattern:
Questioning Strategies  297 w Cooperative Learning as an Alternative Pattern  300 w The Instructional Conversation
(IC) as a Discourse Alternative  301

Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency    303

The Language of Thought  303 w The Teacher’s Role in Promoting CALP  305

Discourse That Affirms Students’ Voices    305

12 Dual-Language Proficiency    307

Schooling in Two Languages    307

Why Dual-Language Acquisition?  307 w Bilingual Education and the Teaching of English  308 w Submersion (Sink or Swim)  308
w Transitional Bilingual and Structured Immersion Programs  309

Dual-Literacy Programs: An Introduction    311

Developmental Bilingual Programs in the United States  311 w Second-
and Foreign-Language Immersion Programs for Majority-Language Students  312 w Two-Way Immersion Programs for Majority-Language and Minority-Language Students  312 w Advocacy for Dual-Language Programs  314 w The Role of Monolingual English Instructors in a Dual-Language Program  315

Biliteracy in a TWI Context    315

Complexities of Biliteracy  315 w Questions about Biliteracy  316
w A Teaching Unit in Two Languages  316

Principles of Language Transfer    318

Metalinguistic Awareness and Common Underlying Proficiency  318
w Teaching for Transfer: Language Acquisition Processes  319

Biliteracy and Biculturality    321

13 Teaching English in Context    323

Dialects in English    324

Dialects and the Education of English Learners  324 w Common Features That Constitute Dialects  326 w How Dialects Exhibit Social and Ethnic Differences  328 w Attitudes Toward Dialects  329
w Dialects and Speaking Style  331 w Gender and Language Variation  333 w Vernacular Dialects and Language Teaching  336

Teaching Standard English: Whose Standard?    336

Language Variety as a Goal of Instruction    337

Some Sample Registers in Oracy  338 w Some Sample Registers in Literacy  338 w Gender-Typical Registers  339 w Teaching Oral Register Shifts  339

Situated Literacy and Academic Registers    339

The Individual World of Literacy  340 w Situated Literacy:
Synthesis of Practices  340 w Teaching Academic Registers  341
w Academic Competence: Psychological Factors  344 w Academic Competence: Sociocultural Factors  344 w Academic Competence Demanded to Perform Undergraduate-Level Academic Writing  344
w Academic Competence Demanded to Perform Graduate-Level Academic Writing  345 w Task Demands of Academic Writing in an MATESOL Program  346

14 Building a Community of Learners    348

What Is a Community of Learners?    348

The Classroom as a Community  349 w Forming a Learning Community  351 w Critical Perspectives on Community Involvement  351 w Listening to the Learner  352 w Not-So-Critical Perspectives on Community Involvement  354 w A Model for Community Involvement  355

Why Involve Families?    363

Changing Definitions of Family Involvement  364 w Recognizing Rights of Families  364 w Issues in Family Involvement  365
w Myths about Families and Other Communication Barriers  367
w Enhancing Home-School Communication  367 w Teacher-
Family Conferences  367 w How Families Can Assist in a Child’s Learning  369 w A Model of Home-School Relationships  370

Community Funds of Knowledge    370

Transformative School-Community Partnerships    374

Empowerment as a Goal  374 w Getting to Know the Community  374 w School Partnerships with Community-
Based Organizations  375 w Community Support for English Learners  375

The Idea of Community    376

15 Project-Based Learning and Service Learning    378

Why Projects?    378

Facing the Real World  378 w Characteristics of PBL  379
w Benefits of PBL  379 w Projects Are Collaborative  379
w The Teacher as Guide  380 w Skill Integration  381
w Design, Documentation, and Discourse  382
w Representation  382 w Thematic Projects in the Elementary School  384

Projects at Urban High Schools  384 w Community-Based Projects  385 w Project-Based Learning in EFL  385 w Projects in Intensive English Programs  385 w Projects in Teacher Education  386

Choosing a Project Topic    386

Mapping the Project  389 w Topics across Disciplines  390
w Envisioning Success  390

Project Focus and Development    391

Project Development  391 w The Planning Cycle  392 w Task Representation  393 w Example of the Desired Product  394
w Guided Implementation  395 w Self-Checking (Quality Control)  396 w Recommendation for Improvement  397

Project Documentation and Evaluation    397

Process Counts  397 w Student Presentation of Product  397
w Feedback and Reflection  398 w Planning for Assessment  398
w Conducting Project Assessment  399 w Criteria for Project Assessment  400

Why Service Learning?    402

Definitions  402 w Extent of Participation  403 w Components of Service Learning  404 w Benefits of Service Learning  405
w What Constitutes Good Service-Learning Pedagogy?  406 w Students Serving Others: Some Examples  406

Building Relationships with Service Agencies    406

Reciprocity  407 w Types of Service-Learning Opportunities  407
w Identification of Community Partners  407

Designing a Service-Learning Project    408

Determining the Learning Goal(s)  409 w Proposing Performance-Based Results  410

Monitoring and Evaluating Service Learning    411

The Reflective Component  411 w Assessing Performance-Based Results  413 w The Critical Component    415

Finding Out More about Service Learning    416

Appendix A  Influencing Language Policies to Benefit English Learners    417

Policy at the Classroom Level    417

Policy at the School Level    418

Involving Parents in Policy Making    419

Policy Decisions in Local School Districts    419

Professional Organizations and Service    420

Influencing Community Public Opinion    420

Influencing Legislation and Public Opinion    421

Influencing Federal Policies    421

The National Spirit    421

Appendix B  
English Learners and Special Education    423

Appendix C  
Bibliography of Works Used for Visual Imaginary Dramatic Arts    423

Bibliography    425

Author Index    457

Subject Index    464

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