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|I||Secondary Schools Today||1|
|1||A Changing Professional World||3|
|2||Students and Schools||28|
|3||Teachers' Diverse Roles||50|
|5||Content Selection and Organization||89|
|6||Preparing Units and Lessons||110|
|7||Responding to the Multicultural Classroom||143|
|8||Planning for Exceptional Students||164|
|III||Organizing the Learning Environment||188|
|9||Management and Discipline||191|
|10||Individualizing for Learning||217|
|11||Cooperative Learning in the Secondary Classroom||239|
|IV||Promoting and Assessing Learning and Thinking||262|
|12||The Elements of Effective Instruction||265|
|14||Promoting Higher Level Thinking||316|
|15||Measuring Student Progress||350|
|16||Legal Issues Affecting Students and Teachers||381|
|17||Evaluating Teachers' Performance||411|
|Appendix||The ABCD Format for Preparing Instructional Objectives||457|
History tells us that even bright people sometimes convince themselves that present assumptions are unerring and that those who would challenge them express views not meriting serious consideration. Look over some of these now-amusing predictions by people who were willing to go public with their own versions of unalloyed "truth."
These statements reflect the views of individuals who were imprisoned by learning rather than liberated by it. It was not the case that they failed to master what they were taught. Neither did their teachers fail to impart the best available wisdom. Instead, the culprit was a faulty assumption. These people mistakenly concluded that their teachers' interpretations appropriately explained reality for all time. They could not deal with a world in which confounding new information could successfully challenge tradition.
As you work with students, you need to encourage a perspective that inclines them to remain open to new ideas. If they leave your care convinced that education is a lifelong process of personal growth and development rather than something that is bounded by their experiences in the school, you will have done your job well. At the same time, you, too, need to guard against the luring appeals of the presently known and familiar. Times change. Patterns that make sense given your situation today may be ill-suited to meet demands you will confront later in your career. Build on your experiences, but don't be held hostage by your own educational history.
Students in both undergraduate and graduate courses have successfully used earlier editions of Teaching in the Secondary School. We have designed the book for introduction to secondary education classes, introduction to teaching classes, foundations of education classes, secondary curriculum classes, issues in education classes, and problems in education classes. In addition, much of the material will be useful to you as a reference once you begin your career as a secondary-school educator.
Part 1 is titled "The Setting Today." Chapter 1 illuminates many changes influencing secondary school teaching today. You will also have an opportunity to engage in a self-diagnostic activity related to some of your personal beliefs about teaching. Chapter 2 introduces material related to student diversity, development, and potential for alienation as well as content related to types of secondary schools and characteristics of those that are especially effective. Chapter 3 provides a sound overview of principles associated with reflective teaching. In Chapter 4 you will encounter material dealing with legal issues that concern both students and teachers.
Part 2, titled "Planning," features three chapters that include information you can use to plan instructional programs. Chapter 5 provides guidelines that are useful in selecting content. Chapter 6 includes a comprehensive discussion of practical approaches for matching instruction to special needs of students from varied cultural, linguistic, and ethnic backgrounds. Chapter 7 introduces practical approaches to planning both instructional units and lessons.
The title of Part 3 is "Instructing." Chapter 8 presents basic information relating to direct-instruction approaches. In Chapter 9 you will learn techniques for implementing various small-group and cooperative learning models. Chapter 10 features an emphasis on individualized instruction. Chapter 11 introduces ways to develop lessons that will promote students' higher-level thinking skills.
Part 4, "Assessing and Managing," includes two chapters. Chapter 12 introduces approaches to authentic instruction, as well as models for preparing a large number of formal and informal teacher-prepared assessment devices. Chapter 13 includes content that will help you discharge your important classroom management and discipline responsibilities.
Part 5, "Teachers' Performance and Growth," focuses on your career-long needs as an educator. Chapter 14, "Evaluating Teacher Performance," introduces specific approaches you can use to monitor your work in the classroom with a view to improving your instructional practices. Chapter 15 explains that your education as a teacher is a process that will continue throughout your years in the field. You will find material here that is useful for designing a long-term professional development plan.
The Instructor's Guide provides a variety of useful resources, including chapter overviews, teaching strategies, and ideas for classroom activities, discussions, and assessment. All supplements are available free of charge to instructors who adopt this text. To request an Instructor's Guide, contact a Prentice Hall representative or visit our website at http://www.merrilleducation.com. (If you do not know how to contact a Prentice Hall sales representative, please call faculty services at 1-800-526-0485 for assistance.)
The Prentice Hall Companion Website builds on and enhances what the textbook already offers. For this reason, the content for each user-friendly website is organized by topic and provides the professor and student with a variety of meaningful resources. The Companion Website includes features that benefit both instructors and students.
For the Professor
Every Companion Website integrates Syllabus Manager, an online syllabus creation and management utility.
For the Student
These Companion Website features include resources that enhance course content, along with interactive features that connect students with their peers and instructors:
To take advantage of these features and other resources, please visit the Companion Website for Teaching in the Secondary School: An Introduction, Fifth Edition, at www.prenhall.com/armstrong
Some outstanding professionals participated in the development of this fifth edition of Teaching in the Secondary School. We are pleased to acknowledge contributions of the following individuals who reviewed preliminary versions of the chapters: James L. Alouf, Sweet Briar College; Leigh Chiarelott, Bowling Green State University; Katherine R. Robinson, Southern University at New Orleans; Patricia M. Ryan, Otterbein College; and Betty R. Tutt, William Woods University. In addition, we particularly want to express our appreciation to Debbie Stollenwerk, our editor at Prentice Hall, for the careful attention she devoted to this project. Her well-reasoned suggestions contributed significantly to the substance of the final version of the manuscript. Finally, we extend a special "thank you" to our families for their unwavering support while we were working on this revision.