Table of Contents
1. Learning and Teaching Language Arts.
Questions about Learning and Teaching Language Arts.
The Language Arts.
Snapshot A Day in Avril Font’s Fourth-Grade Class.
Learning Language Arts.
An Active, Constructive Process.
A Social, Interactive Process.
A Transactional Process.
Teaching Language Arts.
A Student- and Response-Centered Classroom.
Scheduling and Grouping.
Literature, Resources, and Technology.
Integrated Teaching: “Ripple Effects” of Response-Themed Learning.
Ripple Effect Our Community and State.
Modeling Lessons for Initiating and Demonstrating.
Lesson Plan Modeling with an Initiating Lesson Using an Alphabet Book.
Answers to Questions about Learning and Teaching Language Arts.
2. Assessing Language Arts.
Questions about Assessing Language Arts.
Guidelines for Assessment.
Standardized Testing versus Authentic Assessment.
Snapshot Draft Books in Avril Font's First-Grade Class.
Assessment Toolbox 2.1 Writing Log.
Logs and Journals.
Assessment Toolbox 2.2 Double-Entry Literature Journal.
Anecdotal Records and Observations.
Checklists and Records
Inventories and Tests.
Assessment Toolbox 2.3 Writing Rubric.
Self-Assessment and Peer Assessment.
Assessment Toolbox 2.4 Self-Assessment Form for Group Work.
Assessment Toolbox 2.5 Peer-Assessment Form for Group Work.
Portfolios and Work Samples.
Planning and Progress Forms.
Teaching and Assessing Students with Disabilities and Other Special Needs.
Assessment Toolbox 2.6 Portfolio Analysis Form.
Teaching Students with Special Needs.
Assessing Students with Special Needs.
Snapshot An English Language Learner with Learning Disabilities in an Inclusive Classroom.
Assessment Toolbox 2.7 Classroom Activity Analysis Worksheet.
Adapting Language Learning.
Answers to Questions about Assessing Language Arts.
3. First- and Second-Language Development.
Questions about First- and Second-Language Development.
Snapshot Four Children Talking.
Social Interactionist Theory.
Language Structure and Systems.
Second-Language Acquisition Theories.
Assessment Toolbox 3.1 Stages of English Language Proficiency.
Lessons for English Language Learners: Providing a Context for Instruction.
Teaching Idea Teaching English and Mathematics to Spanish-Speaking Students.
Assessment Toolbox 3.2 Stages of English Language Proficiency for Jaqui’s Students.
Teaching and Assessing Vocabulary Development for First- and Second-Language Learners.
Teaching Idea Semantic Maps with Armenian-Speaking Students.
Lesson Plan Word Play and Literature.
Assessment Toolbox 3.3 Anecdotal Record Assessment (ARA).
Answers to Questions about First- and Second-Language Development.
4. Emergent Literacy and Biliteracy.
<B.Questions about Emergent Literacy and Biliteracy.
Snapshot Apples and the First Week of First Grade.
Ripple Effect Apples.
Assessment Toolbox 4.1 Concepts about Print.
Seven Ways to Begin Teaching Reading and Writing.
Assessment Toolbox 4.2 Concept of a Word.
Lesson Plan Read, Talk, Draw, Write.
Snapshot A Day in a Kindergarten Class.
Learning to Read and Write in Two Languages.
Snapshot The First Day of School for Spanish-Speaking Kindergartners.
Supporting Students Learning English as a Second Language.
Lesson Plan Read, Talk, Draw, Write Adapted for Spanish-Speaking Kindergartners.
Assessing Young Children.
Answers to Questions about Emergent Literacy and Biliteracy.
Assessment Toolbox 4.3 Systematic Sampling of Emergent Literacy.
5. Listening and Talking.
Questions about Listening and Talking.
Listening and Talking in the Classroom.
Listening: The Neglected Language Art.
Talking: The Suppressed Language Art.
Literacy and Listening and Talking.
Snapshot Teacher Talk and Student Talk about a Book and a Film at Halloween.
Teaching Listening and Talking.
Questions and Prompts.
Supporting English Language Learners in Instructional Conversations.
Listening and Media Centers.
Supporting English Language Learners, Struggling Readers and Writers, and Students with Disabilities in Cooperative Learning.
Interviews and Oral Histories.
Teaching Idea Model for an Oral History.
Drama in the Classroom.
Teaching Idea Reader’s Theater Script Prepared for Children.
Lesson Plan Creatures! Creative Drama and Listening, Talking, and Writing.
Teaching Idea Directed Listening Thinking Activity (DLTA) with Literature.
Teaching Idea Bringing the "Wild Things" to Life.
Snapshot English Language Learners Make Masks and Act Like “Wild Things.170>
Assessing Listening and Talking.
Supporting English Language Learners and Students with Disabilities in Drama.
Assessment Toolbox 5.1 Peer Evaluation of Listening and Talking.
Assessment Toolbox 5.2 Story Retelling Record.
Answers to Questions about Listening and Talking.
Questions about Reading.
Reading Is a Language Art.
Models of Reading.
The Linear Model.
The Interactive Model.
The Transactional Model.
A Balanced Approach.
Snapshot Shared Reading in a First-Grade Class of Struggling Readers.
Supporting Struggling Readers through Shared Reading.
Teaching Idea Guided Reading with The Very Hungry Caterpillar, by Eric Carle.
Writing to Read.
Snapshot Struggling Readers Write about Bart the Crow.
Word Study and Phonics.
Assessment Toolbox 6.1 Test of Phoneme Segmentation.
Teaching Idea Whole-to-Parts Phonics Instruction with “The Eensy, Weensy Spider.”
Student Independent Reading.
Snapshot Sustained Silent Reading in a First-Grade Class.
Answers to Questions about Reading.
Assessment Toolbox 6.2 Running Record.
7. Teaching with Literature.
Questions about Teaching with Literature.
Reader Response to Literature.
The Transactional Model.
Children’s Stance on an Aesthetic-to-Efferent Continuum.
Snapshot How to Find a Lost Mine and Other Treasures in Children’s Books.
Ripple Effect The Desert of the Southwest United States.
Response-Centered, Integrated Teaching with Literature.
Choosing Children's Books.
Genres of Children's Literature.
Teaching Idea Literature Circles with English Language Learners.
Assessment Toolbox 7.1 Literature Circle Plan and Progress Sheet.
Literature Focus Units.
Core Book Units.
Supporting English Language Learners, Students with Disabilities, and Struggling Readers and Writers through Literature Circles.
Snapshot Core Book Unit with Fourth-Graders.
Teaching Idea Author Unit on Eric Carle.
Teaching Idea Genre Unit on "Cinderella".
Assessing Teaching with Literature.
Assessment Toolbox 7.2 Literature Portfolio Organizer.
Answers to Questions about Teaching with Literature.
8. Multicultural Education and Children's Books.
Questions about Multicultural Education and Children's Books.
Approaches to Multicultural Education.
Integrating Multicultural Content.
Teaching Speakers of Nonmainstream English.
Supporting Speakers of Nonmainstream English.
Multicultural Children’s Books.
Literature Focus Units.
Lesson Plan Core Book Unit.
Ripple Effect The Pinkneys.
Snapshot “Somebody’s Lying”: Discovering the Truth about Columbus and the Taino People.
Questions about Multicultural Education and Children's Books.
9. The Writing Process.
Questions about the Writing Process.
What Children Do in the Writing Process.
Snapshot Writing Workshop in a Fourth-Grade Class of English Language Learners.
Assessment Toolbox 9.1 Writing Status Checklist.
Writing in English as a Second Language.
Supporting English Language Learners in the Writing Process.
Teaching and Assessing Writing as a Process.
Assessment Toolbox 9.2 Writing Record.
Assessment Toolbox 9.3 Writing Rubric.
A Literate Environment.
Assessment Toolbox 9.4 Peer-Editing Form.
Revising and Editing.
Assessment Toolbox 9.5 Self-Editing Checklist.
Assessment Toolbox 9.6 Self-Assessment Form for Student’s Portfolio Selection.
Answers to Questions about the Writing Process.
Questions about Spelling.
The English Writing System.
Snapshot A Child Learns to Spell.
Stages of Spelling Development.
Spelling and Literacy Development.
Supporting Struggling Students, Students with Disabilities, and English Language Learners in Spelling.
Spelling and Writing.
Snapshot Peer-Editing Group in Writing Workshop.
Spelling and Reading.
Assessing and Teaching Spelling in Grades K-8.
Kindergarten through Second Grade.
Assessment Toolbox 10.1 The Camel Test.
Assessment Toolbox 10.2 Writing Sample Analysis.
Second through Fourth Grade.
Assessment Toolbox 10.3 Developmental Spelling Inventory.
Lesson Plan Word Study of Homophones.
Fifth through Eighth Grade.
Answers to Questions about Spelling.
11. Grammar, Punctuation, and Handwriting.
Questions about Grammar, Punctuation, and Handwriting.
Types of Grammar.
Reasons for Teaching Traditional Grammar.
Snapshot Arguing about Grammar in Writing Workshop.
Grammar in Proper Perspective.
Teaching and Assessing Grammar.
Snapshot Revising and Editing in Writing Workshop.
Teaching Idea Content-Centered Sentence Combining.
Supporting Struggling Writers, Students with Disabilities, and English Language Learners in Learning Grammar.
Development of Punctuation Skills.
Teaching and Assessing Punctuation.
Development of Handwriting Skills.
Teaching and Assessing Handwriting.
Assessing Grammar, Punctuation, and Handwriting.
Answers to Questions about Grammar, Punctuation, and Handwriting.
Assessment Toolbox 11.1 Students’ Revising and Editing Checklist.
12. Viewing and Visually Representing.
Questions about Viewing and Visually Representing.
The New Language Arts.
Snapshot Introducing the Solar System to Third-Grade English Language Learners.
Ripple Effect The Solar System and Science Fiction.
Critical Viewing and Media Literacy.
Teaching Idea Examining Advertising Language.
Film and Video.
Teaching Idea Film Response Guide for The Tender Tale of Cinderella Penguin.
Assessing Media Literacy.
Assessment Toolbox 12.1 Student’s Media Critique Form.
The Visual Arts. Lesson Plan Self-Portraits and Poetry.
Snapshot Third- and Fourth-Grade Children Write and Perform an Original Play.
Adapting and Performing Dramatic Literature.
Teaching Idea Shakespeare for Children.
Snapshot A Schoolwide Renaissance Fair.
Assessing Drama Performance.
Assessment Toolbox 12.2 Drama Self-Assessment.
Answers to Questions about Viewing and Visually Representing.
13. Technology in the Classroom.
Questions about Technology in the Classroom.
Technology and the Language Arts.
The Writing Process.
Word Processing in Writing Workshop.
Snapshot Connecting Second-Grade Key Pals in the United States and China.
Teaching Idea Internet Scavenger Hunt.
Hypermedia. Snapshot Eighth-Grade Latino Students Use HyperStudio to Tell Autobiographical Heritage Stories.
Supporting English Language Learners by Using Computers.
Assessing Multimedia Projects.
Caveats on Technology in the Classroom.
Assessment Toolbox 13.1 Rubric for a HyperStudio Project.
Answers to Questions about Technology in the Classroom.
14. Language across the Curriculum.
Questions about Language across the Curriculum.
Understanding Language across the Curriculum.
Reading and Writing Both Aesthetically and Efferently.
Snapshot A Year-Long Theme of Colors across the Curriculum.
Ripple Effect Colors.
Language across the Curriculum for Students with Special Needs.
Supporting Struggling Readers and Writers, Students with Disabilities, and English Language Learners in Writing.
Snapshot Fifth-Grade English Language Learners Read and Write about Guts.
Biographies and Autobiographies.
Assessing Students' Understanding of Informational Texts.
Assessment Toolbox 14.1 Record for Retelling an Informational Text.
Ways for Students to Present Information.
Lesson Plan Integrated Teaching of Science and Language Arts.
Answers to Questions about Language across the Curriculum.
Index of Children’s Books, Films, and Software.