Teaching Science as Inquiry / Edition 10

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Overview

Research tells us that an inquiry approach to science teaching motivates and engages every type of student, helping students understand science's relevance to their lives as well as the nature of science itself. But is there a Manageable way for new and experienced teachers to bring inquiry into their science classrooms?

Teaching Science as Inquiry models this effective approach to science teaching with a two-part structure: Methods for Teaching Science as Inquiry and Activities for Teaching Science as Inquiry. The Methods portion scaffolds concepts and illustrates instructional models to help readers understand the inquiry approach to teaching. The Activities portion follows the 5-E model (Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, Evaluate), which is a Learning Cycle model introduced in the methods chapters that reflects the NSES Science as Inquiry Standards.

Integrating an inquiry approach, science content, teaching methods, standards, and a bank of inquiry activities, Teaching Science as Inquiry demonstrates the manageable way for new and experienced teachers to bring inquiry into the science classroom.

  • Integrated standards coverage in all chapters provides a clear picture of the best ways to let the NSES Standards inform instruction.
  • Each activity is keyed to the NSES Standards, further developing new and experienced teachers' fluency with a standards-based science classroom.
  • Margin notes throughout methods chapters link readers to activities that model science teaching methods and the development of science content.
  • Annenberg videos, fully integrated in the text through reflective cases, ground chapter concepts by illustrating inquiry teaching inclassrooms.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780131181656
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 4/28/2004
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 10
  • Pages: 688
  • Product dimensions: 7.84 (w) x 10.04 (h) x 0.98 (d)

Read an Excerpt

THE RAPID ADVANCE of cognitive teaming theories in the past few years has led educators to realize the need for students to be more actively engaged in their own construction of knowledge. This research tells us that an inquiry approach to science teaching motivates and engages every type of student, helping them understand science's relevance to their lives, as well as the nature of science itself.

Inquiry is both a way for scientists and students to investigate the world, and a way to teach. In this instructional environment, teachers act as facilitators of teaming, guiding students in asking simple but thoughtful questions about the world and finding ways to engage them in answering their questions.

Inquiry incorporates the use of hands-on and process-oriented activities for the benefit of knowledge construction, while building investigation skills and habits of mind in students. Inquiry encourages students to connect their prior knowledge to observations and to use their observations as evidence to increase personal scientific knowledge and explain how the world works.

But is there a manageable way for new and experienced teachers to bring inquiry into their science classrooms?

Drawing on a solid understanding of inquiry with a teaching framework that builds in accountability for science content learning, and using inquiry-based activities, teachers can create and manage an engaging, productive science classroom. By integrating an inquiry approach, science content, teaching methods, standards, and a bank of inquiry activities, the tenth edition of Teaching Science as Inquiry demonstrates a manageable way for new and experienced teachers to bringinquiry successfully into the science classroom. The Inquiry Framework

In this edition we have taken the National Science Education Standards (NSES) and the 5-E Learning Cycle model of instruction to create an inquiry framework for science teaching. Teaching Science as Inquiry models this effective approach to science teaching with a two-part structure. Part I: Methods for Teaching Science as Inquiry lays the foundation for teaching standards-based elementary science, scaffolding an understanding of an inquiry lesson model and how to use it to teach science.

Part 2: Activities for Teaching Science as Inquiry utilizes the 5-E instructional model, clarified in Part I of the text, as a framework for all inquiry activities. By keying each activity to the National Science Education Standards, the text further provides new and experienced teachers with a solid foundation for science teaching. National Science Education Standards

Many years of work and research in the science education community have provided a coherent, research-based vision for a new era of science education. As a result, the National Science Education Standards (NSES) were created to coordinate the goals and objectives for science instruction.

Throughout this edition, you will have an opportunity to become familiar with the National Science Education Standards through margin notes and lengthier features quoting from the Standards document, showing the Standards' relationship to chapter content and specifically connecting activities to the Standards. This integrated coverage in all chapters and activities highlights the importance of using the National Science Education Standards to inform instruction. 5-E Model

The Activities portion of the text follows the 5-E model of instruction, which frames each activity in terms of engaging, exploring, explaining, elaborating, and evaluating. This Learning Cycle model, introduced early in the text, reflects the NSES Science as Inquiry Standards, seamlessly integrating inquiry and the Standards to create a science teaching framework best suited for engaging students in meaningful science learning while providing accountability opportunities for teachers. Methods for Teaching Science as Inquiry

The Methods portion of this edition scaffolds the understanding of science concepts; investigation procedures; concepts of teaching, learning, and assessment; and the 5-E and other instructional models to help readers understand the inquiry approach to teaching. Among the many highlights of this revision, you will find

  • a strong focus throughout the book on the 5-E model of instruction;
  • a more comprehensive discussion of conceptual change and how to use conceptual change strategies within the 5-E model of instruction;
  • margin notes that link readers to activities that model standards-based inquiry and developmentally appropriate science content;
  • a reorganization of the chapter on assessment based on the new revision of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives;
  • more suggestions on how to construct and use performance assessments, and how to use traditional assessments in new ways;
  • an expanded, research-based focus on using hands-on, inquiry-oriented activities with learners who have special learning needs;
  • the presentation of exciting new advancements and trends in educational technology and how they apply to the science classroom;
  • clarification of various ideas important to inquiry, including aspects of the nature of science and constructivist principles of learning;
  • the addition of classroom scenarios to illustrate strategies of inquiry instruction and introduce readers to important science concepts; and
  • an expanded view of descriptive investigations, classificatory investigations, and experimental investigations, three main ways children can learn to investigate the world.
Video Case Studies

The process of observing and reflecting on teachers' actions, and on students' Teaming and thinking, can lead to changes in the knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and ultimately the practice of pre-service and in-service teachers.

Use classroom discussions about the Video Case Studies to

  • extend and apply knowledge presented in the chapters,
  • formulate questions and ideas,
  • learn from one another,
  • become aware of alternative perspectives and strategies,
  • reflect on real problems faced by practicing teachers, and
  • increase your science knowledge, as more than 30 science topics are taught in the case studies.

The Video Case Study features in the chapters focus on each teacher's growth over time and look specifically at the inquiry approach in each classroom. The features provide Questions for Reflection to help you and others increase your involvement with the Video Case Study and look for changes in the knowledge, beliefs, and instructional plans and approaches of the featured teacher. Also included in most of the chapter video guides are examples of strategies you may want to implement in your own science teaching practice. Activities for Teaching Science as Inquiry

A very significant change in the tenth edition is the complete revision of Part 2: Activities for Teaching Science as Inquiry. The activities have been reorganized to follow the NSES Content Standards, further developing new and experienced teachers' fluency with a Standards-based science classroom, and have been restructured to follow the 5-E instructional model, creating a manageable way to engage students in inquiry activities. Using Activities for Teaching Science as Inquiry

The Activities for Teaching Science as Inquiry

  • can be used to illustrate and expand on the science content, and model the 5-E lesson procedures, engaging students in constructivist inquiry;
  • provide a comprehensive view of how the NSES Science Content Standards can be used to organize curriculum and inform instruction in elementary and middle school science;
  • provide an interesting way for methods students to learn significant science content that will be important for them to know in teaching science;
  • provide a way for students to prepare for the science portion of state certification exams; and
  • become a bank of activities students can draw on in developing lesson plans to teach during their science methods courses and when they move into the schools as professional teachers.

Collectively, the changes made to this edition help to present a more coherent picture of teaching science as inquiry and practical methods for implementing an inquiry approach to science teaching and learning.

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Table of Contents

Methods for teaching science as inquiry 1
1 Children, science, and inquiry 4
2 Processes of science and scientific inquiry 36
3 Learning science with understanding 68
4 Teaching science through inquiry 98
5 Questioning strategies for inquiry teaching 126
6 Assessing science learning 154
7 Preparing for inquiry instruction 210
8 Connecting science with other subjects 244
9 Science for all learners 276
10 Educational technology and the science curriculum 308
Activities for teaching science as inquiry
I Teaching inquiry science activities
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Preface

Preface

THE NINTH EDITION of Teaching Science as Inquiry introduces prospective and experienced teachers to the science content, teaching strategies, and inquiry activities necessary to teach science in contemporary ways. In addition, the infusion of the National Science Education Standards in this edition will provide all readers a useful framework for making instructional decisions.

Although several approaches to teaching and learning science are described in this text, the main focus is on inquiry. Inquiry is both a way to teach and a way for students to investigate the world. Doing inquiry means asking simple but thoughtful questions about the world and engaging students to answer them. Inquiry incorporates the use of hands-on and process-oriented activities for the benefit of knowledge construction. Inquiry encourages students to connect their prior knowledge to observations and to use their observations as evidence to increase personal scientific knowledge. In this instructional environment, teachers act as facilitators of learning rather than "bankers" who have stored knowledge that they transfer into students' heads.

New to the Ninth Edition

Those of you familiar with the text will notice that it has a new title. Each preceding edition was entitled Teaching Science Through Discovery and walked readers through the process of guiding students toward the discovery of science knowledge. Guided discovery is a more programmed way of teacher-directed questioning. However, reform in science teaching reflects the movements of generalized educational reform. The rapid advance of cognitive learning theories in thepast few years has led educators to realize the need for students to be more actively engaged in their own construction of knowledge, but teachers must be prepared to "invent" concepts and principles for students to use. Inquiry learning and inquiry teaching go together, and are now echoed in the methodologies touted for instruction in all content-area learning. Thus, the revision of this text provides the knowledge and skills necessary to teach from an inquiry-oriented perspective.

Teaching Science as Inquiry mirrors national reform in another way as well. Educational reform has led to the development of common instructional goals for every content area of education throughout the nation. Prodigious efforts of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), the National Research Council, and other groups in the 1990s have provided a coherent vision and research-based framework for a new era of science education. As a result, the National Science Education Standards (NSES) were created to coordinate the goals and objectives for science instruction. The National Science Education Standards provide directives not only for the setting up of district-wide science programs but also for the science concepts that are to be covered at each grade level. These standards are not rigid but rather provide you, and the school system in which you teach, concrete guidelines for exposing students to science experiences throughout their schooling. Different from the hit-or-miss approach of the past, the science goals and objectives for elementary and middle schools are clear. Throughout this text, you will have an opportunity to become familiar with the National Science Education Standards as the text is woven around them. Look for citations to the National Research Council and the symbol NSES in passages within the text and in margin notes to find your responsibilities for using them in all aspects of science teaching and learning.

Other significant changes within this edition include:

  • A new chapter, Processes of Science and Scientific Inquiry, describes how to use the processes of science within the context of scientific inquiry.
  • More science activities and science lessons integrated into chapters act as exemplary models describing how to plan for instruction within the context of inquiry.
  • Practical suggestions for building learning communities are included throughout the text and describe cooperative grouping strategies and ideas for encouraging the exchange of ideas among students during inquiry experiences.
  • Connections between science, math, social studies, and language arts are explained extensively with new and exciting concrete ideas and strategies in Chapter 8.
  • Threaded throughout the text are references to the use o f the Companion Website and URLs that identify how to utilize technology and the Internet in science teaching. Chapter 10 groups together strategies for the use of advanced technology.
  • Instructional models for continuing professional development are illustrated in Video Case Studies. Nine elementary and middle school teachers reflect on their growth as science teachers as they teach their own classes, work with science mentors, and explore how they could teach science better. A different Video Case Study is featured in each chapter of the text.
  • A thorough review of the Activities portion of the text ensures its intent aligns with the National Science Education Standards and the inquiry approach.

The Video Case Studies

Because the Video Case Studies in this text are a unique feature, it is important to explain not only the predictable format for the use of these videos but also how to get the most out of using those case studies to advance your own learning.

The Value of Video Case Studies. In their practical guide Designing Professional Development for Teachers of Science and Mathematics, Susan Loucks-Horsley, Peter Hewson, Nancy Love, and Katherine Stiles (1998) identified the case study method as one of the most important strategies for professional development. The process of observing and reflecting on teachers' actions, and on students' learning and thinking, can lead to changes in the knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and ultimately the practice of pre-service and in-service teachers. You and your colleagues can use classroom discussions about the Video Case Studies to:

  • extend and apply knowledge presented in the chapters,
  • formulate questions and ideas,
  • learn from one another,
  • become aware of alternative perspectives and strategies,
  • reflect on real problems faced by practicing teachers, and
  • increase your science knowledge, as more than 30 science topics are taught in the case studies.

Videos by Annenberg. The Video Case Studies that accompany this text are free to professors who use this text and are part of the professional library developed by Annenberg. Chosen for their value in illustrating professional development, ten video cases depict nine different teachers in three videos from Annenberg's Case Studies in Science Education series. Each video case has three modules: An Introduction to the Case, Trying New Ideas, and Reflecting and Building on Change. The three parts of each video case enable you to look in on a teacher and his or her students at intervals throughout the school year. From one segment to the next, in each case you will see how the teacher undergoes professional changes in approaching science teaching. The changes reflect the real-life experiences of teachers who see a need to improve the way they teach, meet with a teaching mentor to gather ideas, and implement ways to improve their science teaching practice. As a result of this work, you will witness not only a teacher's growing confidence and capability in science teaching but also a growing involvement of students in their own science learning.

Chapter Video Guides. A video guide is found in each chapter. Within each two-page or four-page guide are Questions for Reflection to help you and others increase your involvement with the Video Case Study and look for changes in the knowledge, beliefs, and instructional plans and approaches of the featured teacher. Included in most of the chapter video guides are examples of strategies you may want to implement in your own science teaching practice.

For optimum benefit while watching the video segments, participants must have a "shared commitment to improving their teaching practice, a willingness to share and critically discuss aspects of practice and curiosity about important assumptions that underlie teaching and learning" (Loucks-Horsley et al., 1998, pp. 108-109). A knowledgeable and experienced facilitator can enhance the case discussions. The role of the facilitator is to help participants

  • understand the situation and issues in the case,
  • focus on the thinking of students in the video classrooms,
  • examine the approach taken by the teacher,
  • reflect on the theoretical foundation for the teacher's actions, and
  • consider alternative actions and their consequences (Loucks-Horsley et al., 1998).

Although these Video Case Studies are not intended to replace actual classroom visits, they can provide a more focused picture of specific aspects of teaching and learning than might be obtained from real-time observations of classes.

The Companion Website

A Companion Website designed for student and professor use accompanies this text. The Syllabus Manager allows professors the opportunity to place the class syllabus online. This enables students to also see a course calendar, chapter assignments, and course changes as they are posted. In addition, content information is organized as chapter-by-chapter features and provides you with study guide questions and self-assessment tests so you can check your own understanding of teaching science in an ongoing way. Links on the website navigation bar can transport you to

  • focus questions you can use as a study guide,
  • online quizzes that are self-pacing and self-evaluating, with scores emailed to professors if desired,
  • Web destinations and links to wonderful science resources on the Internet, and
  • a Message Board where you can engage in meaningful discourse about science teaching and learning issues with others taking the course.

Unique to this Companion Website are virtual classroom experiences linked to Chapters 2, 3, 4, and 8, set up as video essays. They provide an opportunity for you to see how well you understand the components of good science teaching. Videostreaming on the video essays illustrates the various teaching strategies of classroom teachers teaching properties of air in grade 1, balance beams in grade 4, and pendulums in grade 8. As you begin to understand the components of good science instruction you can visit the video essays on the Companion Website and test yourself on which strategies exemplify effective science teaching. You should also see opportunities for improving each science lesson. As you become more familiar with the rudiments of effective science instruction, you may choose to revisit these virtual sites and reassess your understanding of science teaching and learning.

Margin notes integrated in the text and designated with a ~~ logo will prompt you to visit the Companion Website to utilize its features in your course study.

Acknowledgments

To be meaningful, educational visions have to be practically implemented in teacher education and staff development programs, and most important, in our nation's classrooms. Our goal in writing and revising this textbook has been to present the new vision of science education and provide you with specific help, guidelines, and examples as you prepare to teach science in a new millennium.

The reviewers for the eighth edition of this text, as well as those who read and commented on the chapters in the ninth edition, have been very perceptive and insightful and have offered many comments and suggestions that, hopefully, have led to significant improvements. We acknowledge and express our gratitude to the following reviewers: Carol Brewer, The University of Montana; Rosemarie Kolstad, East Texas State University; Mark R. Malone, The University of Colorado; Richard H. Moyer, The University of Michigan-Dearborn; Michael Odell, The University of Idaho; William A. Rieck, The University of Southwestern Louisiana; Joseph D. Sharpe, Tennessee Technological University; Leone E. Snyder, Northwestern College; M. Dale Streigle, Iowa State University; and Dana L. Zeidler, The University of South Florida-Tampa.

We thank editor Linda Ashe Montgomery at Merrill Education who has provided substantive, as well as editorial, assistance throughout the writing and revision efforts. She has a great sensitivity to education issues, not only in science but in other specialized fields as well. We wish to acknowledge her contributions to this text and convey our appreciation to her.

We also wish to thank Kathy Deselle, copyeditor; Kate Nichols, designer; Mary Harlan, production editor; and Betsy Keefer, project coordinator.

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