Tectonofractography

Paperback (Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1991)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9783642761645
  • Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
  • Publication date: 7/31/2012
  • Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1991
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 354
  • Product dimensions: 6.14 (w) x 9.21 (h) x 0.78 (d)

Table of Contents

1 Introduction to Fracture.- 1.1 Basic Concepts of Elastic Fracture.- 1.1.1 The Stress Concentration Factor.- 1.1.2 The Griffith Energy-Balance Concept.- 1.1.3 Obreimoff’s Experiment.- 1.1.4 Fracture Mechanics.- 1.1.5 The Maximum—?? Criterion.- 1.1.6 Fracture in Compression.- 1.1.7 Experimental.- 1.2 Plastic Zones Ahead of the Crack.- 1.2.1 Introduction.- 1.2.2 Various Manifestations of the Plastic Zone.- 1.2.3 The Size of the Plastic Zone in Silicate Glasses.- 1.2.4 Plane Strain and Plane Stress.- 1.2.5 Secondary Cracks in the Plastic Zone.- 1.2.6 The Damage Zone.- 1.3 Atomistic Concepts of the Crack Tip.- 1.3.1 Thomson’s Three Prototypes.- 1.3.2 The LRT Atomistic Surface Force Model.- 1.3.3 The Dissociative Chemisorption Model.- 1.4 Kinetic Processes in Fracture.- 1.4.1 Subcritical Crack Growth.- 1.4.2 Failure Prediction.- 1.4.3 Supercritical Crack Velocities.- 1.4.4 Fracture Branching.- 1.5 Microstructural Aspects of Fracture in Polycrystalline (Grainy) Materials.- 1.5.1 General.- 1.5.2 Dependence of Mechanical Properties on Microstructure.- 1.5.3 Crack Shielding.- 1.5.4 Fracture in Concrete.- 1.5.5 Limitations and Deviations from Simple Microstructure-Strength Relationship.- 1.6 Fracture in Rocks.- 1.6.1 Joint Initiation Stage.- 1.6.2 Joint Propagation.- 1.6.3 Joint Arrest.- 2 Fractography in Technical Materials.- 2.1 Fracture Surface Morphology — Basic Geometry.- 2.1.1 Introduction.- 2.1.2 Fracture Categories.- 2.1.3 The Quantitative Mirror Plane.- 2.1.4 Crack Branching.- 2.2 Terminology.- 2.3 Applied Fractography.- 2.3.1 Fractography as a Tool of Fracture Diagnosis in Glass Bottles.- 2.3.2 The Fractography of Metal Failures.- 2.3.3 Fractography in Polymethylmethacrylate.- 3 Rock Fractography.- 3.1 Fracture Markings on Joint Surfaces.- 3.1.1 Early Studies.- 3.1.2 Plumes and Related Structures.- 3.1.3 Rib Markings.- 3.1.4 Combined Markings of Plumes and Ribs.- 3.1.5 Affinities of Specific Joint Markings to Certain Joint Directions.- 3.1.6 The Fringe.- 3.1.7 Discoid Radial and Ring Joints.- 3.1.8 Fracture Mechanisms.- 3.1.9 Fracture Markings in Thermally Deformed Rocks and in Granite.- 3.2 Induced Fracturing in Rocks.- 3.2.1 Controlled Laboratory Conditions.- 3.2.2 Fractography Induced by Coring.- 3.2.3 Markings Induced by Quarryin.- 4 Characterization and Classification of Fracture Surface Morphology in Geologic Formations.- 4.1 Qualitative Characterization of Fracture Surface Markings.- 4.1.1 Descriptive Parameters of Fracture Surface Markings.- 4.2 Quantitative Characterization of Fracture Surface Markings.- 4.2.1 Measureable Parameters of Fracture Surface Markings.- 4.3 Classification of Fracture Surface Markings.- 5 Tectonofractography.- 5.1 Application of Joint Surface Morphology in Tectonics.- 5.1.1 Assumptions.- 5.1.2 Problems Involved in the Transition from Material Science to Tectonophysics.- 5.2 Burial Jointing.- 5.2.1 Early Burial Joints in Lower Eocene Chalks Near Beer Sheva.- 5.2.2 Jointing in Middle Eocene Chalks South of Beer Sheva.- 5.2.3 Burial Joints and Syntectonic Joints in the Appalachian Plateau, U.S.A..- 5.2.4 Common Features of Burial Joints.- 5.3 Syntectonic Jointing.- 5.3.1 Syntectonic Jointing in Santonian Chalks, Israel.- 5.3.2 Upper Cretaceous Chalks in East France.- 5.3.3 Upper Cretaceous Chalks in South England.- 5.3.4 Upper Palaeozoic Fractures in Shales of the Appalachian Plateau, New York.- 5.3.5 Jointing in the Entrada Sandstone, Utah.- 5.3.6 Syntectonic Jointing in Association with Fault Termination.- 5.3.7 Syntectonic Joints Related to Unfolding.- 5.3.8 Syntectonic Discoidal Fracturing in Flint Clays.- 5.3.9 Characteristic Features of Syntectonic Joints.- 5.4 Uplift Jointing.- 5.4.1 Burial Joints and Uplift Joints in Lower Eocene Chalks Around Beer Sheva.- 5.4.2 Uplift Joints in Middle Eocene Chalks and Limestones from the Northern Negev (Southern Israel).- 5.4.3 Unloading and Release Joints from the Appalachian Plateau, U.S.A..- 5.4.4 Sequential Formation of Uplift Joints.- 5.4.5 Vertical Propagation of Uplift Joints.- 5.4.6 Orthogonal Joint Sets.- 5.4.7 Fracture Markings on Horizontal Surfaces.- 5.4.8 Common Features of Uplift Joints.- 5.5 Post Uplift Jointing.- 5.6 Comparison of Jointing During the Three Major Tectonic Phases: a Summary.- 5.6.1 Spatial Characters of the Joint Plane.- 5.6.2 Fracture Surface Markings.- 5.7 Propagation, Opening, Mineralization and Joint Intensity of the Various Joint Types.- 5.7.1 Propagation, Opening and Mineralization.- 5.7.2 Joint Intensity.- 5.8 Approximate Maximum Depths at Which Various Joint Types Develop.- 5.9 Fracture Interaction.- 5.9.1 Extents of Joint Interaction.- 5.9.2 Conditions of Joint Interaction.- 5.9.3 Interaction Mechanisms of Experimental Cracks and Faults.- 5.9.4 Extensional Branching of Faults.- References.
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