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From the review of the Third Edition:
"A must for anyone in volved in the practical aspects of the telecommunications industry."-CHOICE
* Outlines the expertise essential to the successful operation and design of every type of telecommunications networks in use today
* New edition is fully revised and expanded to present authoritative coverage of the important developments that have taken place since the previous edition was published
* Includes new chapters on hot topics such as cellular radio, asynchronous transfer mode, broadband technologies, and network management

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Editorial Reviews

The latest edition of the popular telecommunication technical text offering an interactive overview of all design concepts in voice, data, facsimile, telemetry, and video networks. Written for both students and practicing engineers, the authoritative volume succinctly explains the workings of conventional telephony, telephone networks, satellite communications, digital transmission systems, data networks and management, and TCP/IP and other related protocols. The revisions made in this new edition account for the most recent industrial technologies available. Includes illustrations and diagrams. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (
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Meet the Author

ROGER L. FREEMAN is founder and Principal of Roger Freeman Associates, independent consultants in telecommunications, specializing in system engineering in the United States, Canada, and Hispanic America. In the course of over forty-five years’ experience in telecommunications operations, maintenance, and engineering, he has served as principal engineer for advanced system planning at the Raytheon Company, technical manager for ITT Marine Europe, and regional planning expert for the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), among other positions. In addition to the three previous editions of Telecommunication System Engineering, Mr. Freeman has written six other books on the subject of telecommunications engineering: Reference Manual for Telecommunications Engineering, Third Edition; Fiber-Optic Systems for Telecommunications; Fundamentals of Telecommunications; Radio System Design for Telecommunications, Second Edition; Practical Data Communications, Second Edition; and Telecommunications Transmission Handbook, Fourth Edition, all published by Wiley. A senior life member of the IEEE, Roger Freeman has lectured at numerous professional conferences and published widely in international telecommunications journals.

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Telecommunication System Engineering

By Roger L. Freeman

John Wiley & Sons

Copyright © 2004 Roger L. Freeman
All right reserved.

ISBN: 0-471-45133-9

Chapter One



Telecommunication deals with the service of providing electrical communication at a distance. The service is supported by an industry that depends on a large body of increasingly specialized scientists, engineers, and craftspeople. The service may be private or open to public correspondence (i.e., access). Examples of the latter are government-owned telephone companies, often called administrations or private corporations, that sell their services publicly.

1.1 Telecommunication Networks

The public switched telecommunication network (PSTN) is immense. It consists of hundreds of smaller networks interconnected. There are "fixed" and "mobile" counterparts. They may or may not have common ownership. In certain areas of the world the wired and wireless portions of the network compete. One may also serve as a backup for the other upon failure. It is estimated that by 2005 there will be as many wireless telephones as wired telephones, about 5 × [10.sup.9] handsets worldwide of each variety.

These networks, whether mobile or fixed, have traditionally been based on speech operations. Meanwhile, another network type has lately gained great importance in the scheme ofthings. This is the enterprise network. Such a network supports the business enterprise. It can just as well support the government "enterprise" as a private business. Its most common configuration is a local area network (LAN) and is optimized for data communications, The enterprise network also has a long-distance counterpart, called a WAN or wide area network. The U.S. Department of Defense developed a special breed of WAN where the original concept was for resource sharing among U.S. and allied universities. Since its inception around 1987, it has taken on a very large life of its own, having been opened to the public worldwide. It is the internet. Its appeal is universal, serving its original intent as a resource-sharing medium extending way beyond the boundaries of universities and now including a universal messaging service called email (electronic mail).

Some may argue that telecommunications with all its possible facets is the world's largest business. We do not take sides on this issue. What we do wish to do is to impart to the reader a technical knowledge and appreciation of telecommunication networks from a system viewpoint. By system we mean how one discipline can interact with another to reach a certain end objective. If we do it right, that interaction will be synergistic and will work for us; if not, it may work against us in reaching our goal.

Therefore, a primary concern of this book is to describe the development of the PSTN and enterprise network and discuss why they are built the way they are and how they are evolving. The basic underpinning of the industry was telephone service. That has now changed. The greater portion of the traffic carried today is data traffic, and all traffic is in a digital format of one form or another. We include wireless/cellular and "broadband" as adjuncts of the PSTN.

Telecommunication engineering has traditionally been broken down into two basic segments: transmission and switching. This division was most apparent in conventional telephony. Transmission deals with the delivery of a quality electrical signal from point X to point Y . Let us say that switching connects X to Y, rather than to Z. When the first edition of this book was published, transmission and switching were two very distinct disciplines. Today, that distinction has disappeared, particularly in the enterprise network. As we proceed through the development of this text, we must deal with both disciplines and show in later chapters how the dividing line separating them has completely disappeared.


The common telephone as we know it today is a device connected to the outside world by a pair of wires. It consists of a handset and its cradle with a signaling device, consisting of either a dial or push buttons. The handset is made up of two electroacoustic transducers, the earpiece or receiver and the mouthpiece or transmitter. There is also a sidetone circuit that allows some of the transmitted energy to be fed back to the receiver.

The transmitter or mouthpiece converts acoustic energy into electric energy by means of a carbon granule transmitter. The transmitter requires a direct-current (dc) potential, usually on the order of 3-5 V, across its electrodes. We call this the talk battery, and in modern telephone systems it is supplied over the line (central battery) from the switching center and has been standardized at -48 V dc. Current from the battery flows through the carbon granules or grains when the telephone is lifted from its cradle or goes "off hook." When sound impinges on the diaphragm of the transmitter, variations of air pressure are transferred to the carbon, and the resistance of the electrical path through the carbon changes in proportion to the pressure. A pulsating direct current results.

The typical receiver consists of a diaphragm of magnetic material, often soft iron alloy, placed in a steady magnetic field supplied by a permanent magnet, and a varying magnetic field caused by voice currents flowing through the voice coils. Such voice currents are alternating (ac) in nature and originate at the farend telephone transmitter. These currents cause the magnetic field of the receiver to alternately increase and decrease, making the diaphragm move and respond to the variations. Thus an acoustic pressure wave is set up, more or less exactly reproducing the original sound wave from the distant telephone transmitter. The telephone receiver, as a converter of electrical energy to acoustic energy, has a comparatively low efficiency, on the order of 2-3%.

Sidetone is the sound of the talker's voice heard in his (or her) own receiver. Sidetone level must be controlled. When the level is high, the natural human reaction is for the talker to lower his or her voice. Thus by regulating sidetone, talker levels can be regulated. If too much sidetone is fed back to the receiver, the output level of the transmitter is reduced as a result of the talker lowering his or her voice, thereby reducing the level (voice volume) at the distant receiver and deteriorating performance.

To develop our discussion, let us connect two telephone handsets by a pair of wires, and at middistance between the handsets a battery is connected to provide that all-important talk battery. Such a connection is shown diagrammatically in Figure 1.1. Distance D is the overall separation of the two handsets and is the sum of distances [d.sub.1] and [d.sub.2]; [d.sub.1] and [d.sub.2] are the distances from each handset to the central battery supply. The exercise is to extend the distance D to determine limiting factors given a fixed battery voltage, say, 48 V dc. We find that there are two limiting factors to the extension of the wire pair between the handsets. These are the IR drop, limiting the voltage across the handset transmitter, and the attenuation. For 19-gauge wire, the limiting distance is about 30 km, depending on the efficiency of the handsets. If the limiting characteristic is attenuation and we desire to extend the pair farther, amplifiers could be used in the line. If the battery voltage is limiting, then the battery voltage could be increased. With the telephone system depicted in Figure 1.1, only two people can communicate. As soon as we add a third person, some difficulties begin to arise. The simplest approach would be to provide each person with two handsets. Thus party A would have one set to talk to B, another to talk to C, and so forth. Or the sets could be hooked up in parallel. Now suppose A wants to talk to C and doesn't wish to bother B. Then A must have some method of selectively alerting C. As stations are added to the system, the alerting problem becomes quite complex. Of course, the proper name for this selection and alerting is signaling. If we allow that the pair of wires through which current flows is a loop, we are dealing with loops. Let us also call the holder of a telephone station a subscriber. The loops connecting them are subscriber loops.

Let us now look at an eight-subscriber system, each subscriber connected directly to every other subscriber. This is shown in Figure 1.2. When we connect each and every station with every other one in the system, this is called a mesh connection, or sometimes full mesh. Without the use of amplifiers and with 19-gauge copper wire size, the limiting distance is 30 km. Thus any connecting segment of the octagon may be no greater than 30 km. The only way we can justify a mesh connection of subscribers economically is when each and every subscriber wishes to communicate with every other subscriber in the network for virtually the entire day (full period). As we know, however, most telephone subscribers do not use their telephones on a full-time basis. The telephone is used at what appear to be random intervals throughout the day. Furthermore, the ordinary subscriber or telephone user will normally talk to only one other subscriber at a time. He/she will not need to talk to all other subscribers simultaneously.

If more subscribers are added and the network is extended beyond about 30 km, it is obvious that transmission costs will spiral, because that is what we are dealing with exclusively here-transmission. We are connecting each and every subscriber together with wire transmission means, requiring many amplifiers and talk batteries. Thus it would seem wiser to share these facilities in some way and cut down on the transmission costs. We now discuss this when switch and switching enter the picture. Let us define a switch as a device that connects inlets to outlets. The inlet may be a calling subscriber line, and the outlet may be the line of a called subscriber. The techniques of switching and the switch as a concept are widely discussed later in this text. Switching devices and how they work are covered in Chapters 3 and 9. Consider Figure 1.3, which shows our subscribers connected in a star network with a switch at the center. All the switch really does in this case is to reduce the transmission cost outlay. Actually, this switch reduces the number of links between subscribers, which really is a form of concentration. Later in our discussion it becomes evident that switching is used to concentrate traffic, thus reducing the cost of transmission facilities.


Traffic is a term that quantifies usage. A subscriber uses the telephone when he/she wishes to talk to somebody. We can make the same statement for a telex (teleprinter service) subscriber or a data-service subscriber. But let us stay with the telephone.

A network is a means of connecting subscribers. We have seen two simple network configurations, the mesh and star connections, in Figures 1.2 and 1.3. When talking about networks, we often talk of sources and sinks. A call is initiated at a traffic source and received at a traffic sink. Nodal points or nodes in a network are the switches.


From our discussion we can say that a telephone network can be regarded as a systematic development of interconnecting transmission media arranged so that one telephone user can talk to any other within that network. The evolving layout of the network is primarily a function of economics. For example, subscribers share common transmission facilities; switches permit this sharing by concentration.

Consider a very simplified example. Two towns are separated by, say, 20 miles, and each town has 100 telephone subscribers. Logically, most of the telephone activity (the traffic) will be among the subscribers of the first town and among those of the second town. There will be some traffic, but considerably less, from one town to the other. In this example let each town have its own switch. With the fairly low traffic volume from one town to the other, perhaps only six lines would be required to interconnect the switch of the first town to that of the second. If no more than six people want to talk simultaneously between the two towns, a number as low as six can be selected. Economics has mandated that we install the minimum number of connecting telephone lines from the first town to the second to serve the calling needs between the two towns. The telephone lines connecting one telephone switch or exchange with another are called trunks in North America and junctions in Europe. The telephone lines connecting a subscriber to the switch or exchange that serves the subscriber are called lines, subscriber lines, or loops. Concentration is a line-to-trunk ratio. In the simple case above, it was 100 lines to six trunks (or junctions), or about a 16 : 1 ratio.

A telephone subscriber looking into the network is served by a local exchange. This means that the subscriber's telephone line is connected to the network via the local exchange or central office, in North American parlance. A local exchange has a serving area, which is the geographical area in which the exchange is located; all subscribers in that area are served by that exchange.

The term local area, as opposed to toll area, is that geographical area containing a number of local exchanges and inside which any subscriber can call any other subscriber without incurring tolls (extra charges for a call). Toll calls and long-distance calls are synonymous. For instance, a local call in North America, where telephones have detailed billing, shows up on the bill as a time-metered call or is covered by a flat monthly rate. Toll calls in North America appear as separate detailed entries on the telephone bill. This is not so in most European countries and in those countries following European practice. In these countries there is no detailed billing on direct-distance-dialed (subscriber-trunk-dialed) calls. All such subscriber-dialed calls, even international ones, are just metered, and the subscriber pays for the meter steps used per billing period, which is often one or two months. In European practice a long-distance call, a toll call if you will, is one involving the dialing of additional digits (e.g., more than six or seven digits).

Let us call a network a grouping of interworking telephone exchanges. As the discussion proceeds, the differences between local networks and national networks are shown. Two other types of network are also discussed.


Excerpted from Telecommunication System Engineering by Roger L. Freeman Copyright © 2004 by Roger L. Freeman. Excerpted by permission.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Table of Contents


Chapter 1: Basic Telephony.

1 Definition and Concept.

1.1 Telecommunication Networks.

2 The Simple Telephone Connection.

3 Sources and Sinks.

4 Telephone Networks: Introductory Terminology.

5 Essentials of Traffic Engineering.

5.1 Introduction and Terminology.

5.2 Measurement of Telephone Traffic.

5.3 Blockage, Lost Calls, and Grade of Service.

5.4 Availability.

5.5 “Handling” of Lost Calls.

5.6 Infinite and Finite Sources.

5.7 Probability-Distribution Curves.

5.8 Smooth, Rough, and Random Traffic.

6 Erlang and Poisson Traffic Formulas.

6.1 Alternative Traffic Formula Conventions.

6.2 Computer Programs for Traffic Calculations.

7 Waiting Systems (Queueing).

7.1 Server-Pool Traffic.

8 Dimensioning and Efficiency.

8.1 Alternative Routing.

8.2 Efficiency versus Circuit Group Size.

9 Bases of Network Configurations.

9.1 Introductory Concepts.

9.2 Higher-Order Star Network.

10 Variations in Traffic Flow.

11 One-Way and Both-Way (Two-Way) Circuits.

12 Quality of Service.

Chapter 2: Local Networks.

1 Introduction.

2 Subscriber Loop Design.

2.1 General.

2.2 Quality of a Telephone Speech Connection.

2.3 Subscriber Loop Design Techniques.

3 Current Loop Design Techniques Used in North America.

3.1 Previous Design Rules.

3.2 Current Loop Design Rules.

4 Size of an Exchange Area Based on Number of Subscribers Served.

5 Shape of a Serving Area.

6 Exchange Location.

7 Design of Local Area Analog Trunks (Junctions).

8 Voice-Frequency Repeaters.

9 Tandem Routing.

10 Dimensioning of Trunks.

11 Community of Interest.

Chapter 3 Switching in an Analog Environment.

1 Introduction.

1.1 Background and Approach.

1.2 Switching in the Telephone Network.

2 Numbering, One Basis of Switching.

3 Concentration and Expansion.

4 Basic Switching Functions.

5 Introductory Switching Concepts.

6 Electromechanical Switching.

7 Multiples and Links.

8 Definitions: Degeneration, Availability, and Grading.

8.1 Degeneration.

8.2 Availability.

8.3 Grading.

9 The Crossbar Switch.

10 System Control.

10.1 Introduction.

10.2 Interexchange Control Register.

10.3 Common Control (Hard-Wired).

11 Stored-Program Control.

11.1 Introduction.

11.2 Basic Functions of Stored-Program Control.

11.3 Evolutionary Stored Program Control and Distributed Processing.

12 Concentrators, Outside Plant Modules, Remote Switching, and Satellites.

13 Call Charging: European versus North American Approaches.

14 Transmission Factors in Switching.

14.1 Discussion.

15 Zero Test Level Point.

16 Numbering Concepts for Telephony.

16.1 Introduction.

16.2 Definitions.

16.3 Factors Affecting Numbering.

16.4 In-Dialing.

17 Telephone Traffic Measurement.

18 Dial-Service Observation.

Chapter 4: Signaling for Analog Telephone Networks.

1 Introduction.

2 Supervisory Signaling.

2.1 E and M Signaling.

3 AC Signaling.

3.1 General.

3.2 Low-Frequency AC Signaling Systems.

3.3 In-Band Signaling.

3.4 Out-of-Band Signaling.

4 Address Signaling: Introduction.

4.1 Two-Frequency Pulse Signaling.

4.2 Multifrequency Signaling.

5 Compelled Signaling.

6 Link-by-Link versus End-to-End Signaling.

7 The Effects of Numbering on Signaling.

8 Associated and Disassociated Channel Signaling.

9 Signaling in the Subscriber Loop.

9.1 Background and Purpose.

10 Metallic Trunk Signaling.

10.1 Basic Loop Signaling.

10.2 Reverse-Battery Signaling.

Chapter 5: Introduction to Transmission for Telephony.

1 Purpose and Scope.

2 The Three Basic Impairments to Voice Channel Transmission.

2.1 Attenuation Distortion.

2.2 Phase Distortion.

2.3 Noise.

2.4 Level.

2.5 Signal-to-Noise Ratio.

3 Two-Wire and Four-Wire Transmission.

3.1 Two-Wire Transmission.

3.2 Four-Wire Transmission.

3.3 Operation of a Hybrid.

3.4 Notes on the Digital Network in the Local Area.

4 Multiplexing.

4.1 Definition and Introduction.

4.2 Frequency Division Multiplex (FDM).

5 Shaping of a Voice Channel and its Meaning in Noise Measurement Units.

Chapter 6: Long-Distance Networks.

1 General.

2 The Design Problem.

3 Link Limitation.

4 International Network.

5 Exchange Location (Toll/Long-Distance Network).

5.1 Toll Areas.

6 Network Design Procedures.

7 Traffic Routing in the National Network.

7.1 Objective of Routing.

7.2 Network Topology.

7.3 Routing Scheme.

7.4 Route Selection.

7.5 Call Control Procedures.

7.6 Applications.

8 Transmission Factors in Long-Distance Telephony.

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 Definition of Echo and Singing.

8.3 Causes of Echo and Singing.

8.4 Transmission Design to Control Echo and Singing.

8.5 Introduction to Transmission-Loss Engineering.

8.6 Loss Plan for the Evolving Digital Networks (United States).

Chapter 7: The Design of Long-Distance Links.

1 Introduction.

2 The Bearer.

3 Introduction to Radio Transmission.

4 Design Essentials for Line-of-Sight Microwave Systems.

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Setting Performance Requirements.

4.3 Site Selection and Preparation of a Path Profile.

4.4 Path Analysis or Link Budget.

4.5 Running a Path/Site Survey.

4.6 System Test Prior to Cutover.

4.7 Fades, Fading, and Fade Margins.

4.8 Diversity and Hot-Standby Operation.

4.9 LOS Microwave Repeaters.

4.10 Frequency Planning and Frequency Assignment.

5 Satellite Communications.

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Application.

5.3 Definition.

5.4 The Satellite.

5.5 Three Basic Technical Problems.

5.6 Frequency Bands: Desirable and Available.

5.7 Multiple Access of a Satellite.

5.8 Earth Station Link Engineering.

5.9 Digital Communication by Satellite.

5.10 Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) Networks.

6 Fiber-Optic Communication Links.

6.1 Scope.

6.2 Introduction to Optical Fiber as a Transmission Medium.

6.3 Types of Optical Fiber.

6.4 Splices and Connectors.

6.5 Light Sources.

6.6 Light Detectors.

6.7 Optical Fiber Amplifiers.

6.8 Fiber-Optic Link Design.

6.9 Wavelength-Division Multiplexing (WDM).

Chapter 8: Digital Transmission Systems.

1 Digital versus Analog Transmission.

2 Basis of Pulse-Code Modulation.

3 Development of a Pulse-Code Modulation Signal.

3.1 Sampling.

3.2 Quantization.

3.3 Coding.

4 Pulse-Code Modulation System Operation.

5 Practical Applications.

5.1 General.

6 PCM Line Codes.

7 Regenerative Repeaters.

8 Signal-to-Gaussian-Noise Ratio on Pulse-Code Modulation Repeated Lines.

9 PCM System Enhancements.

9.1 North American DS1.

9.2 Enhancements to E1.

10 Higher-Order PCM Multiplex Systems.

10.1 Introduction.

10.2 Stuffing and Justification.

10.3 North American Higher-Level Multiplex.

10.4 The European E1 Digital Hierarchy.

11 Long-Distance PCM Transmission.

11.1 Transmission Limitations.

11.2 Jitter.

11.3 Distortion.

11.4 Thermal Noise.

11.5 Crosstalk.

11.6 Echo.

12 Digital Loop Carrier.

13 SONET and SDH.

13.1 Introduction.

13.2 SONET.

13.3 Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH).

14 Summary of Advantages and Disadvantages of Digital Transmission.

Chapter 9: Digital Switching and Networks.

1 Introduction.

1.1 Radical New Directions.

2 Advantages and Issues of PCM Switching When Compared to Its Analog Counterpart.

3 Approaches to PCM Switching.

3.1 General.

3.2 Time Switch.

3.3 Space Switch.

3.4 Time–Space–Time Switch.

3.5 Space–Time–Space Switch.

3.6 TST Compared to STS.

4 Digital Switching Concepts—Background.

4.1 Early Implementations.

4.2 Higher-Level Multiplex Structures Internal to a Digital Switch.

4.3 Remote Switching Capabilities.

4.4 Digital Cross-Connects.

4.5 A New Direction—Programmable Switching.

5 The Digital Network.

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Digital Extension to the Subscriber.

5.3 Change of Profile of Services.

5.4 Digital Transmission Network Models—ITU-T Organization (CCITT).

5.5 Digital Network Synchronization.

5.6 Digital Network Performance Requirements.

5.7 A-Law Conversion to µ-Law; Digital Loss.

Chapter 10: Introduction to Data Communications.

1 Overview.

2 The Bit.

3 Removing Ambiguity—Binary Convention.

4 Coding.

4.1 Introduction to Binary Coding Techniques.

4.2 Specific Binary Codes for Information Interchange.

5 Errors in Data Transmission.

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Throughput.

5.3 The Nature of Errors.

5.4 Error Detection and Error Correction.

5.5 Forward-Acting Error Correction (FEC).

5.6 Error Correction with Feedback Channel.

6 The DC Nature of Data Transmission.

6.1 Loops.

6.2 Neutral and Polar DC Transmission Systems.

7 Binary Transmission and the Concept of Time.

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Asynchronous and Synchronous Transmission.

7.3 Timing.

7.4 Distortion.

7.5 Bits, Bauds, and Symbols.

7.6 Digital Data Waveforms.

8 Data Interface—The Physical Layer.

8.1 TIA/EIA-644 Low-Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS).

9 Digital Transmission on an Analog Channel.

9.1 Introduction.

9.2 Modulation–Demodulation Schemes.

9.3 Critical Parameters.

9.4 Channel Capacity.

9.5 Equalization.

9.6 Data Transmission on the Digital Network.

Chapter 11: Data Networks and their Operation.

1 Introduction.

1.1 Applications.

2 Initial Design Considerations.

2.1 General.

2.2 Data Terminals, Workstations, PCs, and Servers.

3 Network Topologies and Configurations.

4 Overview of Data Switching.

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Traffic Engineering—A Modified Meaning.

4.3 Packet Networks and Packet Switching.

4.4 Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP).

5 Circuit Optimization.

5.1 Throughput from Another Perspective.

5.2 Cost-Effective Options to Meet “Throughput” Requirements.

6 Data Network Operation.

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Protocols.

6.3 X.25: A Packet-Switched Network Access Standard.

7 TCP/IP and Related Protocols.

7.1 Background and Scope.

7.2 TCP/IP and Data-Link Layers.

7.3 The IP Routing Function.

7.4 The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).

7.5 Brief Overview of Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPV6).

8 Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS).

8.1 Overview.

8.2 Acronyms and Definitions.

8.3 MPLS Description.

8.4 Notes on FEC.

9 Virtual Private Networks (VPNs).

9.1 Why VPNs?

9.2 Two Major Requirements.

9.3 Specialized VPN Internet Protocols.

9.4 Principal Components of a VPN Based on the Internet.

Chapter 12: Voice-Over IP.

1 Data Transmission Versus Conventional Telephony.

2 Drawbacks and Challenges for Transmitting Voice on Data Packets.

3 VoIP, Introductory Technical Description.

3.1 VoIP Gateway.

3.2 An IP Packet as Used for VoIP.

3.3 The Delay Trade-off.

3.4 Lost Packet Rate.

3.5 Echo and Echo Control.

4 Media Gateway Controller and its Protocols.

4.1 Overview of the ITU-T Rec. H.323 Standard.

4.2 Session Initiation Protocol (SIP).

4.3 Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP).

4.4 Megaco or ITU-T Rec. H.248 [13].

Chapter 13: Local Area Networks.

1 Definition and Applications.

2 LAN Topologies.

3 The Two Broad Categories of LAN Transmission Techniques.

3.1 Broadband Transmission Considerations.

3.2 Fiber-Optic LANs.

4 Overview of IEEE/ANSI LAN Protocols.

4.1 General.

4.2 How LAN Protocols Relate to OSI.

4.3 Logical Link Control (LLC).

5 LAN Access Protocols.

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Background: Contention and Polling.

5.3 CSMA and CSMA/CD Access Techniques.

5.4 Token Bus.

5.5 Token Ring.

5.6 Fiber Distributed Data Interface.

5.7 LAN Performance.

5.8 LAN Internetworking via Spanning Devices.

5.9 Switching Hubs.

6 Wireless LANs (WLANs).

6.1 The Different 802.11 Standards Issued as of March 2002.

Chapter 14: Integrated Services Digital Networks.

1 Background and Goals of Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN).

2 ISDN Structures.

2.1 ISDN User Channels.

2.2 Basic and Primary User Interfaces.

3 User Access and Interface.

3.1 General.

4 ISDN Protocols and Protocol Issues.

5 ISDN Networks.

6 ISDN Protocol Structures.

6.1 ISDN and OSI.

6.2 Layer 1 Interface, Basic Rate.

6.3 Layer 1 Interface, Primary Rate.

7 Layer 2 Interface: Link Access Procedure for the D-Channel.

7.1 Layer 2 Frame Structure for Peer-to-Peer Communication.

7.2 LAPD Primitives.

8 Overview of Layer 3.

8.1 Layer 3 Specification.

Chapter 15: Speeding Things Up with Frame Relay.

1 Introduction.

2 How Can the Network Be Speeded Up?

2.1 Background and Rationale.

2.2 The Genesis of Frame Relay.

2.3 Introduction to Frame Relay.

2.4 The Frame Structure.

2.5 DL-CORE Parameters (As Defined by ANSI).

2.6 Procedures.

2.7 Traffic and Billing on Frame Relay.

2.8 Congestion Control.

2.9 Policing a Frame Relay Network.

2.10 Quality of Service Parameters.

3 Frame Relay Standards.

3.1 ANSI T1.618.

3.2 ANSI T1.617.


3.4 Manufacturers’ LMI.

3.5 Frame Relay NNI PVC.

3.6 FRF.3.

3.7 FRF.4 UNI SVC.

3.8 FRF.10 NNI SVC.

3.9 FRF.11.

3.10 Frame Relay Fragmentation Implementation Agreement, FRF.12.

3.11 Timeplex (BRE2).

3.12 Cascade.

3.13 LAPF.

3.14 Multiprotocol over Frame Relay (Based on RFC 1490 and RFC 2427).

Chapter 16: The Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) and Broadband ISDN.

1 Where are We Going?

2 Introduction to ATM.

3 User–Network Interface (UNI) Configuration and Architecture.

4 The ATM Cell—Key to Operation.

4.1 ATM Cell Structure.

4.2 Idle Cells.

5 Cell Delineation and Scrambling.

5.1 Delineation and Scrambling Objectives.

5.2 Cell Delineation Algorithm.

6 ATM Layering and B-ISDN.

6.1 Functions of Individual ATM/B-ISDN Layers.

7 Services: Connection-Oriented and Connectionless.

7.1 Functional Architecture.

7.2 CLNAP Protocol Data Unit (PDU) and Encoding.

7.3 ATM Classes of Service.

8 Aspects of a B-ISDN/ATM Network.

8.1 ATM Routing and Switching.

9 Signaling Requirements.

9.1 Setup and Release of VCCs.

9.2 Signaling Virtual Channels.

9.3 Meta-Signaling.

10 Quality of Service (QoS).

10.1 ATM Service Quality Review.

10.2 QoS Parameter Descriptions.

11 Traffic Control and Congestion Control.

11.1 Generic Functions.

11.2 Events, Actions, Time Scales, and Response.

11.3 Quality of Service, Network Performance, and Cell Loss Priority.

11.4 Traffic Descriptors and Parameters.

11.5 User–Network Traffic Contract.

12 Transporting ATM Cells.

12.1 In the DS3 Frame.

12.2 DS1 Mapping.

12.3 E1 Mapping.

12.4 Mapping ATM Cells into SDH.

12.5 Mapping ATM Cells into SONET.

Chapter 17: CCITT Signaling System No. 7.

1 Introduction.

2 Overview of SS No. 7 Architecture.

3 SS No. 7 Relationship to OSI.

4 Signaling System Structure.

4.1 Signaling Network Management.

5 The Signaling Data Link (Layer 1).

6 The Signaling Link (Level 2).

6.1 Basic Signal Unit Format.

7 Signaling Network Functions and Messages (Layer 3).

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Signaling Message-Handling Functions.

7.3 Signaling Network Management.

8 Signaling Network Structure.

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 International and National Signaling Networks.

9 Signaling Performance—Message Transfer Part.

9.1 Basic Performance Parameters.

9.2 Traffic Characteristics.

9.3 Transmission Parameters.

9.4 Signaling Link Delays over Terrestrial and Satellite Links.

10 Numbering Plan for International Signaling Point Codes.

11 Hypothetical Signaling Reference Connections.

12 Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP).

12.1 Introduction.

12.2 Services Provided by the SCCP.

12.3 Peer-to-Peer Communication.

12.4 Primitives and Parameters.

12.5 Connection-Oriented Functions: Temporary Signaling Connections.

12.6 SCCP Formats and Codes.

13 User Parts.

13.1 Introduction.

13.2 Telephone User Part (TUP).

13.3 ISDN User Part (ISUP).

14 SS7 Signaling Data Connectivity over the Internet.

14.1 New IP Transport Protocol.

14.2 Stream Control Transport Protocol (SCTP).

14.3 Message Format of SCTP.

Chapter 18: Wireless and Cellular/Mobile Radio.

1 Introduction.

1.1 Background.

1.2 Scope and Objective.

2 Basic Concepts of Cellular Radio.

3 Personal Communication Systems.

3.1 Defining Personal Communications.

4 Radio Propagation in the Mobile/PCS Environment.

4.1 The Propagation Problem.

4.2 Several Propagation Models.

4.3 Microcell Prediction Model According to Lee.

5 Impairments—Fading in the Mobile Environment.

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Classification of Fading.

5.3 Diversity—A Technique to Mitigate the Effects of Fading and Dispersion.

5.4 Cellular Radio Path Calculations.

6 The Cellular Radio Bandwidth Dilemma.

6.1 Background and Objectives.

6.2 Bit Rate Reduction of the Digital Voice Channel.

7 Network Access Methods.

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA).

7.3 Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA).

7.4 Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA).

8 Frequency Reuse.

9 Paging Systems.

9.1 What Are Paging Systems?

9.2 Radio-Frequency Bands for Pagers.

9.3 Radio Propagation into Buildings.

9.4 Techniques Available for Multiple Transmitter Zones.

9.5 Paging Receivers.

9.6 System Capacity.

9.7 Codes and Formats for Paging Systems.

9.8 Considerations for Selecting Codes and Formats.

10 Mobile Satellite Communications.

10.1 Background and Scope.

10.2 How MSS Operates.

10.3 Safety Systems Associated with Mobile Platforms.

10.4 Operational or Near-Term Planned MSS Systems.

10.5 Advantages and Disadvantages of a Low Earth Orbit.

11 1G, 2G, 2-1/2G, And 3G, That Is the Question.

11.1 Second Generation (2G).

11.2 Evolution from 2G to 3G.

12 Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS).

12.1 Introduction.

12.2 Architecture of a UMTS Network.

12.3 Changes and Requirements for UMTS Phase 1.

12.4 UMTS Network Elements.

13 Wireless Access Protocol (WAP).

13.1 Wireless Markup Language (WML) and WAP Proxy.

13.2 Stability Issues.

Chapter 19: Last-Mile Broadband Connectivity and Wireless Local Loop (WLL).

1 Background and Chapter Objective.

2 Conventional Wire Pair in the Last Mile.

3 Wire Pair Equipped with DSL Modems.

3.1 Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL).

3.2 High-Bit-Rate Digital Subscriber Line (HDSL).

3.3 Rate-Adaptive DSL (RADSL).

3.4 Very High Rate DSL (VDSL).

3.5 The DSLAM (Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer).

4 Digital Loop Carrier (DLC).

5 Broadband Microwave/Millimeter Wave Last-Mile Transmission.

5.1 Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service (MMDS).

5.2 Local Multipoint Distribution System (LMDS).

6 CATV as a Basic Transport Medium for the Last Mile.

Chapter 20: Optical Networking.

1 Background and Chapter Objective.

2 New Optical Technologies Required.

2.1 Derived Technology Applications.

3 Distributed Switching.

4 Overlay Networks.

4.1 Two-Layer Networks are Emerging.

5 Optical Switching.

5.1 MEMS Switching.

6 A Practical Optical Add–Drop Multiplexer.

6.1 OXCs and OADMs Enhance Availability and Survivability.

7 Improvements in the Management of the New Network Architecture.

8 All-Optical Cross-Connects.

9 Options for Optical Layer Signaling.

10 Four Classes of Optical Networks.

10.1 Generic Networks.

11 Optical Bidirectional Line-Switched Rings.

12 Overview of Generalized Multiprotocol Label Switching (GMPLS).

12.1 Introduction.

12.2 Selected GMPLS Terminology.

12.3 The GMPLS Protocol Suite.

12.4 GMPLS Switching Based on Diverse Formats.

12.5 Bundling Links.

13 Standardization of Optical Control Plane Protocols.

13.1 GMPLS and ASON Differ.

13.2 Hierarchical Routing in Optical Networks.

14 Summary.

Chapter 21: Network Management.

1 What is Network Management?

2 The Bigger Picture.

3 Traditional Breakout by Tasks.

3.1 Fault Management.

3.2 Configuration Management.

3.3 Performance Management.

3.4 Security Management.

3.5 Accounting Management.

4 Survivability—Where Network Management Really Pays.

4.1 Survivability Enhancement—Rapid Troubleshooting.

5 System Depth—a Network Management Problem.

5.1 Aids in Network Management Provisioning.

5.2 Communications Channels for the Network Management System.

6 Network Management from a PSTN Perspective.

6.1 Objectives and Functions.

6.2 Network Traffic Management Center.

6.3 Network Traffic Management Principles.

6.4 Network Traffic Management Functions.

6.5 Network Traffic Management Controls.

7 Network Management Systems in Enterprise Networks.

7.1 What are Network Management Systems?

7.2 Introduction to Network Management Protocols.

7.3 Remote Monitoring (RMON).

7.4 SNMP Version 2.

7.5 SNMP Version 3.

7.6 Common Management Information Protocol (CMIP).

8 Telecommunication Management Network (TMN).

9 Network Management in ATM.

9.1 Interim Local Management Interface (ILMI) Functions.

9.2 ILMI Service Interface.

Appendix 1: Acronyms and Abbreviations.


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