Telecommunications Demystified [NOOK Book]

Overview

Carl R. Nassar, Ph.D., is professor of telecommunications at Colorado State University and director of the Research in Advanced Wireless Communications (RAWCom) laboratory there. He also consults for telecommunications firms and publishes extensively in the wireless literature.

Balances a solid theoretical treatment of subjects with practical applications and examples.
...
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Telecommunications Demystified

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Overview

Carl R. Nassar, Ph.D., is professor of telecommunications at Colorado State University and director of the Research in Advanced Wireless Communications (RAWCom) laboratory there. He also consults for telecommunications firms and publishes extensively in the wireless literature.

Balances a solid theoretical treatment of subjects with practical applications and examples.
Covers both digital and analogue telecommunications systems, including digital modulation techniques.
The CD accompanying the book includes MATLABĀ® tutorials that permit readers to model various telecommunications systems and an electronic version of the book

Audience: Professional engineers who need a quick introduction to the latest developments in telecommunications theory as well as engineering students.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"Professor Nassar has an uncanny ability to demystify the complexities of telecommunications systems engineering." Dale N. Hatfield, former chief, Office of Engineering and Technology, Federal Communications Commission

Book Provides a Worthy Telecomm Course:
Continuing its Demystifying Technology series, LLH Technology Publishing's Telecommunications Demystified by Carl R. Nassar provides a wide-ranging tutorial on theory and practical issues using the requisite math and equations. This book does not provide primarily a circuit-design or even a system-level, block-diagram treatment; instead, it seeks to explain the underlying principles, problems, techniques, and constraints of standard telecommunication functions. The book covers networks, source coding/decoding, modulators and demodulators, channel coding and decoding, trellis-coded modulation, filtering and equalizers, signal detection and estimation, and error detection and correction, among other topics.

I won't mislead you and say this book is an easy read or a quick read. If you plan to get the most out of it, you need to pay attention and follow the equations and derivations, which include integrals, differentials, matrices, and more. Fortunately, the author clearly explains the transitions from one equation to the next without those fear-inducing phrases, such as "we can see," "the derivation is left as an exercise to the reader," and "it can be shown." If you want to increase your understanding of the issues and answers in digital-communications systems and some analog systems, this book should help. It also includes a CD-ROM with a searchable version of the book and tutorials that support topics in the text.
--EDN Magazine

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780080518671
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science
  • Publication date: 10/22/2013
  • Sold by: Barnes & Noble
  • Format: eBook
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 376
  • File size: 9 MB

Meet the Author

Carl R. Nassar, Ph.D., is an engineering professor at Colorado State University, teaching telecommunications in his trademark entertaining style. He is also the director of the RAWCom (Research in Advanced Wireless Communications) Laboratory, where he and his graduate students carry out research to advance the art and science of wireless telecommunications. In addition, he is the founder of the Miracle Center, an organization fostering personal growth for individuals and corporations. Since Carl&#39:s undergraduate and graduate school days at McGill University, he has dreamed of creating a plain-English engineering text with "personality." This book is that dream realized.
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Read an Excerpt

Introducing Telecommunications

I can still recall sitting in my first class on telecommunications as an undergrad-the teacher going off into a world of technical detail and I in my chair wondering, "What is this stuff called communications and telecommunications?" So, first, some simple definitions and examples-the big picture.

1.1 Communication Systems

1.1.1 Definition

A communication system is, simply, any system in which information is transmitted from one physical location-let's call it A-to a second physical location, which we'll , call B. I've shown this in Figure 1.1. A simple example of a communication system is one person talking to another person at lunch. Another simple example is one person talking to a second person over the telephone...

The Transmitter

The transmitter, in this case, is made up of parts of Gretchen, namely her vocal cords, windpipe, and mouth. When Gretchen wants to talk, her brain tells her vocal cords (found in her windpipe) to vibrate at between 100 Hz and 10,000 Hz, depending on the sound she's trying to make. (Isn't it cool that, every time you talk, a part of you is shaking at between 100 and 10,000 times per second?) Once Gretchen's vocal cords begin to vibrate, here are the three things that happen next:

(1) the vibrations of her vocal cords cause vibrations in the air in her windpipe;

(2) these vibrations in the air move up her windpipe to her mouth; and

(3) as the vibrating air moves out through Gretchen's mouth, the shape of her mouth and lips, and the position of her tongue, work together to create the intended sound.

The Channel

In our example, the channel is simply the air between Gretchen and Carl. The shaped vibrations that leave Gretchen's mouth cause vibrations in the air, and these vibrations move through the air from Gretchen to Carl.

The Receiver

The receiver in this case is Carl's eardrum and brain. The vibrations in the air hit Carl's eardrum, causing it to vibrate in the same way. Carl's shaking eardrum sends electrical signals to his brain, which interprets the shaking as spoken sound.

The human eardrum can actually pick up vibrations between 50 Hz and 16,500 Hz, allowing us to hear sounds beyond the range of what we can speak, including a variety of musical sounds.

1.2 Telecommunication Systems

A telecommunication system is two things: (1) a communication system-that is, a system in which information is transmitted from one physical location, A, to a second physical location, B; and (2) a system which allows this information to be sent beyond the range of usual vocal or visual communications. Gretchen and Carl's lunchtime chat would not qualify as a telecommunication system, but the telephone system which they used later for an afternoon talk does qualify.

1.2.2 Four Examples and an Erratic History Lesson

Here are four examples of telecommunication systems, ordered chronologically to create what we'll optimistically call "a brief history of telecommunications."

Smoking Up In the B.C.'s, smoke signals were sent out using fire and some smoke signal equipment (such as a blanket). The smoke, carried upward by the air, was seen by people far (but not too far) away, who then interpreted this smoke to have some meaning. It is said that a fellow named Polybius (a Greek historian) came up with a system of alphabetical smoke signals in the 100s B.C., but there are no known recorded codes.

Wild Horses Until the 1850s in the U.S., the fastest way to send a message from one's home to someone else's home was by Pony Express. Here, you wrote what you wanted to say (the transmitter), gave the writing to a Pony Express man, who then hopped on his horse and rode to the destination (the channel), where the message would be read by the intended person (the receiver).

Telegraph In 1844, a fellow named Samuel Morse built a device he called the telegraph, the beginning of the end of the Pony Express. The transmitter consisted of a person and a sending key, which when pressed by the person, created a flow of electricity. This key had three states: "Oft' which meant the key was not pressed; "Dot," which meant the key was pressed for.a short time and then released; and "Dash," which meant the key was pressed for a longer time and then released. Each letter of the alphabet was represented by a particular sequence of dots and dashes. To keep the time to send a message short, the most commonly used letters in the alphabet were represented by the fewest possible dots or dashes; for example, the commonly used "t" was represented by a single dash, and the much- loved "e" was represented by a single dot. This system of representing letters is the well-known Morse code. The channel was an iron wire. The electricity created by the person and the sending key (the transmitter) was sent along this wire to the receiver, which consisted of an audiospeaker and a person. When the electricity entered the audio-speaker from the iron wire, it made a beeping sound. A "Dot" sounded like a short beep, and a "Dash" sounded like a longer beep. The person, upon hearing these beeps, would then decode the letters that had been sent The overall system could send about two letters a second, or 120 letters a minute. The first words sent over the telegraph, by inventor Morse himself, were "What has God wrought!" (I have since wondered what Morse, who basically invented a simple dot dash sending system, would have said about, oh, say, a nuclear bomb.)

The Telephone The telephone was invented in 1876 by Alexander Graham Bell, whose first words on the phone were, "Mr. Watson, come at once, I need you." Alex had just spilled battery acid down his pants and, as you can imagine, was in quite urgent need of his assistant's help. Figure 1.4 shows an illustration of two people, who we'll call Carl and Monica, using the telephone. What follows is a wordy description of how the telephone works. Refer to Figure 1.4 to help you with the terms.

The transmitter consists of Monica (who is talking) and the transmitting (bottom) end of the telephone. Monica speaks, and her vocal cords vibrate. This causes vibrations in the air, which travel through and out her mouth, and then travel to the bottom end of the telephone. Inside the bottom end of the telephone is a diaphragm. When the vibrations of the air arrive at this diaphragm, it, like an eardrum, begins to vibrate. Directly behind the diaphragm are a bunch of carbon granules. These granules are part of an electrical circuit, which consists of a 4-V source, copper wire, and the carbon granules. The carbon granules act as a resistor (with variable resistance) in the circuit. When the diaphragm is pushed back by the vibrating air, it causes the carbon granules (right behind it) to mush together. In this case, the granules act like a low-resistance resistor in the circuit. Hence, the current flowing though the electric circuit is high (using the well-known Y = R - I rule). When the diaphragm is popped out by the vibrating air, it causes the carbon granules (right behind it) to separate out. In this case, those carbon granules are acting like a high-resistance resistor in the electrical circuit. Hence, the current flowing though the circuit is low.

Overall, vibrations in the diaphragm (its "pushing back" and "popping out") cause the same vibrations (frequencies) to appear in the current of the electrical circuit (via , those carbon granules).

The channel is a copper wire. The vibrating current generated by the transmitter , is carried along this wire to the receiver.

The receiver consists of two parts: the receiving (top) part of the telephone, and Carl's ear. The current, sent along the copper wire, arrives at the top end of the telephone. Inside this top end is a device called an electromagnet and right next to that is a diaphragm. The current, containing all of Monica's talking frequencies, enters into the electromagnet. This electromagnet causes the diaphragm to vibrate with all of Monica's talking frequencies. The vibrating diaphragm causes vibrations in the air, and these vibrations travel to Carl's ear. His eardrum vibrates, and these vibrations cause electrical signals to be sent to his brain, which interprets this as Monica's sound.

1.3 Analog and Digital Communication Systems

The last part of this chapter is dedicated to explaining what is meant by analog and digital communication systems, and then explaining why digital communication systems are the way of the future.

1.3.1 Some Introductory Definitions

An analog signal is a signal that can take on any amplitude and is well-defined at every time. Figure 1.5 (a) shows an example of this. A discrete-time signal is a signal that can take on any amplitude but is defined only at a set of discrete times. Figure 1.5 (b) shows an example. Finally, a digital signal is a signal whose amplitude can take on only a finite set of values, normally two, and is defined only at a discrete set of times. To help clarify, an example is shown in Figure 1.5(c).

1.3.2 Definitions An analog communication system is a communication system where the information signal sent from point A to point B can only be described as an analog signal. An example of this is Monica speaking to Carl over the telephone, as described in Section 1.2.2. A digital communication system is a communication system where the information signal sent from A to B can be fully described as a digital signal. For example, consider Figure 1.6. Here, data is sent from one computer to another over a wire. The computer at point A is sending Os or is to the computer at point B; a 0 is being represented by -5 V for a duration of time T and a 1 is being represented by a +5 V for the same duration T. As I show in that figure, that sent signal can be fully described using a digital signal...

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Table of Contents

Preface;INTRODUCING TELECOMMUNICATIONS: communications systems; telecommunications systems; analog and digital communications systems; TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORKS: communication channels; data communications; mobile communications; local area networks (LANs); REVIEW OF MATH, STATS, AND SYSTEMS: random variables; random processes; signals and systems; SOURCE CODING AND DECODING: sampling; quantization; pulse code modulation; predictive coding; MODULATORS AND DEMODULATORS: modulators; mathematical representation of modulated signals; demodulators; performance measures; BLOCK CODING AND DECODING: block coding; linear block codes; performance of block coders; decoding; CONVOLUTIONAL CODING AND DECODING: convolutional coders; trellis diagrams; the Viterbi algorithm; catastrophic codes; TRELLIS-CODED MODULATION: inputs; decoder front ends; decoder; best path determination; CHANNEL FILTERING AND EQUALIZERS: modulators and pulse shaping; receivers; linear equalizers; ESTIMATION AND SYNCHRONIZATION: estimation; evaluation of channel phase; practical channel estimators; MULTIPLE ACCESS SCHEMES: TDMA; FDMA; CDMA; FH-CDMA; MC-CDMA; CIMA; ANALOG COMMUNICATIONS: amplitude modulation; frequency modulation; superheterodyne receivers; Index
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  • Anonymous

    Posted July 7, 2002

    A mathematical approch for NON-PRATICING ENG.

    The book is only good for mathematician. The title is misleading. There is no pratical information in this book.

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