Telecommunications Topics : Applications of Functions and Probabilities in Electronic Communications

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The essential telecom handbook for the practicing electrical engineer!

From DSL to CDMA, from ATM to high-speed modems, Telecommunications Topics brings together the analysis, theory, and examples electrical engineers need to build tomorrow's telecommunications systems. Beginning with a practical review of deterministic and probabilistic analysis, it considers 22 core problems that lie at the heart of contemporary telecommunications system ...

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Overview

The essential telecom handbook for the practicing electrical engineer!

From DSL to CDMA, from ATM to high-speed modems, Telecommunications Topics brings together the analysis, theory, and examples electrical engineers need to build tomorrow's telecommunications systems. Beginning with a practical review of deterministic and probabilistic analysis, it considers 22 core problems that lie at the heart of contemporary telecommunications system architecture, design, and performance. Coverage includes:

  • Surrogate functions, including signals, periodic and transient functions, LTI systems, autocorrelation, and spectral density
  • Probability, random variables and processes, entropy, and channel capacity
  • Queueing models, noise, information theory, data signals, error detection, and correction
  • Radio signals and modulation, including digital and spread spectrum modulation
  • Characteristics of shared media systems using Aloha, CSMA, and CSMA/CD
  • Optical fiber, cellular radio, and satellite systems

Thousands of electrical engineers find themselves working in telecommunications with little formal training in telecom theory and applications. Telecommunications Topics fills the gap, delivering theoretical and practical guidance for solving an extraordinary range of real-world problems. Whether you're concerned with maximizing throughput or eliminating transmission errors, estimating wireless cell size or enhancing data compression, this book gives you the technical grounding you need to be more effective.

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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
Offers electrical engineers 22 core problems that lie at the heart of the architecture, design, and performance of contemporary telecommunications systems. After reviewing deterministic and probabilistic analysis, considers such aspects as surrogate functions including signals and periodic and transient functions, random variables and processes, queuing models, noise, information theory, radio signals and modulation, characteristics of shared media systems, and satellite systems. Includes very few bibliographic references. --Annotation © by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780136455653
  • Publisher: Simon & Schuster Adult Publishing Group
  • Publication date: 9/10/1998
  • Pages: 385
  • Product dimensions: 6.70 (w) x 9.78 (h) x 1.54 (d)

Read an Excerpt

PREFACE: This book is written for those of us who came first to computer engineering and then discovered that digital communications were vital to the continuing expansion of the information age. As a result, we picked up bits and pieces of lore— enough to make a go of communicating, but not enough to fully appreciate so demanding a discipline. Also, it is for those who, through a better understanding of the applications of functions and probabilities to digital communications, wish to further their comprehension of what may be the most important technical development of the last quarter of the twentieth century. In many ways, Telecommunications Topics complements my previous book Telecommunications Primer (Prentice Hall; 1995), which provides an overview of modern, mostly digital communications without supporting analysis.

The 22 topics relate to one another, and progress from techniques for analysis to the analysis of operating techniques. Taken from the current telecommunications environment, they reflect some of the problems that have been investigated and solved over the last 30 years of intense development in predominantly digital communications. They are divided into three sections—Functions, Probabilities and Applications- which can be summarized as follows.

Functions. The notion of surrogate functions is fundamental to the analysis of communication systems. Chapter 1, Signals, describes the advantages and limitations of mathematical functions that mimic signals. With them, models are built to explore the behavior of systems. As a framework for future results, a chart is included that maps the relationships among time and frequencydomains and the techniques employed. In Chapter 2, Periodic Functions; Chapter 3, Transient Functions; Chapter 4, LTI Systems; and Chapter 5, Autocorrelation and Spectral Density; the techniques of deterministic analysis are reviewed and applied to periodic and transient signals. On a limited understanding of signal processing, the foundation is laid for the analysis of digital signals.

Probabilities. To come closer to real-world situations, ideas of randomness and measures of probabilities are introduced in Chapter 6, Probability. Chapter 7, Random Variables, develops the concepts of Binomial-, Poisson-, and Normal-distributions and introduces the properties of uniform-, exponential-, and Erlang-distributed random variables. The second section closes with Chapter 8, Random Processes. It provides a limited look at random processes and introduces the all-important Wiener-Khinchine connection between the autocorrelation function and the power spectral density of power-type functions.

Applications. Chapters 9 through 22 apply the results of the first eight chapters to the modern communications environment. In Chapter 9, Queues, steady-state results are developed for three basic queueing systems, and Erlang's formulas for telephone traffic are introduced. In Chapter 10, Noise, signal-to-noise ratio is defined, white noise is characterized, and the effect of noise on binary decisions is analyzed. Chapter 11, Information Theory, provides an elementary view of Shannon's theory including self-information and entropy, describes Shannon-Fano coding, and discusses Shannon's capacity theorem and the Hartley-Shannon law.

Chapter 12, Digital Voice Signals, describes the processes (sampling, quantizing, companding, and reconstruction) required to produce a digital signal from an analog voice signal. The effect of signal-to-noise ratio on the performance of PCM signals is discussed.

Chapters 13 through 17 are concerned with topics in data communication. In Chapter 13, Data Signals, several signal formats are described, and the frequency spectrums of random data signals are estimated. Coding and scrambling are discussed. In Chapter 14, Intersymbol Interference, pulse shaping, equalization, and regeneration of data signals are considered. Chapters 15 and 16 are devoted to error correction. In Chapter 15, Error Detection, parity checking, the use of checksums and cyclic redundancy checking are discussed. In Chapter 16, Error Correction, ARQ and forward error correction techniques are described. The throughput of various correction strategies is calculated for a range of data rates and other conditions. Chapter 17, Access to Shared Media, describes and analyzes popular techniques for providing shared access to common facilities.

Chapters 18 through 21 examine the characteristics of various types of radio signals. In Chapter 18, Amplitude Modulation, five methods of producing AM are analyzed. In Chapter 19, Angle Modulation, narrowband and wideband angle modulation is discussed, and the spectral characteristics of frequency modulation are developed. In Chapter 20, Digital Modulation, techniques for amplitude, phase, and frequency keying are discussed. Chapter 21, Spread Spectrum Modulation, describes direct spreading and frequency-hopping techniques and CDMA.

Finally, Chapter 22, Transmission Media, describes some of the properties of wire cables, optical fibers, cellular radio, and communication satellites.

Since very little happens in a vacuum, I would like to thank the many students, particularly those involved in continuing education, who asked questions of me and stimulated this work. The contents should be comfortable for those who have received courses in technical analysis. Hopefully, the result will be an increased understanding of some of the practices of digital communications.

E. Bryan Carne
Peterborough, NH
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Table of Contents

Preface
Ch. 1 Signals 1
Ch. 2 Periodic Functions 13
Ch. 3 Transient Functions 35
Ch. 4 LTI Systems 67
Ch. 5 Autocorrelation and Spectral Density 77
Ch. 6 Probability 90
Ch. 7 Random Variables 115
Ch. 8 Random Processes 135
Ch. 9 Queues 143
Ch. 10 Noise 162
Ch. 11 Information Theory 172
Ch. 12 Digital Voice Signals 186
Ch. 13 Data Signals 210
Ch. 14 Intersymbol Interference 231
Ch. 15 Error Detection 243
Ch. 16 Error Correction 251
Ch. 17 Access to Shared Media 277
Ch. 18 Amplitude Modulation 300
Ch. 19 Angle Modulation 320
Ch. 20 Digital Modulation 337
Ch. 21 Spread Spectrum Modulation 349
Ch. 22 Transmission Media 361
List of Acronyms 389
List of Symbols 392
Appendix 402
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Preface

PREFACE: This book is written for those of us who came first to computer engineering and then discovered that digital communications were vital to the continuing expansion of the information age. As a result, we picked up bits and pieces of lore— enough to make a go of communicating, but not enough to fully appreciate so demanding a discipline. Also, it is for those who, through a better understanding of the applications of functions and probabilities to digital communications, wish to further their comprehension of what may be the most important technical development of the last quarter of the twentieth century. In many ways, Telecommunications Topics complements my previous book Telecommunications Primer (Prentice Hall; 1995), which provides an overview of modern, mostly digital communications without supporting analysis.

The 22 topics relate to one another, and progress from techniques for analysis to the analysis of operating techniques. Taken from the current telecommunications environment, they reflect some of the problems that have been investigated and solved over the last 30 years of intense development in predominantly digital communications. They are divided into three sections—Functions, Probabilities and Applications- which can be summarized as follows.

Functions. The notion of surrogate functions is fundamental to the analysis of communication systems. Chapter 1, Signals, describes the advantages and limitations of mathematical functions that mimic signals. With them, models are built to explore the behavior of systems. As a framework for future results, a chart is included that maps the relationships among time andfrequencydomains and the techniques employed. In Chapter 2, Periodic Functions; Chapter 3, Transient Functions; Chapter 4, LTI Systems; and Chapter 5, Autocorrelation and Spectral Density; the techniques of deterministic analysis are reviewed and applied to periodic and transient signals. On a limited understanding of signal processing, the foundation is laid for the analysis of digital signals.

Probabilities. To come closer to real-world situations, ideas of randomness and measures of probabilities are introduced in Chapter 6, Probability. Chapter 7, Random Variables, develops the concepts of Binomial-, Poisson-, and Normal-distributions and introduces the properties of uniform-, exponential-, and Erlang-distributed random variables. The second section closes with Chapter 8, Random Processes. It provides a limited look at random processes and introduces the all-important Wiener-Khinchine connection between the autocorrelation function and the power spectral density of power-type functions.

Applications. Chapters 9 through 22 apply the results of the first eight chapters to the modern communications environment. In Chapter 9, Queues, steady-state results are developed for three basic queueing systems, and Erlang's formulas for telephone traffic are introduced. In Chapter 10, Noise, signal-to-noise ratio is defined, white noise is characterized, and the effect of noise on binary decisions is analyzed. Chapter 11, Information Theory, provides an elementary view of Shannon's theory including self-information and entropy, describes Shannon-Fano coding, and discusses Shannon's capacity theorem and the Hartley-Shannon law.

Chapter 12, Digital Voice Signals, describes the processes (sampling, quantizing, companding, and reconstruction) required to produce a digital signal from an analog voice signal. The effect of signal-to-noise ratio on the performance of PCM signals is discussed.

Chapters 13 through 17 are concerned with topics in data communication. In Chapter 13, Data Signals, several signal formats are described, and the frequency spectrums of random data signals are estimated. Coding and scrambling are discussed. In Chapter 14, Intersymbol Interference, pulse shaping, equalization, and regeneration of data signals are considered. Chapters 15 and 16 are devoted to error correction. In Chapter 15, Error Detection, parity checking, the use of checksums and cyclic redundancy checking are discussed. In Chapter 16, Error Correction, ARQ and forward error correction techniques are described. The throughput of various correction strategies is calculated for a range of data rates and other conditions. Chapter 17, Access to Shared Media, describes and analyzes popular techniques for providing shared access to common facilities.

Chapters 18 through 21 examine the characteristics of various types of radio signals. In Chapter 18, Amplitude Modulation, five methods of producing AM are analyzed. In Chapter 19, Angle Modulation, narrowband and wideband angle modulation is discussed, and the spectral characteristics of frequency modulation are developed. In Chapter 20, Digital Modulation, techniques for amplitude, phase, and frequency keying are discussed. Chapter 21, Spread Spectrum Modulation, describes direct spreading and frequency-hopping techniques and CDMA.

Finally, Chapter 22, Transmission Media, describes some of the properties of wire cables, optical fibers, cellular radio, and communication satellites.

Since very little happens in a vacuum, I would like to thank the many students, particularly those involved in continuing education, who asked questions of me and stimulated this work. The contents should be comfortable for those who have received courses in technical analysis. Hopefully, the result will be an increased understanding of some of the practices of digital communications.

E. Bryan Carne
Peterborough, NH
Read More Show Less

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