F. Biocca, Part I:Generating Meaning in the Pursuit of Power. What is the Language of Political Advertising?
Some Limitations of Earlier "Symbolic" Approaches to Political Communication.
Looking for Units of Meaning in Political Ads.
The Role of Communication Codes in Political Ads.
The Analysis of Discourses Within the Political Ad.
The Orchestration of Codes and Discourses: Analysis of Semantic Framing.
Part II:Analyses of the Meaning of Political Ads.
D. Descutner, D. Burnier, A. Mickunas, R. Letteri, Bad Signs and Cryptic Codes in a Postmodern World: A Semiotic Analysis of the Dukakis Advertising.
L.D. Smith, A. Johnston, Burke's Sociological Criticism Applied to Political Advertising: An Anecdotal Taxonomy of Presidential Commercials.
L. Shyles, Issue Content and Legitimacy in 1988 Televised Political Advertising: Hubris and Synecdoche in Promoting Presidential Candidates.
G. Chronkite, J. Liska, D. Schrader, Toward an Integration of Textual and Response Analysis Applied to the 1988 Presidential Campaign.
Part III:The Campaign Documentary as an Ad.
J. Morreale, The Political Campaign Film: Epideictic Rhetoric in a Documentary Frame.
H.W. Simons, D.J. Stewart, Network Coverage of Video Politics: "A New Beginning" in the Limits of Criticism.
Part IV:Regulating Signs and Images.
J.I. Richards, C.L. Caywood, Symbolic Speech in Political Advertising: Encroaching Legal Barriers.