"A pre-modern baseball umpire would have said something like this: 'There's balls, and there's strikes, and I call 'em as they are.' The modernist would have said, 'There's balls, and there's strikes, and I call 'em as I see 'em.' And the postmodernist umpire would say, 'They ain't nothing until I call 'em.'" With that humorous quote, Ravi Zacharias illustrates the challenge postmodernism poses to Christians passionate about evangelism. How do you communicate truth to a world that isn't sure what truth is--or even if truth is? How do you commend
"A pre-modern baseball umpire would have said something like this: 'There's balls, and there's strikes, and I call 'em as they are.' The modernist would have said, 'There's balls, and there's strikes, and I call 'em as I see 'em.' And the postmodernist umpire would say, 'They ain't nothing until I call 'em.'" With that humorous quote, Ravi Zacharias illustrates the challenge postmodernism poses to Christians passionate about evangelism. How do you communicate truth to a world that isn't sure what truth is--or even if truth is? How do you commend spiritual absolutes to people who insist there are none? If you've puzzled, even struggled, over such questions, the book you hold in your hands is required reading, Telling the Truth provides informed insights on the heart of the Gospel, the soul of postmodern culture, and their complex interface. This book is a compilation of thoughts and strategies from twenty-nine prominent practitioners of contemporary evangelism. Originating at a three-day conference held at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, Telling the Truth draws on knowledge gained in the trenches by Ravi Zacharias, Kelly Monroe, D.A. Carson, Ajith Fernando, and other notables. It will open your eyes to how the contest for souls is fought, guerilla-style, at a multitude of fronts: relationships, the university, ethnicity, reason and emotion, the pulpit, communications . . . in short, the broad spectrum of human experience and values. You'll be challenged to discern between the unchanging Gospel and the flexible means by which we communicate it. Telling the Truth can help you lay the groundwork necessary to point biblically uninformed, postmodern men and women toward an encounter with non-negotiable truth -- an absolute revealed in the Bible that points to the reality of sin and the need for a Savior.
D. A. Carson (PhD, University of Cambridge) is research professor of New Testament at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School in Deerfield, Illinois. He is the author or coauthor of over 50 books, including the Gold Medallion Award-winning book The Gagging of God and An Introduction to the New Testament. He is general editor of Telling the Truth: Evangelizing Postmoderns and Worship by the Book. He has served as a pastor and is an active guest lecturer in church and academic settings around the world.
TABLE OF Contents
PART 1:Opening Plenaries
1.An Ancient Message, through Modern Means, to a Postmodern Mind 19
2.The Touch of Truth
PART 2: The Challenge
3.Why Is Religious Pluralism Fun and Dangerous?
Harold A. Netland and Keith E. Johnson
4.Epistemology at the Core of Postmodernism: Rorty, Foucault, and the Gospel
Jon Hinkson and Greg Ganssle
PART 3: Critical Topics
5.Why Should Anyone Believe Anything at All?
James W. Sire
6.Two Ways to Live and Biblical Theology
Phillip D. Jensen and Tony Payne
7.Keeping Christ Central in Preaching
Colin S. Smith
8.The Uniqueness of Jesus Christ
9.Communicating Sin in a Postmodern World
Mark E. Dever
10.Turning to God: Conversion beyond Mere Religious Preference
Michael P. Andrus
PART 4:Crucial Passages
11.The Gospel Paradox: Declaring Sinners Righteous (Rom. 3:21-26)
John W. Nyquist
12.The Ambassador’s Job Description: 2 Corinthians 5:11-21
Colin S. Smith
PART 5:Church, Campus, Ethnicity
13.Church/Campus Connections: Model 1
Phillip D. Jensen and Tony Payne
14.Church/Campus Connections: Model 2
15.Penetrating Ethnic Pluralism: African-Americans
16.Reaching Out to Postmodern Asian-Americans
Peter Cha and Greg Jao
PART 6:This Relational Age
17.Faithfully Relating to Unbelievers in a Relational Age
18.The Lifestyle of the Great Commission
Robert E. Coleman
19.Authentic Church-Based Evangelism in a Relational Age
PART 7: Experiences and Strategies
20.Finding God at Harvard: Reaching the Post-Christian University
21.Ministering in the Postmodern Academy
Walter L. Bradley
22.Examples of Effective Evangelism
23.Generating Hope: A Strategy for Reaching the Postmodern Generation
24. William Carey Revisited: Going after Every College Student 336
25. Evangelizing Postmoderns Using a Mission Outpost Strategy 343
26. The Gospel for a New Generation 352
Keith A. Davy
PART 8: Closing Plenaries
27. The Urgency of the Gospel 371
28. Athens Revisited 384
D. A. Carson
An Ancient Message, through Modern Means, to a Postmodern Mind
In April 1981 Daniel Yankelovich, a social analyst, wrote a very insightful article in Psychology Today. His principal thrust was to analyze how Americans were thinking about life and where we were headed should such ideas go uncriticized. It was a warning to the West. In his opening remarks, he defined the role and the imperative of culture. Quoting sociologist Daniel Bell, he said, 'Culture is the effort to provide a coherent set of answers to the existentialist situations that confront all human beings in the passage of their lives' (Yankelovich 1981, 36).
To define culture even in these terms may well be outdated now. Some months ago I was lecturing at one of the universities in the country when a student stormed up to the microphone and bellowed, 'Who told you culture is a search for coherence? Where do you get that idea from? This idea of coherence is a Western idea.' I replied by reminding her that all I had done in that instance was to present a sociologist's definition that culture sought coherence. 'Ah! Words! Just words!' she shouted back.
'Let me ask you this then,' I pleaded. 'Do you want my answer to be coherent?' Some laughter rippled through the auditorium. She herself was stymied for a few moments. 'But that's language, isn't it?' she retorted.
I asked her if language has anything to do with reality. 'Must words not point to a referent? If you are seeking an answer that must be coherent, but culture itself does not have to be, from whence do you get this disjunction?' One could sense the turmoil within her. Indeed, later on I was told that this individual was a rather outspoken person whose lifestyle was radically aberrant from the normal. Her struggle for coherence was rooted in her very physiological dissonance.
This student may well be the quintessential postmodernist. Our bodies and proclivities are defining our reason for being. That is how intense I believe this struggle is becoming. Friedrich Nietzsche and Michel Foucault both brilliant yet tragic figures can be seen as the definitive bookends of the twentieth century. Foucault, of course, was a leading French intellectual who, owing to a very promiscuous life, died of AIDS at the age of fifty-eight. He was a lover of the writings of Nietzsche, who, ironically, had died at age fifty-four in the wake of his pitiful bout with venereal disease and insanity.
So even as we look for our cultural moorings and try to understand the radical shifts that have disrupted the shared meanings of the past, attempting a coherent answer becomes a prohibitive challenge.
Walter Truett Anderson humorously gives us an insight into this in his book Reality Isn't What It Used to Be. He reflects on our predicament by presenting an analogy from baseball. A premodern baseball umpire would have said something like this: 'There's balls, and there's strikes and I call 'em as they are.' The modernist would have said, 'There's balls and there's strikes, and I call 'em as I see 'em.' And the postmodernist umpire would say, 'They ain't nothing until I call 'em' (quoted in Middleton and Walsh 1995, 132-33). In brief, all reality is subject dependent. The postmodernist frames reality by naming aspects at his or her whim.
You and I have in some ways been so influenced by this culture that we too cannot get ourselves completely outside of it. We are locked into this postmodern mindset, or at least some elements of it. Perhaps the most radically affected of all are our children. If you talk to your teenager after a movie that your son or daughter wanted you to see, you suddenly hear comments such as, 'I'm sorry, Dad, but I hadn't noticed all the bad language until you were sitting next to me.' It is almost as if they live in that world, and they don't even notice it anymore until somehow, someone with a counterperspective is sitting next to them. And then they mutter, 'Oh-oh. I've blown this one.' The disorientation is thus double-edged, both external and internal. Reality is redefined, and our own thinking is unwittingly reshaped.
The Century of Change
How did we get where we are today? I perceive that five major shifts in this century have brought us to where we are. No doubt there are others.
The first major shift was the popularization of the death of God movement, the bequest of Nietzsche. Remember how poignantly he talked about the madman running with a lantern, looking for God and unable to find him? That parable stabbed at the heart of reality, offering a different way of looking at things. Then Nietzsche says, 'Indeed, this has been such an enormous shift, even as the philosopher's blade has dug into the heart of theism.' He warns his readers of the disorientation that would ensue: 'Who gave us a sponge to wipe away the horizon? What sacred games will we need to invent? Is there any up or down? Must not lanterns have to be lit in the morning hours? Are we not straying through an infinite nothing? Can we not feel the breath of empty space?' He writes of this radical shift that has come about there is no up; there is no down. New lights have to illuminate our path. New sacred games need to be invented. Finally, he concludes that the shock is too staggering to immediately gain a footing. 'Maybe my time has not yet come,' he says. 'It takes time for ideas to completely take hold in the mindset of a culture' (Nietzsche 1954, 125).
Nearly one hundred years later, his time has come. There is a popularization of the death of God. The idea of God's nonexistence now either explicitly or implicitly permeates almost every major discipline in secular universities. In fact, a parent recently told me of his daughter's initial orientation at a prestigious university not far from here. In their video presentation, the closing testimonial to the university's intellectual strength was given by a young graduate. Borrowing from Richard Dawkins, she looked into the lens of the camera and said, 'One of the best things this university has done for me is that it allowed me to become an intellectually fulfilled atheist.' Imagine promoting a very sophisticated university with a testimonial of atheism to prospective students.