Terror Bombing: The Global Urban Threat

Overview

In this innovative and highly relevant updated edition, Professor Granot & Dr. Levinson emphasize the means by which emergency personnel can respond to and mitigate the effects of the worst acts of terror faced by urban societies. This book incorporates theory and practice. It cites incidents from around the world including the devastating 9/11 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, while highlighting Israel's extensive expertise in dealing with terror attacks. In light of the increasing threat ...
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Overview

In this innovative and highly relevant updated edition, Professor Granot & Dr. Levinson emphasize the means by which emergency personnel can respond to and mitigate the effects of the worst acts of terror faced by urban societies. This book incorporates theory and practice. It cites incidents from around the world including the devastating 9/11 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, while highlighting Israel's extensive expertise in dealing with terror attacks. In light of the increasing threat of terrorist acts and the rising interest in the importance of emergency management, Terror Bombing provides a solid background reference for all officials and emergency response personnel to understand one of the most dangerous threats to modern life.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780978252618
  • Publisher: Key Publishing House Inc
  • Publication date: 3/20/2009
  • Pages: 193
  • Product dimensions: 5.90 (w) x 8.90 (h) x 0.60 (d)

Meet the Author

Professor Hayim Granot was a researcher at the City University of New York. He taught Sociology at Long Island University and at the Graduate School of Social Work at Rutgers University in New Jersey. In 1970 he was appointed to the School of Social Work at Bar-Ilan University in Israel, where he served until 2002. Professor Granot established the Mass Emergencies Project at Bar-Ilan University with its emphasis on applied solutions for human problems in emergencies and disasters. He served as a senior consultant to civil defense headquarters and other emergency agencies on community response and behavior in emergencies. Dr. Jay Levinson was awarded his Ph.D. by the Department of Near Eastern Studies at New York University. He worked at the CIA in Washington, D.C., and then was employed by the Israel Police for 20 years. During his career he worked on numerous counter-terrorist and disaster response issues. Dr. Levinson is an internationally recognized authority on forensic science and disaster victim identification. Currently, he is a Visiting Professor at John Jay College of Criminal Justice in New York.
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Table of Contents

Preface 11

Introduction 13

Chapter I The Global Urban Threat: Background 15

Introduction 15

Chance of Victimization 16

The Impact of Combating Terror 19

The City and Terrorism 19

Consequence Management 22

Definition of Terrorism 25

The Weakness of International Law 27

Growth of Transnational Terrorism 28

Arab Terror Organizations against Israel 29

Sophistication 31

September 11, 2001 31

Four Phases of Emergency Management 33

Conclusion: Mitigation and Consequence Control 33

References & Further Readings 34

Chapter II Defining Terror: Ideology or Psychology 36

Ends Justify Violent Means 36

Non-Combatants in Conflict 36

Abnormality Bias 38

Terror as Pathology 38

Fanatic Ideology 39

Ideology and Suicide 40

Two Suicidal Traditions 41

Arab Suicide Bombers in Israel 42

Terrorist Self-Image 44

Terrorist Organizations and their Members 45

Playing to the Audience - the Media 47

Efficacy of Terror: The Struggle over Normalcy 48

Escalation of Tactics 48

Rivalry among Government Units 49

Conclusion 49

References & Further Readings 50

Chapter III Explosives, Explosions and Bombs 52

Introduction 52

The Nature of Explosions 52

Definitions 53

History 54

Characteristics of Chemical Explosives 55

Physics of Explosives and Propellants 56

Explosion Effects 57

Fragmentation Effect 59

Incendiary Thermal Effect 60

Classification of Explosives 60

Military Explosives 63

Commercial Explosives 65

Improvised Explosives 68

Organic Peroxides - TATP and HMTD 68

Detection of Hidden Explosives 69

Laboratory Analysis 69

Conclusion 71

References & Further Readings 71

Chapter IV Search and Rescue72

The Organized Response 72

Dangers to Health and Safety 72

Israel's National Rescue Team 74

Light and Heavy Rescue 76

Coordination Difficulties 78

Health Hazards 82

The Spontaneous Reaction 84

Conclusion 86

References & Further Readings 86

Chapter V After the Bomb: Coping with the Dead 88

Introduction: Normal and Unusual Death 88

Learning to Cope 89

Dead Bodies as Persons 90

Individual Identification 92

Aims of the Terrorist, Aims of Government Agencies 96

Forensic Investigation 96

Visual Identification 98

Technical Identification 98

AM-PM Comparisons 100

Conclusion 103

References & Further Readings 103

Chapter VI Mental Health Responses 105

Effect on Victims 105

Victim Classification 106

Compensation Claims and Post-Traumatic Stress 108

Site-Related Emergency Mental Health-Social Service Response 109

Broadening Focus 111

Information Centers and Hotlines 114

Victim Support for the Injured 114

Cultural Contexts: Adapting Jewish Tradition 115

Rehabilitation 116

Conclusion 116

References & Further Readings 116

Chapter VII Crowd Formation and Crowd Management 119

Background 119

Types of Crowd Hazards 119

Theories of Crowd Behavior 123

Types of Crowds 124

Appropriate Intervention Tactics 126

Conclusion 128

References & Further Readings 128

Chapter VIII Spreading the Word 130

Introduction 130

Communication of Emergency Warning: A Cyclical Process (Rogers, 1989): 131

Warnings as Weapons 131

The Business of News 133

Gathering Information 134

Investigative Journalism: the "Big Break" and Victim Exploitation 136

Serving the Terrorists 137

The Mantle of Civil Rights 138

The Function of Rumor 138

Communications Principles 139

Agency Goals in Crises 139

Phases and Messages 142

Feedback 142

Conclusion 142

References & Further Readings 143

Chapter IX Back to Normal: Recovery, Reconstruction, and Rehabilitation 145

Introduction 145

Relief Campaigns 146

Reconstruction, Recovery and Rehabilitation 147

Israeli Arrangements 150

Institutional Recovery 151

Communal Recovery 152

Review of Plans 154

Recovery and Emergency Management Stages 154

Conclusion 155

References & Further Readings 155

Chapter X Escalation: From Fiction to Reality 157

From Fiction to Reality 157

History of CB Warfare 157

Chemical and Biological Agents 161

Use by Terrorists 165

Crossing the Threshold 166

Conclusion 169

References & Further Readings 170

Chapter XI Coping with an Uncertain Future 171

Introduction 171

Deadlier Weaponry 171

Deterrence and Consequence Management 172

The Role of Communications 174

References & Further Readings 174

Bibliography 176

Index 184

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