Terrorism and Counterterrorism: Understanding Threats and Responses in the Post 9/11 World / Edition 3

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Focusing on the phenomenon of terrorism in the post-9/11 era, Terrorism and Counterterrorism investigates this form of political violence in an international and American context and in light of new and historical trends. In this comprehensive and highly readable text, Brigitte Nacos, a renowned expert in the field, clearly defines terrorism’s diverse causes, actors, and strategies, outlines anti- and counter-terrorist responses, and highlights terrorism’s relationship with the media and the public. Terrorism and Counterterrorism introduces students to the field’s main debates and helps them critically assess our understanding of and our strategies for this complex and enduring issue.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205743278
  • Publisher: Longman
  • Publication date: 8/20/2009
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 3
  • Pages: 352
  • Product dimensions: 5.90 (w) x 8.90 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Meet the Author

Brigitte Nacos teaches political science at Columbia University and is a long-time U.S. correspondent for newspapers in Germany.

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Table of Contents

Preface xiii

About the Author xvii

Chapter 1 Introduction: The Terrorist Threat 1

Terrorism Trends Over the Last Three Decades 5

Part 1 Terrorism 15

Chapter 2 The Perennial Debate: What Is Terrorism? 17

The Meaning of Terrorism Over Time 20

Is Terrorism Ever Justified? 27

State Terror(ism) and State-Sponsored Terrorism 29

State Sponsors of Terrorism 30

The Meaning of Terrorism in This Volume 31

Chapter 3 Terrorism in the Global Context 34

Different Types of Groups 36

The Roots of Modern Terrorism 36

The Post-World War II Wave 38

1968: The Advent of Modern-Day Terrorism 40

IRA and ETA: Groups That Transcend the Average Life Span of Terrorist Groups 41

The Decline of Left-Wing Terrorism 42

The Rise of Catastrophic Terrorism 43

Chapter 4 Terrorism in the American Context 53

Right-Wing Terrorism 53

The Surge of the Black Supremacist Movement 61

Left-Wing Terrorism 62

Single-Issue Terrorism 67

After Left-Wing and Right-Wing Waves: What Next? 71

Chapter 5 Religious Terrorism: Political Violence in the Name of God 76

Defending the Faith in "Cosmic Wars" 81

The Proliferation of Religious Violence 82

Alienation, Humiliation, and Fear 83

The Jihadi Movement and Political Violence 85

Chapter 6 The Making of Terrorists: Causes, Conditions, Influences 95

Terrorism as a Result of Rational Choice 99

Terrorism as a Result of Personal Traits 100

Terrorism as a Result of Social Interaction 101

Gender and Terrorism 102

The Lack of a Universal Terrorist Profile 109

The Stages Leading to Terrorism 109

The Roots of Terrorism: No Simple Answers 111

Chapter 7 From State Sponsors to Involuntary Hosts115

Former and Current State Sponsors 120

The Case of Saudi Arabia 123

When Governments Reconsider Their Support for Terrorism 125

Failed and Failing States and "Brown Areas" 125

Involuntary Host Countries 126

Chapter 8 Common Thread: Goals, Targets, Tactics 129

Do Terrorists Achieve Their Goals? 130

The Selection of Targets 131

Terrorists Methods: From Primitive Bombs to WMD 133

Chapter 9 Organizational Structures and the Financing of Terror 153

When Terrorist Groups Decline or End 162

Financing Terrorism 161

Narco-Terrorism or Narco-Funded Terrorism? 164

Part 2 Counterterrorism 167

Chapter 10 Terrorism and America's Post-9/11 National Security Strategy 169

Terrorism and America's Post-9/11 Security Strategy 174

End of the Post-9/11 National Security Strategy? 177

Chapter 11 The Utility of Hard and Soft Power in Counterterrorism 182

Military Hard Powers 185

Non-Military Hard Power: Economic Sanctions 193

Soft Power and Counterterrorism 194

Chapter 12 Balancing Security, Liberty, and Human Rights 205

The Rights of "Enemy Combatants" 213

Torture: Leaders and Followers 216

Torture: The Public Debate 223

Chapter 13 Homeland Security: Preparedness and Prevention 228

Post-9/11 Reorganization of Homeland Security 231

General and Specific Homeland Security Strategies 236

It's the Intelligence, Stupid 237

Reorganization of the Intelligence Community 241

International Cooperation 244

Congress Resists Change 245

Part 3 The Media and the Public 249

Chapter 14 Terrorist Propaganda and the Media 251

Publicity: The Universal Terrorist Goal 253

An Alternative View: Contemporary Terrorists Do Not Need Publicity 256

Terrorism and the Triangle of Communication 257

Media-Related Goals 258

The Attention-Getting Goal 258

The Recognition Goal 260

The Respectability/Legitimacy Goal 262

Bedfellows in a Marriage of Convenience 263

Terrorism and the Global Media 264

Defending the Media 265

Treason or Public Service? 266

Chapter 15 Terror and Hate in Cyberspace 269

Terrorists and the Newest Communications technologies 271

Propaganda and Hero Worship 273

The Internet as a Tool to Plan Terrorist Operations 278

Shocking Display of Digital Terrorism 279

Devastating Cyberterrorism 281

The Web and the Retrieval of Valuable Information 282

Online Recruitment 282

Fund-Raising via the Net 283

Chapter 16 Anti- and Counterterrorism in the News 285

A Model for Public Deliberation 288

The Media and Military Responses to Terrorism 290

The Iraq War: Different News Coverage Abroad 296

Chapter 17 Conclusion: Living with Terrorist Threats 299

Appendix: Major Terrorist Incidents Since the Early 1970s 304

Bibliography 320

Index 327

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