Textile Fibers, Dyes, Finishes and Processes: A Concise Guideby Howard L. Needles
Pub. Date: 01/14/1987
Publisher: Elsevier Science
From the Introduction:
The word "textile" was originally used to define a woven fabric and the processes involved in weaving. Over the years the term has taken on broad connotations, including the following: (1) staple filaments and fibers for use in yarns or preparation of woven, knitted, tufted or non-woven fabrics, (2) yarns made/i>
From the Introduction:
The word "textile" was originally used to define a woven fabric and the processes involved in weaving. Over the years the term has taken on broad connotations, including the following: (1) staple filaments and fibers for use in yarns or preparation of woven, knitted, tufted or non-woven fabrics, (2) yarns made from natural or man-made fibers, (3) fabrics and other products made from fibers or from yarns, and (4) apparel or other articles fabricated from the above which retain the flexibility and drape of the original fabrics. This broad definition will generally cover all of the products produced by the textile industry intended for intermediate structures or final products.
Textile fabrics are planar structures produced by interlacing or entangling yarns or fibers in some manner. In turn, textile yarns are continuous strands made up of textile fibers, the basic physical structures or elements which make up textile products. Each individual fiber is made up of millions of individual long molecular chains or discrete chemical structure. The arrangement and orientation of these molecules within the individual fiber, as well as the gross cross section and shape of the fiber (morphology), will affect fiber properties, but by far the molecular structure of the long molecular chains which make up the fiber will determine its basic physical and chemical nature. Usually, the polymeric molecular chains found in fibers have a definite chemical sequence which repeats itself along the length of the molecule. The total number of units which repeat themselves in a chain (n) varies from a few units to several hundred and is referred toas the degree of polymerization (DP) for molecules within that fiber. . . .
Table of ContentsI. FIBER THEORY, FORMATION, AND CHARACTERIZATION 1. Fiber Theory and Formation a. Introduction b. Fiber Classification c. Fiber Properties d. Fiber Formation and Morphology 2. Fiber Identification and Characterization a. Fiber Identification b. Structural, Physical, and Chemical Characterization c. End-Use Property Characterization II. FIBER PROPERTIES 3. Celluslosic Fibers a. Cotton b. Flax c. Other Natural Cellulosic Fibers d. Rayon 4. Cellulose Ester Fibers a. Acetate and Triacetate 5. Protein Fibers a. Wool b. Silk c. Other Natural and Regenerated Protein Fibers 6. Polyamide Fibers a. Nylon 6 and 6,6 b. Aramid Fibers c. Other Polyamides 7. Polyester Fibers a. Polyethylene Terephthalate b. Poly-1, 4-Cyclohexylenedimethylene Terephthalate c. Other Polyesters 8. Acrylic Fibers a. Acrylic b. Modacrylic c. Other Acrylics 9. Polyolefin Fibers a. Polyethylene and Polypropylene 10. Vinyl Fibers a. Vinyon b. Vinal c. Vinyon-Vinal Matrix Fiber d. Saran e. Polytetrafluoroethylene 11. Elastomeric Fibers a. Rubber b. Spandex c. Other Elastomeric Fibers 12. Mineral and Metallic Fibers a. Glass b. Inorganic Fibers c. Asbestos d. Metallic Fibers 13. Miscellaneous Fibers a. Novaloid b. Carbon c. Poly-m-Phenylenedibenzimidaxole (PBI) d. Polyimide III. YARN AND TEXTILE SUBSTRATE FORMATION 14. Yarn Formation a. Yarn Formation b. Cotton System c. Woolen and Worsted Systems d. Other Staple Systems e. Other Yarn-Forming Systems 15. Textile Substrate Formation a. Preparation b. Textile Substrate Formation c. Weaving d. Knitting e. Tufting and PileFormation f. Nonwoven Formation g. Composite Formation IV. PREPARATION, DYEING, AND FINISHING PROCESSES 16. Preparation and Drying a. Preparation b. Drying 17. Color, Dyes, Dyeing and Printing a. Color Theory b. Dyes and Dye Classification c. Application Methods and Factors Affecting Dyeing d. Dyes Applied to Fiber Classes 18. Finishes and Finishing a. Physical Finishes and Finishing b. Chemical Finishes and Finishing c. Finishes Applied to Fiber Classes V. TEXTILE MAINTENANCE 19. Textile Soiling and Soil Removal a. Textile Soils b. Detergency and Surfactants c. Laundering and Laundry Formulations d. Drycleaning APPENDIX: SUGGESTED FURTHER READING * Fiber Theory, Formation, and Characterization and Fiber Properties * Yarn and Textile Substrate Formation * Preparation, Dyeing and Finishing Processes and Textile Maintenance INDEX
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