The 1997 Joy of Cooking

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Overview

Since its original publication, Joy of Cooking has been the most authoritative cookbook in America the one upon which millions of cooks have confidently relied for more than sixty-five years. It's the book your grandmother and mother probably learned to cook from, the book you gave your sister when she got married. This, the first revision in more than twenty years, is better than ever. Here's why:

  • Every chapter has been rethought with an ...
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Old Tappan, New Jersey, U.S.A. 1997 Hardcover New 0684818701. FLAWLESS COPY, AVOID WEEKS OF DELAY ELSEWHERE. --clean and crisp, tight and bright pages, with no writing or ... markings to the text. Read more Show Less

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Overview

Since its original publication, Joy of Cooking has been the most authoritative cookbook in America the one upon which millions of cooks have confidently relied for more than sixty-five years. It's the book your grandmother and mother probably learned to cook from, the book you gave your sister when she got married. This, the first revision in more than twenty years, is better than ever. Here's why:

  • Every chapter has been rethought with an emphasis on freshness, convenience, and health.
  • All the recipes have been reconceived and tested with an eye to modern taste, and the cooking knowledge imparted with each subject enriched to the point where everyone from a beginning to an experienced cook will feel completely supported.
  • The new Joy continues the vision of American cooking that began with the first edition of Joy. It is still the book you can turn to for perfect Beef Wellington and Baked Macaroni and Cheese. It's also the book where you can now find Turkey on the Grill, Spicy Peanut Sesame Noodles, and vegetarian meals.
  • The new Joy provides more thorough descriptions of ingredients, from the familiar to the most exotic. For instance, almost all the varieties of apples grown domestically are described — the months they become available, how they taste, what they are best used for, and how long they keep. But for the first time Joy features a complete section on fresh and dried chili peppers: how to roast and grill them, how to store them, and how long they keep — with illustrations of each pepper.
  • An all-new "RULES" section in many chapters gives essential cooking basics at a glance: washing and storing salad greens, selecting a pasta and a matching sauce, determining when a piece of fish is cooked through, stuffing a chicken, and making a perfect souffle.
  • New chapters reflect changing American tastes and lifestyles:
  • Separate new chapters on grains, beans, and pasta include recipes for grits, polenta, pilafs, risottos, vegetarian chills, bean casseroles, and make-ahead lasagnes.
  • New baking and dessert chapters promise to enhance Joy of Cooking's reputation as a bible for bakers. Quick and yeast bread recipes range from focaccia, pizza, and sourdoughs to muffins and coffee cakes. Separate chapters cover custards and puddings, pies and tarts, cookies, cakes, cobblers, and other American fruit desserts revived for this edition. Recipes include one-bowl cakes, gingerbread, angel and sponge cakes, meringues, pound cakes, fruitcakes, 6 different kinds of cheesecake — there's even an illustrated wedding cake recipe, which takes you through all the stages from building a stand, making and decorating the cake, to transporting it to the reception without a hitch.
  • Little Dishes showcases foods from around the world: hummus, baba ghanoush, bruschetta, tacos, empanadas, and fried wontons.
  • AII new drawings of techniques, ingredients, and equipment, integrated throughout an elegant new design, and over 300 more pages round out the new Joy.

Among this book's other unique features: microwave instructions for preparing beans, grains, and vegetables; dozens of new recipes for people who are lactose intolerant and allergic to gluten; expanded ingredients chart now features calories, essential vitamins, and levels of fats and cholesterol. There are ideas for substitutions to lower fat in recipes and reduced-fat recipes in the baking sections.
From cover to cover, Joy's chapters have been imbued with the knowledge and passion of America's greatest cooks and cooking teachers. An invaluable combination of old and new, this edition of Joy of Cooking promises to keep you cooking for years to come.

The newly revised and expanded edition of this American household classic includes more ethnic recipes while stressing healthier, lower-fat cooking.

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Editorial Reviews

From Barnes & Noble
America's most popular kitchen bible has been revised for the first time in more than 20 years. Much is still familiar -- the recipe structure, with ingredients listed as they are called for, has been left intact, for instance -- but there's plenty that's new. Concerns about healthy eating are reflected throughout the new Joy, but old-fashioned, fat-laden dishes aren't gone entirely -- there are still plenty of appealing recipes for pies, tarts, puddings, eggs, and meats that set cholesterol scales tipping. As in previous revisions, changing tastes in food and the widening influence of ethnic cuisines have caused the most major changes in Joy. This is the ideal book for beginners, and a great reference for experienced cooks to have on hand as well.
Library Journal
After a 20-year wait, this new edition of a cooking classic arrives with a 500,000-copy first printing, whistlestops on Today and CBS This Morning and reputedly a few nasty bumps along the way.
-- Sandra Knowles, University of South Carolina School of Medicine
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780684818702
  • Publisher: Scribner
  • Publication date: 11/5/1997
  • Edition description: Revised
  • Edition number: 6
  • Pages: 1152
  • Product dimensions: 6.62 (w) x 9.25 (h) x 2.30 (d)

Meet the Author

Irma Rombauer self-published the first Joy of Cooking in 1931 with the small insurance payout she received after her husband committed suicide during the Great Depression. Suddenly, society wives who used to enjoy a kitchen staff no longer had the money to employ them and began cooking for themselves. The instruction "stand facing the stove" was a bit more pragmatic than we realize. In 1936, the first commercial edition was published by Bobbs-Merrill. Marion Rombauer Becker, Irma's daughter, joined the Joy dynasty and revised and updated each subsequent edition until 1975. That edition was the first after Irma's death and was completely Marion's. Her son, Ethan Becker, has returned the book to the family's voice, revising the 1975 edition for the 75th Anniversary Edition.

Ethan Becker is the son of Marion Rombauer Becker and the grandson of Irma S. Rombauer, the original author of The Joy of Cooking. He attended Le Cordon Bleu in Paris, but learned how to cook from his mom. An outdoors-man, he is a master of the grill and at cooking game. His outdoor gear and survival and combat knives are sold internationally under the brand Becker Knife and Tool. Ethan and his wife, Susan, a writer, editor, and artist, live in East Tennessee at their home, Half Moon Ridge. His website is TheJoyKitchen.com.

Irma Rombauer self-published the first Joy of Cooking in 1931 with the small insurance payout she received after her husband committed suicide during the Great Depression. Suddenly, society wives who used to enjoy a kitchen staff no longer had the money to employ them and began cooking for themselves. The instruction "stand facing the stove" was a bit more pragmatic than we realize. In 1936, the first commercial edition was published by Bobbs-Merrill. Marion Rombauer Becker, Irma's daughter, joined the Joy dynasty and revised and updated each subsequent edition until 1975. That edition was the first after Irma's death and was completely Marion's. Her son, Ethan Becker, has returned the book to the family's voice, revising the 1975 edition for the 75th Anniversary Edition.

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Read an Excerpt

Hot and Sour Soup

About 5 Cups

A bowl of this bracing soup — which originated in northern China and now seems to be eaten almost everywhere in the United States — works wonders for the spirit. Freezing the pork chop for 15 minutes will make it easier to slice into thin strips. Wood or cloud ear mushrooms and tiger lily buds are available in Asian markets.

Combine in a medium bowl and let stand until the mushrooms are softened, about 20 minutes:

10 dried wood or cloud ear mushrooms (optional)

4 dried shiitake mushrooms (8 if not using wood ears)

10 tiger lily buds (optional)

1 1/2 Cups hot water

Meanwhile, combine in a small bowl:

5 tablespoons rice vinegar

3 tablespoons soy sauce

1 tablespoon cornstarch

4 ounces center-cut pork chop, cut into 1/4-inch strips

Remove the mushrooms and lily buds. Reserve the soaking liquid. Remove any tough pieces of the mushrooms and slice into strips. Discard the tough ends of the lily buds and cut in half. Combine. Cut into strips about the same size as the pork:

4 ounces firm tofu, well drained

To prepare the soup, strain the reserved mushroom soaking liquid through a fine-mesh sieve lined with a dampened paper towel. Bring to a boil in a soup pot along with:

4 Cups Chicken Stock, 39, Brown Chicken Stock, 39, or any vegetable stock, 38 to 39

Add the mushroom mixture, reduce the heat, and simmer for 3 minutes. Stir together in a small bowl:

3 tablespoons cornstarch

3 tablespoons water

Add to the soup and simmer, whisking constantly, until slightly thickened, Add the meat and tofu along with:

3/4 to 1 teaspoon ground black pepper

Bring back to a simmer, then stir into the soup in a wide circle:

1 large egg, well beaten

Remove from the heat and add:

1 tablespoon toasted sesame oil

Ladle into warmed bowls. Garnish with:

Sliced scallion greens

Pass at the table for those who like their soup very hot and sour:

Rice vinegar

Chili oil

Candied Apples

5 servings

These are best within 24 hours of preparing. Line a baking sheet with parchment or wax paper. Flatten 5 paper cupcake liners on the baking sheet. Remove the stems and insert a wooden skewer into the stem end of each of:

5 medium red apples

Combine in the top of a double boiler or a saucepan that will fit over another pan:

2 Cups sugar

1 cup water

2/3 cup light corn syrup

One 2-inch cinnamon stick

Stir until the sugar is dissolved. Bring to a boil; boil without stirring for about 3 minutes, brushing down any crystals on the sides of the pan with a pastry brush dipped in hot water. Boil until the syrup reaches 290°F on a candy thermometer, the soft-crack stage (see The Stages of Cooked Syrup, 846). Remove the cinnamon stick. Add:

3 or 4 drops red food coloring (optional)

Set the pan over — not in — boiling water. Working quickly, dip in the apples, one at a time, and coat evenly with the glaze. Twirl the apple at the end so the extra drips off. Set each apple on a cupcake liner.

Apple Turnovers

8 turnovers

Called chaussons aux pommes in French, these classic pastries are a favorite Parisian snack. Golden Delicious, Braeburn, Fuji, and Gala are good apples to use here. Have ready 2 unbuttered baking sheets.

Cut in half.

1 pound Food Processor Puff Pastry, page 908

Refrigerate half of the puff pastry. Roll out the other half into an 11-inch square, about 1/8 inch thick. Place the pastry on a baking sheet. Repeat with the second half of the dough and place on the second baking sheet. Cover and refrigerate for at least 30 minutes, or wrap airtight and freeze until ready to use.

Cut into 1/4-inch dice:

1 pound firm apples (about 3), peeled and cored

If the dough is frozen, let it thaw for a few minutes before trimming and cutting. Quickly transfer the pastry squares to a cutting board and trim 1/2 inch from all the sides to make two 10-inch squares. Cut each into four 5-inch squares (or circles if you prefer, using a cutter); you will have 8 squares. Turn each piece upside down. Toss well with the apples:

1/4 cup sugar

1 teaspoon all-purpose flour

1/2 teaspoon ground cinnamon

1/4 teaspoon fresh lemon juice

Pinch of salt

Spoon the apple mixture, dividing it equally, onto the center of the pastry squares. Lightly brush a 1/2-inch border on 2 adjacent edges of each pastry square with:

1 large egg, lightly beaten

Form a triangular turnover by folding the dry corner of the pastry over the apples to the egg-washed corner; press the corner and edges together with the flat tines of a fork to seal them. Brush the top of each turnover with egg wash. Cut 3 small slits in the top of each one. Arrange the turnovers at least 1 inch apart on the baking sheets. Refrigerate until firm, about 30 minutes.

Position a rack in the lower third of the oven. Preheat the oven to 400°F

Bake the turnovers until they begin to brown, about 15 minutes. Reduce the oven temperature to 350°F and bake until golden, about 20 minutes more. Serve warm. If you wish, accompany with:

Créme fraîche, whipped cream, or

Caramel Sauce Cockaigne, 1046

Applesauce

4 to 6 servings

This can be chunky or smooth. A blend of 2 or 3 apples makes the best-tasting sauce. Begin with a tart-sweet apple like Gravenstein or Newton Pippin, then mix in spicy McIntosh with Gravensteins or winy Staymans with Pippins. Golden Delicious adds sunny sweetness to any blend. This recipe doubles easily.

Place in a large, heavy skillet or saucepan:

3 pounds cooking apples, peeled if desired, cored, cut into 1/2-inch-thick slices

1/2 to 3/4 cup apple cider or apple juice, depending on juiciness of apples

1 to 1 1/2 tablespoons fresh lemon juice, depending on tartness of apples

1 large cinnamon stick

Cover and simmer, stirring often, over low heat until tender but not mushy, about 20 minutes. Stir in:

Scant 1/2 cup white or turbinado sugar or 6 tablespoons mild honey

1/2 to 1 teaspoon ground ginger (optional)

1/2 teaspoon ground mace (optional)

1/2 teaspoon ground nutmeg

Cook, stirring, until the sweetener is dissolved and blended, about 1 minute. Remove from the heat. Discard the cinnamon stick. For chunky applesauce, break up the apples with a wooden spoon. For medium texture, crush with a potato masher. For smooth sauce, pass it through a food mill or coarse sieve. Serve warm or chilled. If desired, accompany with:

Heavy cream or yogurt

For a new flavor, sprinkle each serving with:

Anise or fennel seeds, toasted and crushed

French Applesauce

Prepare Applesauce, above, substituting 2 tablespoons unsalted butter for 2 tablespoons of the cider. Omit the nutmeg and blend 3/4 to 1 teaspoon vanilla into the finished sauce. Serve with Custard Sauce, 1041, or Fresh Strawberry or Raspberry Sauce, 1048.

Roasted Brined Turkey

10 to 25 servings; 1 pound turkey per person

Brining — that is, soaking the turkey in a solution of water and salt — helps the bird retain moisture and seasons the meat throughout. This recipe calls for a 4-to 6-hour soak. If it better suits your schedule, you can decrease the salt by half (in proportion to the water) and soak the turkey for 12 to 18 hours. Do not brine self-basting turkeys or kosher turkeys, both of which already have been treated with salt. Before beginning, please read About Turkey, 611, and About Roasted Turkey, 612. For information on removing the wishbone, trussing, testing for doneness, and carving, see Roasting Whole Poultry, 572.

Remove the giblets and neck from, then rinse:

1 turkey (15 to 25 pounds)

In a clean bucket or other container large enough to hold the turkey, mix until the salt dissolves:

2 pounds salt (2 cups table salt or 4 cups kosher salt)

2 gallons water

Submerge the turkey in the solution. If the turkey is not completely covered, prepare additional brine using a ratio of 1 pound salt to 1 gallon water. Set the turkey in a very cool spot for 4 to 6 hours.

Position a rack at the lowest level of the oven. Preheat the oven to 325°F.

Remove the turkey from the brine. Thoroughly rinse inside and out, then pat the skin and both cavities dry. To facilitate carving, you may wish to remove the leg tendons and wishbone. Place in the large cavity:

1 onion, peeled and quartered

1 carrot, peeled and cut into 1-inch chunks

1 small celery stalk, cut into 1-inch chunks

1 teaspoon dried thyme, or 8 sprigs fresh (optional)

See Turned Roasted Chicken, 580. Perform a simple truss, 572; there is no need to close the cavities. Brush the turkey skin all over with:

4 to 6 tablespoons melted butter, depending on the size of the turkey

Place a V-rack or sturdy wire rack in a roasting pan and arrange the turkey breast side down on the rack. If you are using a flat rack and the turkey topples over, prop it up with balls of aluminum foil. Pour into the roasting pan:

3/4 cup water

Roast the turkey breast side down for 2 hours if it weighs 18 pounds or less, 2 1/2 hours if it weighs between 18 and 21 pounds, and 3 hours if it weighs more than 21 pounds. Baste the back and legs once or twice with:

2 to 3 tablespoons melted butter

Remove the turkey from the oven. Protecting your hands with paper towels, grasp the turkey at both ends and turn breast side up. Return the turkey to the oven and roast, basting once or twice with pan drippings, until an instant-read thermometer plunged into the thickest part of the thigh registers 175° to 180°F, 30 to 90 minutes more, depending on the turkey's size. (If the turkey approaches doneness before the breast has browned, increase the oven temperature to 400°F for the last 5 to 10 minutes of roasting.) Remove the turkey to a platter and let stand for 20 to 40 minutes. Meanwhile, if you wish, make:

Quick Turkey Gravy, 615, Giblet Gravy, 615, or Reduced-Fat Giblet Gravy, above

High-Heat Roasted Turkey

12 to 15 servings

This high-heat roast delivers a beautifully browned, intensely flavorful bird, and it only requires attention to a few details. Because the turkey must be flipped from side to side every 30 minutes, only a relatively small bird is feasible. And because the turkey is cooked directly on the pan, not on a rack, the pan must be nonstick, preferably heavy. Before beginning, please read About Turkey, 611, and About Roasted Turkey, 613. For information on removing the wishbone, stuffing, trussing, testing for doneness, and carving, see Roasting Whole Poultry, 572.

Position a rack at the lowest level of the oven. Preheat the oven to 425°F.

Remove the giblets and neck from, then rinse inside and out and pat dry:

1 turkey (12 to 15 pounds)

To facilitate carving, you may wish to remove the wishbone. Generously rub the body and neck cavities and sprinkle the skin with:

Salt

If you wish to stuff the bird, prepare and have hot:

Bread Stuffing or Dressing or a variation, 482 to 483, or Corn Bread Stuffing or a variation, 484

Loosely pack the body and neck cavities with stuffing and close the vents. Perform a simple truss, 572. Place the turkey in a heavy nonstick roasting pan and brush all over with:

4 to 5 tablespoons melted butter

Arrange the turkey so that it rests on one of its sides, that is, with a drumstick pointing up. If the turkey topples over, prop it up with balls of aluminum foil. Roast for 30 minutes. Remove the turkey from the oven. Protecting your hands with paper towels, grasp the turkey at both ends and turn it onto its other side, again propping it up with foil if necessary. Baste all exposed skin with pan drippings, then roast for 30 minutes. Turn and baste twice more so that the turkey roasts twice on each side, for a total of 2 hours. Turn the turkey breast side up, baste, and roast until an instant-read thermometer plunged into the thickest part of the thigh registers 175°F, 10 to 30 minutes more. (To be safe to eat, the stuffing must register at least 160°F. If the bird is done but the stuffing is not, remove the stuffing from the bird and bake it in a buttered casserole while the bird stands.) Remove the turkey to a platter and let stand for at least 20 minutes before carving. Meanwhile, if you wish, make:

Quick Turkey Gravy, 615, Giblet Gravy, 615, or Reduced-Fat Giblet Gravy, 616

Copyright © 1997 by Simon & Schuster Inc., The Joy of Cooking Trust and The MRB Revocable Trust

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Table of Contents

Diet, Lifestyle & Health ..... 1
Entertaining ..... 8
Menus ..... 17
Coffee, Tea & Hot Chocolate ..... 24
Stocks & Sauces ..... 35
Condiments, Marinades & Dry Rubs ..... 60
Soups ..... 91
Eggs ..... 121
Hors D'oeuvre ..... 143
Little Dishes ..... 158
Sandwiches, Burritos & Pizzas ..... 181
Salads ..... 200
Salad Dressings ..... 234
Grains ..... 243
Beans & Tofu ..... 270
Pasta, Dumplings & Noodles ..... 295
Vegetables ..... 332
Fruits ..... 439
Stuffing ..... 481
Shellfish ..... 488
Fish ..... 527
Poultry ..... 567
Game ..... 625
Meat ..... 637
Yeast Breads ..... 735
Quick Breads ..... 771
Pancakes, Waffles, French Toast & Doughnuts ..... 793
Cookies ..... 812
Candy ..... 845
Pies & Tarts ..... 856
American Fruit Desserts ..... 894
Puff Pastry, Strudel & Danish Pastries ..... 906
Cakes, Tortes & Cupcakes ..... 923
Frostings, Fillings & Glazes ..... 987
Custards, Puddings, Mousses & Dessert Souffles ..... 1013
Dessert Sauces ..... 1040
Cooking Methods ..... 1050
Know Your Ingredients ..... 1058
Index ..... 1088
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First Chapter

Chapter 1 FOODS WE EAT

Put this puzzle together and you will find milk, cheese and eggs, meat, fish, beans and cereals, greens, fruits and root vegetables -- foods that contain our essential daily needs.

Exactly how they interlock and in what quantities for the most advantageous results for every one of us is another puzzle we must try to solve for ourselves, keeping in mind our age, body type, activities, the climate in which we live, and the food sources available to us. How we wish someone could present us with hard and fast rules as to how and in what exact quantities to assemble the proteins, fats and carbohydrates as well as the small but no less important enzyme and hormone systems, the vitamins, and the trace minerals these basic foods contain so as best to build body structure, maintain it, and give us an energetic zest for living!

Where to turn? Not to the sensational press releases that follow the discovery of fascinating bits and pieces about human nutrition; nor to the oversimplified and frequently ill-founded dicta of food faddists that can lure us into downright harm. First we must search for the widest variety of the best grown unsprayed foods we can find in their freshest condition, and then look for foods with minimal but safe processing and preservatives and without synthetic additives. While great strides have been made in the storage of foods commercially and in the home, if fresh foods in good condition are available to you, choose them every time. To compare the nutritive values in frozen, canned and fresh vegetables, see 798.

Next we can find in the U.S. Handbook on the Composition of Foods some of the known calorie, protein and other values based on the edible portions of common foods. Recent mandatory labeling information, 7, is of some help, although the U.S. Recommended Daily Allowances are based on information from a nongovernmental agency, the National Research Council, a source not acceptable to some authorities. But no one chart of group of charts is the definitive answer for most of us, who are simply not equipped to evaluate the complex relationships of these elements, or to adapt them to the practicalities of daily living. Such studies are built up as averages, and thus have greater value in presenting an overall picture than in solving our individual nutrition problems.

Nevertheless, by applying plain common sense to available mass data, we as well as the experts are inclined to agree that many Americans are privileged to enjoy superabundance and that our nutritional difficulties have to do generally not with under- but with overeating. Statistics on consumption also bear out other trends: first, that we frequently make poor choices and eat too much of the wrong kinds of foods; second, that many of us overconsume drugs as well as foods. Medication, often a lifesaver, may, when used habitually, induce ah adverse effect on the body's ability to profit fully from even the best dietary intake.

Individually computerized diagnoses of our lacks may prove a help in adjusting our deficiencies to our needs. But what we all have in our bodies is one of the greatest of marvels: an already computerized but infinitely more complex built-in system that balances and allocates with infallible and almost instant decision what we ingest, sending each substance on its proper course to make the most of what we give it. And since nutrition is concerned not only with food as such but with the substances that food contains, once these essential nutrients ate chosen, their presentation in the very best state for the body's absorption is the cook's first and foremost job. Often taste, flavor and color at their best reflect this job well done. Read The Foods We Heat, 145, and follow our pointers to success for effective ways to preserve essential nutrients during cooking. And note at the point of use recommendations for optimum storage and handling conditions, for one must always bear in mind the fragility of foods and the many ways contaminants can affect them, and consequently us, when they are carelessly handled or even when such a simple precaution as washing the hands before preparing foods is neglected.

But now let's turn to a more detailed view of nutritional terms: calories, proteins, fats, carbohydrates, accessory factors like vitamins, minerals, enzymatic and hormonal fractions -- all of which are needed -- and see how they interact to maintain the dietary intake best suited to our individual needs.

ABOUT CALORIES

A too naïve theory used to prevail for explaining regeneration through food. The human system was thought of as an engine, and you kept it stoked with foods to produce energy. Food can be and still is measured in units of heat, or calories. A Calorie, sometimes called a kilocalorie or K Calorie, is the amount of heat needed to raise one kilogram of water one degree Centigrade. Thus translated into food values, each gram of protein in egg, milk, meat or fish is worth four calories; each gram of carbohydrate in starches and sugars or in vegetables, four calories; and each gram of fat in butters, in vegetable oils and drippings, and in hidden fats, 5, about nine calories. The mere stoking of the body's engine with energy-producing foods may keep life going in emergencies. But to maintain health, food must also have, besides its energy values, the proper proportions of biologic values. Proteins, vitamins, enzymes, hormones, minerals and their regulatory functions are still too complicated to be fully understood. But fortunately for us the body is able to respond to them intuitively.

What we really possess, then, we repeat, is not justa simple stoking mechanism, but a computer system far more elaborate and knowledgeable than anything that man has been able to devise. Our job is to help it along as much as possible, neither stinting ir nor overloading it. Depending on age, weight and activity the following is a rough guide to the favorable division of daily caloric intake: a minimum of 15% for proteins, under 25% for fats, and about 60% for carbohydrates. These percentages are relative: some people with highly efficient absorption and superior metabolism require both lower intake and the lesser amount of protein. No advice for reducing is given here, nor are the vaunted advantages of unusually high protein intake considered -- as again such decisions must be highly individual, see About Proteins, at right. In general, and depending also on age, sex, body type and amount of physical activity, adults can use 1700 to 3000 calories a day. Adolescent boys and very active men under fifty-five can utilize close to 3000 calories a day. At the other extreme, women over fifty-five need only about 1700 calories. Women from eighteen to thirty-five need about 2000 calories daily. During pregnancy they can add 200 calories and, during lactation, an extra 1000 calories. Children one to six need from 1100 to 1600. Before a baby's first birthday, his diet should be closely watched, and parents should ask their pediatricians about both the kinds and the amounts of food to give their baby.

Given your present weight, perhaps a more accurate way to calculate your individual calorie requirement is to consider your activity rate. If you use a car to go to work and have a fairly sedentary job, or even if you are a housewife with small children, your rate is probably only 20%; 30% if you are a delivery man of patrolman working out of doors, and 50% if you are a dirt farmer, construction worker or athlete in training. If you multiply your weight by 14 calories, you will get your basal need, that is, the calories you would require if you were completely inactive. When you multiply this amount by your own activity factor and add it to your basal needs, you should get ah approximation of your required daily caloric intake. If you reduce your caloric intake much below this approximate norm, you may be lacking in your mineral, vitamin and protein requirements. Whatever your caloric intake, distribute your choices properly among protein, fat and carbohydrate values.

ABOUT PROTEINS

On our protein intake depends the constant virtual replacement of self. And nowhere in the diet is the relation of quantity to quality greater. The chief components of proteins are 22 amino acids. They form an all-or-nothing team, for food is utilized by the body only in proportion to the presence of the scarcest of them. Fourteen of the 22 aminos are both abundant and versatile. If they are not present when food is ingested, the body is able to synthesize the missing ones from those present. The remaining 8 aminos, however, cannot be synthesized and must be present in the food when ingested. These eight are known as the essential aminos. Four of them -- leucine, valine, phenylalanine and threonine -- are relatively abundant in foods, but the other four -- isoleucine, lysine, methionine and tryptophan -- are more scarce. And because utilization of protein by the body depends in each instance on the least abundant member of the essential aminos, these latter four are known as the key aminos.

Generally speaking, proteins from animal sources like eggÆ meat, fish, and dairy products are valued because their total protein content is high, and they are referred to as complete because they are rich in the essential aminos, and therefore more of the total protein present is utilizable. Those from vegetable sources such as whole grains, nuts, seeds, and legumes -- with the exception of soybeans -- are less valuable because their total protein content is low. They are referred to as incomplete because they are also Iow in one or more of the eight essential amino acids, meaning that less of their total protein can be utilized by the body. The terms "complete" and "incomplete" ate somewhat misleading, however, because of their absolute connotations. It is still possible to fulfill your daily requirements for protein from incomplete vegetable sources, provided you are willing and able to consume large enough quantities of the incomplete protein item in question. But the utilizable protein content of most cereals is so poor that consuming enough to satisfy protein requirements would be a practical impossibility.

Take corn, for example. It has little protein and many starch calories. A diet based exclusively on corn would require consumption of enormous quantities of com to establish the needed essential aminos. A complete protein source like eggs would therefore be more realistic and desirable in satisfying the same protein requirement with far less caloric intake. In fact, for 10 grams of egg protein at 125 calories, you would have to eat 16.5 grams of corn protein at 500 calories to get ah equivalent amount of usable protein. But since no one wants to live on corn or eggs alone, a more reasonable way to approach the problem is to note how complete and incomplete proteins complement each other.

There are various ways of expressing protein values -- net protein utilization, of NPU; protein efficiency ratio, of PFR; and biologic value, or BV. Another unit of measure used on product labels is protein value in relation to casein, 7. Although these terms are all derived by different methods, they correlate well with each other. Whatever the method of expressing this utilization efficiency, one fact remains: that is, the body requires certain kinds and amounts of essential amino acids which must be supplied each day.

Any excess intake of amino acids not compensated for is metabolized away and thus not used for growth or maintenance of the body. Eggs, with a BV of 94, may be considered the most ideal protein from the point of view of utilization to replace body protein. But we can't survive on one food alone.

If we combine durum wheat, with a BV of 60, and lima beans, with a BV of 50, we get through their complementarity of utilizable protein a score of 60. But a BV of 60 is marginal for body replacement, and so a more complete protein such as that contained in milk of eggs should be added to such a meal. Combine, for instance, I tablespoon of peanut butter, with a BV of 43, and one slice of white bread, with a BV of 52. If you add 4 ounces of milk, with a BV of 86, the combination stabilizes at a BV of approximately 80.

In countries dependent mainly on beans and rice of other cereal combinations, the beneficial effects of adding to the diet even small amounts of meat, fish, eggs or dairy products is well recognized. And when various pastas are the staple foods, the inclusion of at least one-third in the form of a complete protein is considered the minimal amount to bring the meal up to acceptable levels. Furthermore, it should be stressed that any meal of snack which fails to include sufficient complete protein, although it may temporarily stay one's hunger, will not replenish all of the metabolic Iosses of the body.

In regions where only vegetable protein is available, grains combined with pulses such as beans and peas ate classic. It has been found that increments of about one-third complete protein reinforce incomplete protein to form a total that is greater than the sum of its parts.

Even more significant differences ate found between processed and unprocessed foods. Brown rice has a BV of 75, as opposed to white rice with a BV of 65. Whole wheat bread has a BV of 67; white bread, 52.

To meet the needs of underdeveloped areas and the threat of worldwide protein shortages, in recent years experiments involving grain, seed and legume combinations, 198, have been undertaken which may one day prove valuable to all of us. Gross nutritional deficiencies ate more conspicuous in areas where protein imbalances are drastic and prolonged, and the effects of improved diet are easier to evaluate than in areas like ours, where such deficiencies are less severe and thus harder to detect. Until recently, we have relied on animal experimentation, and although dietary results thus achieved are valuable, they are not always applicable to man, and, for the most reliable results, data must be based on human reactions.

Since vegetable proteins are incomplete except as noted above, ir is wise to draw two-thirds of the daily protein intake of 10% of your caloric intake from animal sources. Preferably, meats should be fresh -- not pickled, salted or highly processed. Protein foods when cooked should not be subjected to too high heat, for then they lose some of their nutrients. Familiar clanger signals are curdling in milk, "stringiness" in cheese and dryness in meat and fish.

Protein requirements generally are slightly higher in colder climates but no matter what the climate, growing children, pregnant women and nursing mothers need a larger proportion of protein than the average adult. The elderly, whose total caloric intake often declines with age, should consume a relatively larger percentage of protein to reinforce their body's less efficient protein metabolism. Again, absolute amounts cannot be given, because needs will depend on the efficiency of utilization by your own body. If your protein supply is largely from meats, fish, fowl and dairy products, a useful formula for calculating average daily protein intake is to allow 4 gram of protein per pound of body weight for adults, and for children from one to three years, 1 gram of protein per pound of body weight. In vegetarian diets structured on vegetable sources alone, with no animal by-products such as eggs and milk, careful balancing is needed to ensure enough complete protein. It is also suggested that the protein content of such a diet be upped from 4 to 5 gram per pound of body weight.

Experiments have shown variations in protein utilization between individuals to be as high as two to one. They have also demonstrated that an individual's protein needs may rise by one-third when he is under great physical of emotional stress. A natural luster in hair, firmness of nails, brightness of eyes and speed of healing are superficial indications of a well-being that comes from adequate protein intake. For a listing of approximate protein content -- complete, incomplete and mixed -- in average servings of individual foods, see 8.

Today, we cannot mention protein and protein sources without looking beyond our own frontiers. With overpopulation a world problem, can we continue our upward trend in meat consumption? Amounts of land required to produce protein increase by a ratio of one to ten as we proceed from the beginning to the end of the food chain: that is, from the growing plant to meat-eating man. To put it another way, the herbivorous animal must consume about 10 pounds of vegetable or cereal matter to turn it into 1 pound of meat. Or, as another example, the same amount of land is required to produce 10 pounds of soybeans as 1 pound of beef. You can readily see that there is protein waste in this type of food production.

As long as chickens scratched more or less on their own; as long as pigs scavenged family wastes; as long as cattle, ingested grasses from lands often too rough or too dry for efficient grain harvesting, a something-for-nothing process existed. Today's animal husbandry competes in the main for crops that could also be utilized by humans. Chickens fed in batteries, pigs and cattle concentrated in feed lots need preprocessed foods and drugs to prevent the diseases these abnormal living conditions encourage. And their droppings, once recycled on the land, are too often uselessly burned or channeled into our streams, thus initiating gross pollution of air and water.

But should conditions be changed to allot greater quantities of grains, seeds and pulses to human consumption, we would still be faced with the problem of incomplete vegetable protein. As the growing of soybeans, the only complete-protein plant, is limited to certain climates, other vegetable protein sources must be improved or compensated for by combinations of grains and pulses or by the addition of some complete animal protein.

However, amazing genetic advances have been made in the development of grain hybrids, 548, higher both in protein content and in yield than the older types: short, sturdy, storm-resistant, heavy-headed wheat and rice hybrids, rich in protein and quick-maturing; high-lysine corns; and the intergeneric rye-and-wheat hybrid, triticale, are among the recent developments that promise primary improvements in natural sources of vegetable protein. Vegetable protein mixtures, see 3, combined with dry milk or fish meals, now mainly used for animal feeding, would find greater human acceptance if they were made more palatable, which in turn would guarantee a tremendous advance in protein availability at Iow cost for all. Protein has also been developed from yeasts, algae, kelp and petroleum products, and there is even the possibility of recycling the proteins in animal wastes; but, again, unpalatability has kept most of these newer protein sources from the table.

It is of the utmost importance that we guard our ecological soundness with all the knowledge we have at hand -- knowledge that in some fields is far in advance of our willingness to apply it. It is essential that we consider new methods of utilizing and conserving land, for many of our soils ate exploited to the point of depletion and are yielding crops with reduced protein and mineral content. Other soils produce only when saturated with chemical fertilizers and develop an inability to recover crop yields without revitalization through either animal of green manuring.

We must also be on the alert for various air pollutants. Spinach and romaine, for instance, will not grow where the air-sulfur content is high, and acreage yields of grains and other vegetables in such areas are adversely affected as well. Further research is needed to explain why saltwater fish die in waters made up from our formula for seawater but will thrive in natural seawater. Readings of chromatograms of synthetic as opposed to natural vitamins reveal startling differences which ate as yet unexplained. These instances would indicate there ate present in natural substances certain micronutrients -- as yet not completely identified -- which an organism needs in order to carry on vital internal chemical processes and which are lacking in engineered of synthetically produced foods, 535.

Further research and development of genetic seedbanks, now in their infancy, ate needed to maintain efficient seed strains as the wild areas where natural hybridization has taken place are impinged on. For many of our best strains still come from fortuitous rather than man-induced selection. There is an unfortunate tendency to utilize these new seed strains in all areas before their climatic and soil adaptability has been proved, procedures that make them vulnerable to massive failure.

Again, just as variety in the selection of the foods we eat is necessary for our health, a variety of seed sources is essential to maintain the health of our foods. The breeding of plants resistant to disease, drought and insects, and tolerant of varying climates, is as important as hybridization aimed at protein increase. We like to keep in mind the wise old Indian who, when asked why he continued to grow three strains of com when only one was his favorite for food, yield and flavor, answered that he was hedging bis bets; the other two strains would always protect him against a too dry or too cold season of against insect infestation, while his favorite would succumb unless conditions were ideal.

We cannot leave our ecological musings without stressing the importance of these fundamental interrelationships, as complex and subtle in the world of edible plants as are those of the protein combinations and their subsequent utilization by the body, as discussed at left.

Although most grains are wind-pollinated, few of us realize how large and often unexpected a role insect life plays in pollination, and how insecticides can destroy this vital link in the food chain. The current abundance of fruit and vegetables in America can be traced in large part to the importation of the honeybee. The Indians had ah excess of arable land, but for many of their crops they had to rely on much less efficient native pollinators such as noncolonizing bees, wasps and flies. Today, guarding against losing helpful insects is as important as destroying insect enemies -- a fact stressed less often than is the need to solve the equally knotty problem of pesticide poisons in the food chain. We can no longer afford to ignore the interrelationships on which global food supplies depend.

ABOUT FATS

While fats have acquired a bad image of late, we must not forget how essential they are. As part of our body fabric they act as fuel and insulation against cold, as cushioning for the internal organs, and as lubricants. Without fats there would be no way to utilize fat-soluble vitamins. Furthermore, the fats we eat that are of vegetable origin contain unsaturated fatty acids which harbor necessary growth factors and help with the digestion of other fats. An important consideration in fat intake is the percentage of saturated to unsaturated fats. We hear and read much about cholesterol -- that essential constituent of all body cells. It is synthesized, and its production regulated, by the liver. Cholesterol performs a number of indispensable body functions. Up to a limit, the more of it we eat, the less the liver produces. Excess cholesterol intake, however, like other excesses, is to be avoided, since a surplus of cholesterol may have serious consequences. The fatty acids in the saturated fats, which ate derived from dairy products, animal fats, coconut oil and hydrogenated fats, 541, tend to raise the amount of cholesterol in the blood, while the fatty acids in polyunsaturated vegetable oils tend to lower cholesterol levels if taken in double proportion to saturated fats. To differentiate between these types of fat, see 539.

Few of us realize that much of the fat we consume -- like the great mass of an iceberg -- is hidden. Hamburgers and doughnuts, all-American classics, contain about one-fourth fat; chocolate, egg yolk and most cheeses about a third; bacon and peanut butter, as much as one-half. And in pecans and certain other nuts and seeds, the fat content can be almost three-fourths! These proportions ate graphically suggested below.

All fats are sensitive to high temperatures, light and air. For best nutritive values store them carefully; and when cooking with them be sure that you do not let them reach the smoking point, 541. If properly handled they have no adverse effect on normal digestion. Favorable temperatures are indicated in individual recipes. Fats are popular for the flavor they impart to other foods, and for the fact that, being slow to leave the stomach, they give a feeling of satiety.

We suggest, again, the consumption of a variety of fats from animal and vegetable sources, but remind you that fat consumption in the United States has climbed in twenty years from the recommended minimum of 20% to more than 40% today.

ABOUT CARBOHYDRATES

Carbohydrates, found largely in sugars, fruits, vegetables and cereals, are classed as starches or sugars. The sugars include monosaccharides, such as fruit sugars, 557, and honey, 558, which are sweeter than the disaccharides, such as common table sugar, and the polysaccharides, such as starch. The latter two types must be broken down into simple sugars before they are available for body use. This action is initiated by an enzyme in the saliva, which means that these complex starch carbohydrates should be carefully chewed. So dunking is not only bad manners but bad practice.

The caloric value of fruits and vegetables is frequently lower than that of cereals, while that of all concentrated sweets is higher. Children and athletes can consume larger amounts of sugars and starches with less harm than can relatively inactive people; but many of us tend to eat a greater amount of carbohydrates than we can handle. Our consumption of sweet and starchy foods, to say nothing of highly sweetened beverages, is frequently excessive. Since the 1900s U.S. sugar consumption has increased by 25% , mainly in foods commercially prepared before they come into the home, making our per capita intake of these emptù calories 103 pounds annually. The imbalance that results is acknowledged to be one of the major causes of malnutrition, for the demands excess carbohydrates make on the system may cause, among other dietary disturbances, a deficiency in its supply of the vitamin B complex. For itemized Calorie Values, see 8.

ACCESSORY FACTORS

Besides those already described, there are some fifty-odd important known nutrients required by the body, including minerals, vitamins, and other accessory factors. The body can store a few of these, such as the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K, but others, such as the water-soluble vitamins B complex and C, must continually be replaced. The latter occur in those fragile food constituents that ate lost through indifferent handling, excessive processing, and poor cooking. For instance, if you fail to utilize vegetable cooking waters, you ate throwing out about one-third the minerals and water-soluble vitamins of the vegetable. To retain as much of them as possible, please follow the cooking suggestions given in subsequent chapters, and see About Stocks, 520.

If you maintain an adequate intake in such a way as to achieve the complete-protein and fat and carbohydrate balance described above, and ir you choose from the following food groups, you will probably include all the necessary accessory factors. So fill your market basket first so as to assure two 3-ounce servings of complete-protein foods daily -- meat, fish, fowl of eggs. Or, if you use combinations of incomplete proteins such as cereals and legumes, seeds, peanuts or gelatin, make sure you plan for the inclusion of some complete-protein food at the same meals, see 8.

Drink daily of use in cooking 2 cups of fresh milk of reconstituted dry milk, 531, or allow enough of the following milk equivalents: for each 1/2 cup of milk allow 1 cup ice cream, 1/3 cup cottage cheese of one 1-inch cube cheddar-type cheese. Ir you are one of those persons lacking the ability to digest the lactose in milk, get your major milk requirements from cheeses, which are low in lactose.

Plan four of more daily servings of starchy foods such as baked goods, cereals of pastas, accenting whole grains. Potatoes ate sometimes included in this group.

Also include daily four or more 1/2- to 3/4-cup servings of fruits and vegetables distributed among citrus fruits or tomatoes and three or more dark green or deep yellow fruits and vegetables, including preferably one raw leafy green vegetable. Also check the constituents of each meal for the bulk found in vegetables and fruits to make sure there are more high- than low-residue foods.

Foods abundant in accessory values include: eggs, cheese, butter, whole milk, egg yolks, fish-especially herring, salmon, tuna and shellfish; beans, peas, nuts, seeds and whole grains; red meats and pork, variety meats, 499; fresh vegetables -- especially the yellow and leafy green types -- including white and sweet potatoes, brown rice and yellow com; fresh fruits and berries and their juices; tomatoes and tomato juice; cabbage, spinach and cauliflower, as well as watercress, lettuces and other salad greens, and vegetable oils, 541. Bake with whole grains and flavor with brown sugars, molasses, wheat germ and butter. Don't forget to ingest one of the important accessory values, vitamin D, which you can get through exposure to sunlight, and remember that although outdoor exercise will tone your muscles and increase your oxygen intake -- and perhaps your calorie needs -- it will not necessarily make greater demands on your store of protein, vitamins or minerals.

If you have chosen wisely from the above substances, you may not need additional vitamin supplements. We all know from practical experience and statistical evidence that a well-nourished body has greater resistance to disease than a poorly nourished one. Recent research tends to support the thesis that adequate intake of accessory factors can contribute not only to disease resistance but also to disease prevention.

Other incidentals to bear in mind are: drink 5 to 7 glasses of fluid a day, including water, and, ir you live in a region that calls for ir, use iodized salt, see About Salt, 569.

The schedule outlined above is not necessarily a costly one. It is nearly always possible to substitute cheaper but equally nutritious items from the same food groups. Vegetables of similar accessory value, for example, may be differently priced. Seasonal foods, which automatically give us menu variations, ate usually higher in food value and lower in cost. You can also profitably grow your own. Whole-grain cereals ate no more costly than highly processed ones. Fresh fruits are frequently less expensive than canned fruits, which are often loaded with sugar.

If you are willing to cut down on sugar-laden processed cereals and other sugar items, especial[y fancy baked goods, bottled drinks, and candies, a higher percentage of the diet dollar will be released for dairy products, vegetables and fruits. Do not buy more perishable foods than you can properly store. Use leftovers cold, preferably. To reheat them with minimal loss, see 281.

To sum up, our fundamental effort always must be to provide this highly versatile body of ours with those elements it needs for efficient functioning, and to provide them in such proportions as to subject the body to the least possible strain.

However, not realizing the importance of variety in the selection of foods, some people are guided by calorie values alone. For instance, with bread and potatoes, almost equal in carbohydrates, you will find that bread scores higher in protein and fat factors but potatoes are greatly superior in iron, provitamin A, vitamin C and thiamin, all valuable accessory factors. Some help in making choices is available through product labeling. If any prepared and packaged food shipped in interstate commerce makes nutritional claims as to protein, fat, carbohydrate, calor(es, vitamins, minerals or enrichment, ir must have labels declaring certain nutrient contents and giving both serving size and servings per container. The food processor has the option of declaring fatty acid and/or cholesterol content. He may also indicate the sodium content in the food. Because of differences in protein quality, two levels of protein intake are shown according to the protein efficiency ratio, 8, of case(n: foods with levels equal to or greater than casein, and foods with less than casein values. If a food has less than 20% of the PER of casein, its label cannot declare that it is a source of protein. Sometimes labels indicate the percentages of available nitrogen instead of protein. Given the nitrogen percentage, you may approximate the protein content by multiplying the nitrogen figure by six.

Well-grown minimally processed foods are usually our best sources for complete nourishment; and a well-considered choice of them should in most cases meet our dietary needs.

You will find in this book, along with the classic recipes, a number which remain interesting and palatable even though they lack some everyday ingredient such as eggs or flour. These may be used by those people who have allergies. But we do not prescribe corrective diets; we feel that such situations demand special procedures in consultation with one's physician. As to the all-too-prevalent condition of overweight, it is now generally recognized that on-and-off crash diets are dangerous, and that a reeducation in moderate and varied eating habits is the only safe and permanent solution to this problem.

We stress again that the cook who has the responsibility for supplying the family with food will do well to keep alert to advances in the field of nutrition.

Take an active part in working toward consumer protection, for more and more food processors are gaining control over the condition and content of foods as we buy them. Take an interest, too, in legislative changes affecting labeling. The FDA's original intent for foods included under "standards of identity" ensured that terms like "mayonnaise" or "ice cream" would guarantee the same basic ingredients required in the government-established recipe no matter who manufactured ir. But since the manufacturer is free to disclose or reveal as he pleases a wide variety of added ingredients, the consumer is at a loss to know just what he is buying. And there is a further, more recent loophole. While formerly the word "imitation" was required on labels for any deviations from the original substance, such as variations in taste, smell, color, texture, melting quality, of method of manufacture, today the term "imitation" may be omitted if the government considers the substitute to be nutritionally equal to the original. This so-called equality of the substitute food may be chemically induced of may be achieved by additives of enrichments. "Buyer, beware!"

But in planning menus and cooking, there are considerations other than mete percentages of intake in relation to fats, carbohydrates, proteins, minerals and vitamins. Peoples have learned over the centuries how to cope with poisonous elements that exist in some of the most basic foods. They know sprouting potatoes are heavy in glycoalkaloids; that cassava must be washed in a complicated fashion to rid it of its hydrocyanic content; that soy products must be either heated or fermented to destroy their trypsin- and urease-inhibiting factors; that cabbage, ir it plays a large part in the diet, should be cooked in quantities of water to release its goiterogenic factors even at the expense of vitamin losses, just as wild greens frequently need several blanchings and discardings of the cooking water to rid them of their toxic content, 305. But peoples have also discovered a twentyfold increase in calcium content in limewater-soaked corn for tortillas; that oatmeal, if left wet and warm overnight, will with subsequent cooking release the phytin which otherwise inhibits the body's calcium absorption from other ingested food. Recently ir has been noted that the phytins in soy depress the absorption of zinc. To ensure a control factor against these and various other food pollutants, it would be wise to vary your choice of foods.

So we come back to our puzzle. Unless and Until greater and more practical advice about food properties becomes common knowledge, each of us must choose a wide variety from the basic food groups to make us feel well and to furnish our bodies with the components they need for growth and for maintaining stamina.

APPROXIMATE CALORIE AND PROTEIN VALUES IN AVERAGE SERVINGS

"Personal size and mental sorrow have certainly no necessary proportions. A large, bulky figure has as good a right to be in deep affliction as the most graceful set of limbs in the world. But, fair or not fair, these are unbecoming conjunctions, which reason will patronize in vain -- which taste cannot tolerate -- which ridicule will seize." -- Jane Austen

We have tried, from data currently furnished by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and other authoritative sources, to give you in the first column below as accurate a calorie count as possible for the total edible portion of each serving of food as ir comes to you at the table. Our soup figures ate for canned soups diluted with the same amount of water -- or whole milk, in the case of cream soups -- unless we specify them as homemade. A cup is the standard 8-ounce measure, and a tablespoon or teaspoon is always a level one. Since we do not expect you to weigh your food at table, this chart should give you a fairly accurate guide to normal servings fora healthy adult. Remember, however, that two martinis before dinner count as much as a generous slice of pie for dessert, and, if you are watching your weight, second thoughts may be better than second helpings.

To use the protein values in the second column on the charts which follow, determine how many grams of protein you require each day, 3. Remember that adequate protein is vital for body maintenance and repairs. Note that with some foods you get too many calories per grato to make that food desirable as a protein source, 3. What is the price in calories you have to pay for a given grato of protein? To find out, divide the number of calories given in a portion of food by the grams of protein in that same portion of food. Foods with less than 35 calories per grato of protein ate considered acceptable. Those with 35 to 70 calories ate considered marginal, and those with 70 or more calories per grato are usually considered unacceptable. But it must be pointed out that the above figures apply only to protein values. While the apple, for instance, is clearly unacceptable for its protein value, it is treasured for its vitamins and minerals and its carbohydrates, mainly in the form of natural sugars. Again there must be a balancing of interrelationships in your intake of basic requirements.

In calculating protein content for the foods below, we have followed those values as suggested by government laws on labeling expressed as to whether the Protein Efficiency Ratio is greater of less than that of casein, the chief protein of milk. You will need 45 grams if the PER is equal to of greater than casein, in which case the figure is in bold-face type, and 65 grams of protein if the PER is less than the value of casein, in which case the figure is in light-face type. Ir the protein has a value of less than 20% of casein, it cannot be considered a significant source of protein and should not be included in your protein calculations. If the figure appears in italics, there is a mixture of foods. A "T" indicates only a trace of protein, and where a dash appears, reliable information on the protein value is not presently available.

Copyright © 1931, 1936, 1941, 1942, 1943, 1946, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1975, by the Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc.

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Interviews & Essays

On November 24, 1997, Ethan Becker joined barnesandnoble.com on AOL to discuss the revised, all-purpose Joy of Cooking. Along with a team of internationally praised chefs, Becker updated this American classic for the '90s, adding timesaving tips and diverse new recipes.



VogelBN: Hello, and welcome, Mr. Becker! We are pleased to have you tonight!

Irma S Rombauer: Good evening! Great to be here!


VogelBN: The audience is brimming with questions, so if you're ready, we'll dive right into them.

Irma S Rombauer: Sounds good!


Question: Most kids aren't allowed to hold a knife until they're 13, but I bet you were integrated into the kitchen pretty quickly. What is your first kitchen memory?

Irma S Rombauer: When mother was baking cookies and I got to lick the spoon.


Question: What motivated you to remove the "Canning and Preserves" chapter from Joy?

Irma S Rombauer: Space. We either had to enlarge it or drop it, and we felt the pasta and vegetable chapters were more necessary.


Question: A friend recently gave me an automatic bread maker as a shower gift. What does it do, and is the bread still as good?

Irma S Rombauer: The automatic bread maker is not as good as breads made by hand, but waking up to the smell of fresh bread is worth the price of admission. We use it for fresh cinnamon raisin toast — mmmmmmm!


Question: I am intrigued by the design of the recipes in Joy of Cooking. Who decided to list the ingredients throughout the recipe as opposed to all at the beginning? And why?

Irma S Rombauer: This format was invented by my grandmother as a space saver, and I think it is the most logical and easiest-to-use method.


Question: At the end of the introduction, I noticed a section crediting "Testers." That must be the best job in the world! How can I become a tester for the next edition?

Irma S Rombauer: It is harder work than you might think. But just to let you know,testers are chosen through friends who vouch for their taste buds. And actually, in this day and time, with the food world so expanded, there are many professionals who do just that for a living.


Question: Please help me make a good chicken-fried steak! Every time I try, the coating either falls off or gets greasy and oil-saturated. How hot should the oil be, what type, and what should the breading be made of, and how long should it fry? Thanks!

Irma S Rombauer: The oil should be very hot. The breading should be made using the batter you'll find in the new Joy for Chicken Fried Steak, page 663. Fry two to three minutes each side. Turn only once.


Question: I use your pecan pie recipe every Thanksgiving, but I had to adjust it a little because the crust kept burning. What can I do to prevent this?

Irma S Rombauer: Try checking the temperature of oven. You can find a hanging thermometer at most housewares departments. Inaccurate oven temperatures are a chronic problem.


Question: I love the new chapter "Little Dishes." I recently made samosas for a cocktail party; they were very successful. What inspired you to devote a chapter to meze, tapas, and the like?

Irma S Rombauer: They can be a creative core for a fun meal or party!


Question: I'm 86 and I've had a copy of Joy since I was married. I'm worried that the new version won't have my favorite recipes, like Beef Wellington or Tuna, Noodle and Mushroom Soup Casserole. What should I expect?

Irma S Rombauer: Beef Wellington is still there, but you will find most canned soups removed from recipes. But that doesn't mean you can't use them if you prefer.


Question: With one of the biggest culinary holidays approaching, I would like to know what Thanksgiving was like for the Rombauer-Becker family. Thanks!

Irma S Rombauer: That's a big question! It could take all night, but by and large, it was very similar most years to Thanksgiving dinners in homes across the country. The big difference was probably in dessert, as we generally had hazelnut torte instead of pumpkin pie.


Question: I tried making the cheese sauce for your cheese french toast and the top of the sauce was oily and runny, and the bottom was thick and not too appetizing. How can I improve?

Irma S Rombauer: What kind of cheese did you use? It sounds to me as if you're using too much heat when making the sauce. Try reducing the heat when cooking the sauce and increase the heat when you cook the toast.


Question: Is the main idea of the new edition to bring the cookbook up-to-date nutritionally or to take advantage of the many new ingredients now available year-round?

Irma S Rombauer: Definitely both. The new JOY was needed for a number of reasons. Recent developments in nutrition and new ingredients were two of the major reasons for the revision. One of the other big reasons was America's new lovefor big flavors. Yay!


Question: I have a question about sifting flour. I follow the Joy pancake recipe every Sunday morning. When I sift the flour and remeasure, I always end up putting back a significant amount of "overflow." Has the presift idea been eliminated?

Irma S Rombauer: Yes, we have eliminated the need to sift in the basic pancake recipe.


Question: Your cousins Brian and Charlotte Furness of Washington, D.C., wish you success with the new Joy and would appreciate more on how your mother and grandmother inspired you to continue the Rombauer-Becker tradition.

Irma S Rombauer: Hi, Brian and Charlotte! Carrying on the tradition seemed like the logical thing to do. Besides...who else?


Question: Is it okay to freeze the mince pie (your recipe) and cook it a few days later?

Irma S Rombauer: I would recommend refrigerating rather than freezing — but only or a few days.


Question: Do you hope your son will help out with the next edition?

Irma S Rombauer: A parent always has hopes, but he is young and still has many other things to do first.


Question: You worked with numerous internationally renowned chefs on the new edition. Your friend Stephen Schmidt contributed to five sections. He must be a very good friend. Could you comment on his involvement?

Irma S Rombauer: Stephen was invaluable. He has earned the nickname "Fix-it" for a very good reason. His experiences as a cooking instructor in classes all over America keep him very in-touch with what is being cooked, as well as what people want to cook.


Question: What is the biggest difference between the new Joy and old Joy?

Irma S Rombauer: You'll find the major emphasis is on freshness and flavor. The new veggie chapter is over 100 pages long; there is a chapter for pasta, a chapter on beans and grains.... The biggest difference is that it is written for today rather than 20 years ago.


VogelBN: Thank you so much for joining us tonight, Mr. Becker.

Irma S Rombauer: It has been a pleasure. And to all who joined us, I wish you Happy Thanksgiving and lots of joyful cooking!


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Sort by: Showing all of 16 Customer Reviews
  • Posted February 20, 2010

    A Cookbook for All Purposes

    This book replaces my 1964 edition (which is held together with strapping tape and food spills). It acts as a dictionary (ratatouille is eggplant) as well as a comprehensive cookbook. The new edition omits the recipe for possum, but goes into more detail on how to prepare sauces. Most of the recipes are very basic and can be altered as needed for individual taste.

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  • Posted August 29, 2009

    more from this reviewer

    A Must have for every Kitchen

    This is a must have for every Kitchen in America. This is a Great reference cook book for everything from making the everyday dinner to entertaining your first or 100th house party. A definite must have reference book for every household.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted October 24, 2006

    a requirement

    my roommates bought me the joy of cooking for my 23 birthday. i do not know how i lived before owning this comprehesive and indispensable book. i love to cook, but did not realize how much more my skills can grow by learning the basics of food preparation and staple recipes. i now have notes in the margins, comments, and additional recipes stuck inbetween the pages of my new favorite book.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted April 11, 2006

    Best $35 You Will Ever Spend

    Bar none, the title says it all. This book has everything but the kitchen sink in it. The oven temperature coversion guide is a must for foreign transplants moving to the United States. The instructions are incredibly detailed.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted October 15, 2002

    Good cookbook

    This is a great cookbook that includes some but not all of the basics. I, like a reviewer above, had always wondered where the basic chocolate cake and scalloped potatoes recipe were. Even though another reviewer kind of answers the question I don't totally agree with them. If you are a beginning cook you may not link the instructions about bechamel sauce on 46 to making scalloped potatoes and you also would not know how long to cook them for, what size dish to use, etc. Also you would not think of the Chocolate Sheet Cake as being a basic chocolate cake (really it isn't). I was also suprised that there were no ice-cream recipes. Still, this is one of my favorite cookbooks and I think the recipes I have tried taste wonderful. I would reccommend it but it just leaves out some important recipes that beginning cooks need to know. If you can buy the old edition of Joy, it is much more complete.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted October 31, 2002

    GREAT REVISION, GREAT BOOK

    I don't know why some people are saying that this book is not as good as the old Joy of Cooking. I have both, and I disagree. I think there are a lot more recipes in the new one that you're likely to make, plus it still has the same great quality as the old one: every step is clear, precise and explained in great detail. It might lack the humor of the original, but who cares? It's a cookbook!!

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  • Anonymous

    Posted August 15, 2002

    needs work

    I love the history and information that is provided with the recipes which makes very good reading. But, since I am the type of cook that has to go strictly by the recipe, I've found the book has many errors and/or incomplete directions. I would still buy it for my grown children as a source of good information, but not to go by the recipes.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted May 28, 2002

    Why The Joy of Cooking is helpful

    The Joy of Cooking is more than your average cookbook. The Joy of Cooking is a must have cookbook for those that cook on their own. It provides the most basic as well as the more advanced recipes for those who love food that taste great! The recipes are outlined in an easy to follow and step by step method to make cooking a joy! Along with the great recipes, the Joy of Cooking cookbook also has sections that teach the reader about technique, how to cook, prepare, and serve foods. It also incorporates an extensive glossary of cooking words to explain even the most difficult jargon. One example of a great recipe is the recipe for hot cinnamon rolls and icing. This recipe takes about a half hour to prepare and a little over a ten minutes to bake using common ingredients. The rolls come out of the oven hot and fresh and taste great. This book also includes great recipes for foods that can be made for hiking, camping, and other outdoor activities where high-energy snacks like trail mixes are needed. It also gives instructions from cooking over a campfire, broiling, Dutch oven cooking, to frozen foods and deserts. The Joy of Cooking is a great source of reference to have around the kitchen.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted January 23, 2002

    The Kitchen Bible

    I have been in the Foodservice profession for 33 years. The Joy of Cooking is a must for every kitchen, fancy and plain.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted November 12, 2000

    Excellent Basic Cooking Guide

    This book is great for all kitchens as a guide to make almost anything.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted November 10, 2000

    The real joy of cooking

    We have used the 'JOY OF COOKING' now for some 45 years and have given it to many a bride to be and helpless bachelors. If you can read, you can follow this kitchen manual with ease and success. Bon appetit.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted September 14, 2000

    Great Summary of How to be a Good Cook

    I love this cookbook! Whenever I am in doubt as to how to do something I turn to this book. This book is the foundation upon which all good cooking rests. When you read this you will know how to do it right.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted May 10, 2000

    The go to book.

    I must confess I have a lot of cookbooks that have fancy recipes that I rarely ever look at. More often than not I need a cookbook for a reference or how to. This is one of those books. It can tell you how to cook the classic or traditional. Those foo foo books are neat reading but quite often not practical.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted January 5, 2000

    This book is great!

    I was surprised to read in a previous review that someone was disappointed with this book. Just to help, scalloped potatoes are made with a Bechamel sauce found on page 46. The Chocolate cake is found on page 932. To vary the pan size, just check out the chart on page 925. This is a great edition. Don't buy this one AND the previous one. Buy this one and READ it. I have paid much more for 'professional' cook books with less information.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted December 6, 2009

    No text was provided for this review.

  • Anonymous

    Posted November 11, 2009

    No text was provided for this review.

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