The 48 Laws of Power

The 48 Laws of Power

4.2 210
by Robert Greene

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Before Mastery, came The 48 Laws of Power—the New York Times bestseller that started it all

Amoral, cunning, ruthless, and instructive, The 48 Laws of Power is the definitive manual for anyone interested in gaining, observing, or defending against ultimate control. In the book that People magazine proclaimed…  See more details below


Before Mastery, came The 48 Laws of Power—the New York Times bestseller that started it all

Amoral, cunning, ruthless, and instructive, The 48 Laws of Power is the definitive manual for anyone interested in gaining, observing, or defending against ultimate control. In the book that People magazine proclaimed “beguiling” and “fascinating,” Robert Greene and Joost Elffers have distilled three thousand years of the history of power into 48 essential laws by drawing from the philosophies of Machiavelli, Sun Tzu, and Carl Von Clausewitz and also from the lives of figures ranging from Henry Kissinger to P.T. Barnum.

Some laws teach the need for prudence (“Law 1: Never Outshine the Master”), others teach the value of confidence (“Law 28: Enter Action with Boldness”), and many recommend absolute self-preservation (“Law 15: Crush Your Enemy Totally”). Every law, though, has one thing in common: an interest in total domination. In a bold and arresting two-color package, The 48 Laws of Power is ideal whether your aim is conquest, self-defense, or simply to understand the rules of the game.

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Editorial Reviews

This season's most talked about all-purpose personal strategy guide and philosophical compendium.
Hardy Green
The 48 Laws of Power seems to have been packaged more than published. . . . The moral advice adds up to a grim portrait of a ruthless, duplicitous universe.
Publishers Weekly - Publisher's Weekly
Greene and Elffers have created an heir to Machiavelli's The Prince, espousing principles such as: everyone wants more power; emotions, including love, are detrimental; deceit and manipulation are life's paramount tools. Anyone striving for psychological health will be put off at the start, but the authors counter, saying "honesty is indeed a power strategy," and "genuinely innocent people may still be playing for power." Amoral or immoral, this compendium aims to guide those who embrace power as a ruthless game, and will entertain the rest. Elffers' layout (he is identified as the co-conceiver and designer in the press release) is stylish, with short epigrams set in red at the margins. Each law, with such elusive titles as "Pose as a Friend, Work as a Spy," "Get Others To Do the Work for You, But Always Take the Credit," "Conceal Your Intentions," is demonstrated in four ways--using it correctly, failing to use it, key aspects of the law and when not to use it. Illustrations are drawn from the courts of modern and ancient Europe, Africa and Asia, and devious strategies culled from well-known personae: Machiavelli, Talleyrand, Bismarck, Catherine the Great, Mao, Kissinger, Haile Selassie, Lola Montes and various con artists of our century. These historical escapades make enjoyable reading, yet by the book's conclusion, some protagonists have appeared too many times and seem drained. Although gentler souls will find this book frightening, those whose moral compass is oriented solely to power will have a perfect vade mecum.
Library Journal
Uses examples from history to deliver 48 laws for the power-hungry, e.g., Law 1: "Never outshine the master." Designed by Elffers, a noted book packager.
Kirkus Reviews
The authors have created a sort of anti-Book of Virtues in this encyclopedic compendium of the ways and means of power. Everyone wants power and everyone is in a constant duplicitous game to gain more power at the expense of others, according to Greene, a screenwriter and former editor at Esquire (Elffers, a book packager, designed the volume, with its attractive marginalia). We live today as courtiers once did in royal courts: we must appear civil while attempting to crush all those around us. This power game can be played well or poorly, and in these 48 laws culled from the history and wisdom of the world's greatest power players are the rules that must be followed to win. These laws boil down to being as ruthless, selfish, manipulative, and deceitful as possible. Each law, however, gets its own chapter: "Conceal Your Intentions," "Always Say Less Than Necessary," "Pose as a Friend, Work as a Spy," and so on. Each chapter is conveniently broken down into sections on what happened to those who transgressed or observed the particular law, the key elements in this law, and ways to defensively reverse this law when it's used against you. Quotations in the margins amplify the lesson being taught. While compelling in the way an auto accident might be, the book is simply nonsense. Rules often contradict one another. We are told, for instance, to "be conspicuous at all costs," then told to "behave like others." More seriously, Greene never really defines "power," and he merely asserts, rather than offers evidence for, the Hobbesian world of all against all in which he insists we live. The world may be like this at times, but often it isn't. To ask why this is so would be a farmore useful project. If the authors are serious, this is a silly, distasteful book. If they are not, it's a brilliant satire.

New York Magazine
“It’s The Rules for suits. . . . Machiavelli has a new rival. And Sun-tzu better watch his back.”
New York Magazine
From the Publisher
“It’s The Rules for suits. . . . Machiavelli has a new rival. And Sun-tzu better watch his back.”
New York Magazine

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Chapter One




Always make those above you feel comfortably superior. In your desire to please and impress them, do not go too far in displaying your talents or you might accomplish the opposite--inspire fear and insecurity. Make your masters appear more brilliant than they are and you will attain the heights of power.


Nicolas Fouquet, Louis XIV's finance minister in the first years of his reign, was a generous man who loved lavish parties, pretty women, and poetry. He also loved money, for he led an extravagant lifestyle. Fouquet was clever and very much indispensable to the king, so when the prime minister, Jules Mazarin, died, in 1661, the finance minister expected to be named the successor. Instead, the king decided to abolish the position. This and other signs made Fouquet suspect that he was falling out of favor, and so he decided to ingratiate himself with the king by staging the most spectacular party the world had ever seen. The party's ostensible purpose would be to commemorate the completion of Fouquet's chateau, Vaux-le- Vicomte, but its real function was to pay tribute to the king, the guest of honor.

    The most brilliant nobility of Europe and some of the greatest minds of the time--La Fontaine, La Rochefoucauld, Madame de Sevigne --attended the party. Moliere wrote a play for the occasion, in which he himself was to perform at the evening's conclusion. The party began with a lavish seven-course dinner, featuring foods from the Orient never before tasted in France, aswell as new dishes created especially for the night. The meal was accompanied with music commissioned by Fouquet to honor the king.

    After dinner there was a promenade through the chateau's gardens. The grounds and fountains of Vaux-le-Vicomte were to be the inspiration for Versailles.

    Fouquet personally accompanied the young king through the geometrically aligned arrangements of shrubbery and flower beds. Arriving at the gardens' canals, they witnessed a fireworks display, which was followed by the performance of Moliere's play. The party ran well into the night and everyone agreed it was the most amazing affair they had ever attended.

    The next day, Fouquet was arrested by the king's head musketeer, D'Artagnan. Three months later he went on trial for stealing from the country's treasury. (Actually, most of the stealing he was accused of he had done on the king's behalf and with the king's permission.) Fouquet was found guilty and sent to the most isolated prison in France, high in the Pyrenees Mountains, where he spent the last twenty years of his life in solitary confinement.


Louis XIV, the Sun King, was a proud and arrogant man who wanted to be the center of attention at all times; he could not countenance being outdone in lavishness by anyone, and certainly not his finance minister. To succeed Fouquet, Louis chose Jean-Baptiste Colbert, a man famous for his parsimony and for giving the dullest parties in Paris. Colbert made sure that any money liberated from the treasury went straight into Louis's hands. With the money, Louis built a palace even more magnificent than Fouquet's--the glorious palace of Versailles. He used the same architects, decorators, and garden designer. And at Versailles, Louis hosted parties even more extravagant than the one that cost Fouquet his freedom.

    Let us examine the situation. The evening of the party, as Fouquet presented spectacle on spectacle to Louis, each more magnificent than the one before, he imagined the affair as demonstrating his loyalty and devotion to the king. Not only did he think the party would put him back in the king's favor, he thought it would show his good taste, his connections, and his popularity, making him indispensable to the king and demonstrating that he would make an excellent prime minister. Instead, however, each new spectacle, each appreciative smile bestowed by the guests on Fouquet, made it seem to Louis that his own friends and subjects were more charmed by the finance minister than by the king himself, and that Fouquet was actually flaunting his wealth and power. Rather than flattering Louis XIV, Fouquet's elaborate party offended the king's vanity. Louis would not admit this to anyone, of course--instead, he found a convenient excuse to rid himself of a man who had inadvertently made him feel insecure.

    Such is the fate, in some form or other, of all those who unbalance the master's sense of self, poke holes in his vanity, or make him doubt his preeminence.


In the early 1600s, the Italian astronomer and mathematician Galileo found himself in a precarious position. He depended on the generosity of great rulers to support his research, and so, like all Renaissance scientists, he would sometimes make gifts of his inventions and discoveries to the leading patrons of the time. Once, for instance, he presented a military compass he had invented to the Duke of Gonzaga. Then he dedicated a book explaining the use of the compass to the Medicis. Both rulers were grateful, and through them Galileo was able to find more students to teach. No matter how great the discovery, however, his patrons usually paid him with gifts, not cash. This made for a life of constant insecurity and dependence. There must be an easier way, he thought.

    Galileo hit on a new strategy in 1610, when he discovered the moons of Jupiter. Instead of dividing the discovery among his patrons--giving one the telescope he had used, dedicating a book to another, and so on--as he had done in the past, he decided to focus exclusively on the Medicis. He chose the Medicis for one reason: Shortly after Cosimo I had established the Medici dynasty, in 1540, he had made Jupiter, the mightiest of the gods, the Medici symbol--a symbol of a power that went beyond politics and banking, one linked to ancient Rome and its divinities.

    Galileo turned his discovery of Jupiter's moons into a cosmic event honoring the Medicis' greatness. Shortly after the discovery, he announced that "the bright stars [the moons of Jupiter] offered themselves in the heavens" to his telescope at the same time as Cosimo II's enthronement. He said that the number of the moons--four--harmonized with the number of the Medicis (Cosimo II had three brothers) and that the moons orbited Jupiter as these four sons revolved around Cosimo I, the dynasty's founder. More than coincidence, this showed that the heavens themselves reflected the ascendancy of the Medici family. After he dedicated the discovery to the Medicis, Galileo commissioned an emblem representing Jupiter sitting on a cloud with the four stars circling about him, and presented this to Cosimo II as a symbol of his link to the stars.

    In 1610 Cosimo II made Galileo his official court philosopher and mathematician, with a full salary. For a scientist this was the coup of a lifetime. The days of begging for patronage were over.


In one stroke, Galileo gained more with his new strategy than he had in years of begging. The reason is simple: All masters want to appear more brilliant than other people.

    They do not care about science or empirical truth or the latest invention; they care about their name and their glory. Galileo gave the Medicis infinitely more glory by linking their name with cosmic forces than he had by making them the patrons of some new scientific gadget or discovery.

    Scientists are not spared the vagaries of court life and patronage. They too must serve masters who hold the purse strings. And their great intellectual powers can make the master feel insecure, as if he were only there to supply the funds--an ugly, ignoble job. The producer of a great work wants to feel he is more than just the provider of the financing. He wants to appear creative and powerful, and also more important than the work produced in his name. Instead of insecurity you must give him glory. Galileo did not challenge the intellectual authority of the Medicis with his discovery, or make them feel inferior in any way; by literally aligning them with the stars, he made them shine brilliantly among the courts of Italy. He did not outshine the master, he made the master outshine all others.


Everyone has insecurities. When you show yourself in the world and display your talents, you naturally stir up all kinds of resentment, envy, and other manifestations of insecurity. This is to be expected. You cannot spend your life worrying about the petty feelings of others. With those above you, however, you must take a different approach: When it comes to power, outshining the master is perhaps the worst mistake of all.

    Do not fool yourself into thinking that life has changed much since the days of Louis XIV and the Medicis. Those who attain high standing in life are like kings and queens: They want to feel secure in their positions, and superior to those around them in intelligence, wit, and charm. It is a deadly but common misperception to believe that by displaying and vaunting your gifts and talents, you are winning the master's affection. He may feign appreciation, but at his first opportunity he will replace you with someone less intelligent, less attractive, less threatening, just as Louis XIV replaced the sparkling Fouquet with the bland Colbert. And as with Louis, he will not admit the truth, but will find an excuse to rid himself of your presence.

    This Law involves two rules that you must realize. First, you can inadvertently outshine a master simply by being yourself. There are masters who are more insecure than others, monstrously insecure; you may naturally outshine them by your charm and grace.

    No one had more natural talents than Astorre Manfredi, prince of Faenza. The most handsome of all the young princes of Italy, he captivated his subjects with his generosity and open spirit.

    In the year 1500, Cesare Borgia laid siege to Faenza. When the city surrendered, the citizens expected the worst from the cruel Borgia, who, however, decided to spare the town: He simply occupied its fortress, executed none of its citizens, and allowed Prince Manfredi, eighteen at the time, to remain with his court, in complete freedom.

    A few weeks later, though, soldiers hauled Astorre Manfredi away to a Roman prison. A year after that, his body was fished out of the River Tiber, a stone tied around his neck. Borgia justified the horrible deed with some sort of trumped-up charge of treason and conspiracy, but the real problem was that he was notoriously vain and insecure. The young man was outshining him without even trying. Given Manfredi's natural talents, the prince's mere presence made Borgia seem less attractive and charismatic. The lesson is simple: If you cannot help being charming and superior, you must learn to avoid such monsters of vanity. Either that, or find a way to mute your good qualities when in the company of a Cesare Borgia.

    Second, never imagine that because the master loves you, you can do anything you want. Entire books could be written about favorites who fell out of favor by taking their status for granted, for daring to outshine. In late-sixteenth-century Japan, the favorite of Emperor Hideyoshi was a man called Sen no Rikyu. The premier artist of the tea ceremony, which had become an obsession with the nobility, he was one of Hideyoshi's most trusted advisers, had his own apartment in the palace, and was honored throughout Japan. Yet in 1591, Hideyoshi had him arrested and sentenced to death. Rikyu took his own life, instead. The cause for his sudden change of fortune was discovered later: It seems that Rikyu, former peasant and later court favorite, had had a wooden statue made of himself wearing sandals (a sign of nobility) and posing loftily. He had had this statue placed in the most important temple inside the palace gates, in clear sight of the royalty who often would pass by. To Hideyoshi this signified that Rikyu had no sense of limits. Presuming that he had the same rights as those of the highest nobility, he had forgotten that his position depended on the emperor, and had come to believe that he had earned it on his own. This was an unforgivable miscalculation of his own importance and he paid for it with his life. Remember the following: Never take your position for granted and never let any favors you receive go to your head.

    Knowing the dangers of outshining your master, you can turn this Law to your advantage. First you must flatter and puff up your master. Overt flattery can be effective but has its limits; it is too direct and obvious, and looks bad to other courtiers. Discreet flattery is much more powerful. If you are more intelligent than your master, for example, seem the opposite: Make him appear more intelligent than you. Act naive. Make it seem that you need his expertise. Commit harmless mistakes that will not hurt you in the long run but will give you the chance to ask for his help. Masters adore such requests. A master who cannot bestow on you the gifts of his experience may direct rancor and ill will at you instead.

    If your ideas are more creative than your master's, ascribe them to him, in as public a manner as possible. Make it clear that your advice is merely an echo of his advice.

    If you surpass your master in wit, it is okay to play the role of the court jester, but do not make him appear cold and surly by comparison. Tone down your humor if necessary, and find ways to make him seem the dispenser of amusement and good cheer. If you are naturally more sociable and generous than your master, be careful not to be the cloud that blocks his radiance from others. He must appear as the sun around which everyone revolves, radiating power and brilliance, the center of attention. If you are thrust into the position of entertaining him, a display of your limited means may win you his sympathy. Any attempt to impress him with your grace and generosity can prove fatal: Learn from Fouquet or pay the price.

    In all of these cases it is not a weakness to disguise your strengths if in the end they lead to power. By letting others outshine you, you remain in control, instead of being a victim of their insecurity. This will all come in handy the day you decide to rise above your inferior status. If, like Galileo, you can make your master shine even more in the eyes of others, then you are a godsend and you will be instantly promoted.

Authority: Avoid outshining the master. All superiority is odious, but the superiority of a subject over his prince is not only stupid, it is fatal. This is a lesson that the stars in the sky teach us--they may be related to the sun, and just as brilliant, but they never appear in her company. (Baltasar Gracian, 1601-1658)


You cannot worry about upsetting every person you come across, but you must be selectively cruel. If your superior is a falling star, there is nothing to fear from outshining him. Do not be merciful--your master had no such scruples in his own cold-blooded climb to the top. Gauge his strength. If he is weak, discreetly hasten his downfall: Outdo, outcharm, outsmart him at key moments. If he is very weak and ready to fall, let nature take its course. Do not risk outshining a feeble superior--it might appear cruel or spiteful. But if your master is firm in his position, yet you know yourself to be the more capable, bide your time and be patient. It is the natural course of things that power eventually fades and weakens. Your master will fall someday, and if you play it right, you will outlive and someday outshine him.

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What People are saying about this

From the Publisher
Praise for The 48 Laws of Power:

“It’s the rules for suits . . . Machiavelli has a new rival. And Sun Tzu had better watch his back. Greene . . . has put together a checklist of ambitious behavior. Just reading the table of contents is enough to stir a little corner-office lust.”
New York magazine

“Beguiling . . . literate . . . fascinating. A wry primer for people who desperately want to be on top.”
People magazine

“An heir to Machiavelli’s Prince . . . gentler souls will find this book frightening, those whose moral compass is oriented solely to power will have a perfect vade mecum.”
Publishers Weekly

“Satisfyingly dense and . . . literary, with fantastic examples of genius power-game players. It’s The Rules meets In Pursuit of Wow! with a degree in comparative literature.”

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The 48 Laws of Power 4.2 out of 5 based on 0 ratings. 210 reviews.
Guest More than 1 year ago
As a retired CEO and now university professor, I cannot disagree more strongly with the premise of this book and the tactics promoted within. The ideas expoused here are ruthless, amoral, manipulative nonsense -- a dose of pure utilitarianism for the stupid and greedy. Glaring examples of this twisted ethos were apparent in the management teams at Enron, Tyco, Worldcom, Arthur Anderson, Adelphia, and a host of other disfunctional corporations. The unsustainable paths these organizations chose, and the disasterous outcomes that resulted, exemplify the distorted ideas expoused in this sadly popular writing. Once again, Greene reminds us that no social question is so complex that a simple-minded solution can't be offered. For those interested in reading works on this subject with true substance, I can recommend the following: (1) 'Power, Influence and Persuasion' by Harvard Business School Press & Society for Human Resource Management, (2) 'Power and Influence' by John P. Kotter (at Harvard), (3) 'Managing with Power: Politics and Influence in Organizations' by Jeffrey Pfeffer (at Stanford), and (4) 'Power in Organizations' by Jeffrey Pfeffer (at Stanford). Reading credible and well documented books like these from genuine thought leaders will hopefully innoculate aspiring managers against the 'intellectual kitty litter' offered by Greene.
Anonymous More than 1 year ago
I have this as an ebook text me if you want it, 3476203448 my name is Chris. The book takes each "law" in turn and gives historical examples of those who follow the law and fail to follow the law. You’ll quickly see that the laws of power aren’t really laws – they’re more like principles that will help you in the art of gaining and exercising power. I don’t mean to suggest that the laws are incorrect – they’re absolutely correct – they’re just not laws.
Ray_G_Weedy More than 1 year ago
I have not finished this book yet but so far it is very enjoyable! I love how the writer includes examples of the laws within history and by historic figues. Also the way the book is printed with little side stories and notes in the margins is awesome! I find it very fascinating and great for discussions. Some laws do not seem practical or amirable but are important to the topic none the less. I am interested in trying to apply some of these laws to my life and perhaps increase the quality of my life. I have been picked on and put down most of my life but perhaps this book will help me turn that around! It is somewhat inspirational.
Piano More than 1 year ago
Clearly its controversial but thats because you either get it or you don't. Extensive research and great examples from actual history plus it has Interpretation for each law, which makes it even easier to understand. This book also has fables to stimulate your mind and make you think. This author is sharp and entertaining. Each law makes sense and wether you like it or not, its the way the world works, there are crooks out there and this book is your best defense!!! I work in a place where there's clicks, its very social, when you work with all kinds of characters like I do, or any people business. Simply put, if you're around 50 people then thats 50 personalities and 50 different behaviors, and you need to be prepared and this book tells you how to handle any situations you could be faced with. Excellent book!!!
Guest More than 1 year ago
Very dissapointing all I had to do is read the Table of Content, which gave me a hint as to the overall substance of the book-Sure every one desires power but obtaining it through ruthless devices will squash you in the end every time-one review said it is not to be taken seriously...Are you serious? we live in a world that operates in the power of light and darkness every day- Hello, focus on the the law of sowing and reaping-and what about the law of reciprocity-power is self control- not to control others or gain the control by manipulation this is clearly deception (witchcraft) this violates one's own will- to posses influennce is to have true power ones integrity and love for one another I'd advise anyone to be up on their game for anyone they come in contact with that invests in the dark principles of these 48 laws in this book. If you must read it, eat the meat of the obvious in human nature, but make sure you spit out the bones!
Guest More than 1 year ago
This Book is a way of getting to know how some people truly are in the world. This book gives an idea of some changes that people can make in their lives. The biggest thing is to understand the book and to not take it literally.
Anonymous More than 1 year ago
Well I like the concept and ideas, the interpretation gives you the ideas and your wisdom should be used when and if envoked. We can all read a books like the bible and have good and bad reviews. This book, is not for you probably, if you are working at Mcdonalds or a non politicized environment ie teacher, student, etc. But in boardrooms and crab-barrell enviroments sometimes you got to do what you must to prosper or survive!
watkd25 More than 1 year ago
Initially, I felt bad for buying this book and I felt worse when I started to read it. Whats important to understand though is that those who choose to read this book do so for 3 reasons (as is stated on the back cover of the book): People who are interested in power, those who watch power, and those who want to protect themselves from power. In my work experience, I have been characterized as someone who is "by the book." Time and again I have seen co-workers work less and get more credit for there "efforts." Or, I have been treated unfairly when I am really doing my job at times better than other co-workers. I feel that I am better off for reading this book for two reasons. First, I have difficulties reading social cues. Now that I have read this book, I feel like I will be able to decipher some, not all, of the hows and whys of human nature. Second, is that when dealing with people in the workforce I think I will be better able to catch some of the mischievous behavior faster by being one or two steps ahead and try to better protect myself. You have to realize that although people would frown upon a book written about acquiring power through: cunning, deceit, coercion, and other methods of behavior, this has happened throughout human history and presently and in the future it will continue to happen but not at the intensity that it once did as described in the book. Understand that as much as you may want to deny it, this is the way the world works and although you may not want to acquire power, like myself, you need to protect yourself from people who have no problem walking over you to acquire it. Arm yourself today by picking up a copy and reading it all the way through. This has helped reduce some of my idealism and boosted my pragmatism. I anticipated reading this book in one week but took longer because of its density. Be prepared to spend quite a bit of time getting through the book. The book was penalized one point for contradictory principles throughout. I have recorded 372 words, terms, people, books, or historical events that will require reviewing in a dictionary or by reviewing online. Keep a dictionary close by. I plan on reading Robert Greene's two of three other books: "The 33 Strategies of War" and "Mastery".
Guest More than 1 year ago
this is manipulation, control, and self-serving force... follow and lose your own soul... its value may be in showing some of the tactics the soulless may use to control and manipulate... so in this it gives wisdom and protection to the naive, but I would not follow it... thus becoming another dog in a dog eat dog world...
Guest More than 1 year ago
Truth for the person looking to take true control of someone and or something in their life. This book is not for younger readers because of the fact it's impossible not to want to practice. It will give you an independent new found confidence to crush anyone or thing that gets in your way. should be labeled as the, 'SECOND BIBLE'.
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EvieCA More than 1 year ago
I love a book that can show me a VERY different way of looking at things. I enjoyed it very much.
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Anonymous More than 1 year ago
I have recommended this book to almost everyone I know. Im a college student that loves history and a good read. This book supplies me with both. I'm 20 years old with alot of ambition. I don't see these "48 Laws" as rules and guidlines that need to be followed but helpful advice to gain power and to guard yourself from it. Plus I love the words of wisdom found throughout the book as you read. My favorite quote from tthis book is "A person who cannot control is words, cannot control himself and is unworthy of respect". I found a lot of the advice to be true in this book. Despite the horrible reviews from some individuals about this book, take the chance and read it for yourself. Remember "Don't judge a book by its cover" or by reviews. I bought this book at 19 and I'm still reading it over again.
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There is a lot of contradiction among the rules...