A1 In life and marine insurance, rating
given to person or property in perfect
AAA Prime rating given to securities by
Standard and Poor’s.
AAP Affirmative Action
Abandonment 1. Final stage in a product
life cycle when the decision is made to discontinue
it. 2. Relinquishing a product to a
third party with or without a settlement or
Abandonment option Choice of terminating
an investment before its scheduled
ABB Activity-based budgeting
ABC Activity-based costing
ABC Audit Bureau of
Abilene paradox Th eory that some decisions
ostensibly based on consensus are
counterproductive because they are founded
on misperceptions and poor communications.
Proposed by Jerry Harvey, Professor
Emeritus of Management, George Washington
University, in 1974.
Abnormal return Rate of return for a risk
greater than that required or expected by
Above-the-line 1. Entries in a profi t-andloss
account that are within the ordinary
activities of business. 2. Entries in a balance
sheet dealing with revenue, as opposed to
capital. Compare Below-the-line. 3. Advertising
through television, radio, newspapers,
Abreaction channel Mechanisms for employees
to express dissatisfaction with their
work or their superiors.
Absence culture Corporate culture in which
absenteeism is condoned.
Absenteeism Unauthorized leave from
work, especially repeatedly.
Absolute cost advantage Cost of producing
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particular products as infl uenced by certain
advantages, such as cheap labor or abundant
Absolute cost barrier Built-in obstacle to
entry into a new market, such as the advantage
held by established or large fi rms.
Absolute market share Per capita income.
See Relative share.
Absolute monopoly Severe form of monopoly
in which production and distribution
of a product or service is in the hands
of a single corporation.
Absolute performance standard Th eoretical
standard of performance, such as Zero
defect, against which actual performance
may be judged.