The American Nation: A History of the United States / Edition 13

The American Nation: A History of the United States / Edition 13

by Mark C. Carnes

ISBN-10: 0205562728

ISBN-13: 9780205562725

Pub. Date: 10/31/2007

Publisher: Longman

The political history of the United States is intimately tied with its social, economic and cultural development. Co-authors Mark Carnes and John Garraty explore this relationship and show how it took the voices and actions of many peoples to produce this singular political structure - The United States of America. Long renowned for its elegant narrative style,

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The political history of the United States is intimately tied with its social, economic and cultural development. Co-authors Mark Carnes and John Garraty explore this relationship and show how it took the voices and actions of many peoples to produce this singular political structure - The United States of America. Long renowned for its elegant narrative style, The American Nation in this Thirteenth Edition retains its most significant strength—its rich and memorable prose.

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MyHistoryLab Series
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Table of Contents

Maps and Graphs


American Lives

Re-Viewing the Past

Mapping the Past

Debating the Past


About the Authors



First Peoples

The Demise of the Big Mammals

The Archaic Period: A World Without Big Mammals

The First Sedentary Communities

The Maize Revolution

The Diffusion of Corn

Population Growth After 800

Cahokia: The Hub of Mississippian Culture

The Collapse of Urban Centers

Eurasia and Africa

Europe in Ferment


Who–or What–Killed the Big Mammals?

Mapping the Past

Debate over the Earliest Route to the Americas

Chapter 1

Alien Encounters: Europe in the Americas


Columbus’s Great Triumph–and Error

Spain’s American Empire

Extending Spain’s Empire to the North

Disease and Population Losses

Ecological Imperialism

Spain’s European Rivals

The Protestant Reformation

English Beginnings in America

The Settlement of Virginia

“Purifying” the Church of England

Bradford and Plymouth Colony

Winthrop and Massachusetts Bay Colony

Troublemakers: Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson

Other New England Colonies

French and Dutch Settlements

Maryland and the Carolinas

The Middle Colonies

Cultural Collisions

Cultural Fusions


How Many Indians Perished with European Settlement?

American Lives


Chapter 2

American Society in the Making

Settlement of New France

Society in New Mexico, Texas, and California

The English Prevail on the Atlantic Seaboard

The Chesapeake Colonies

The Lure of Land

“Solving” the Labor Shortage: Slavery

Prosperity in a Pipe: Tobacco

Bacon’s Rebellion

The Carolinas

Home and Family in the South

Georgia and the Back Country

Puritan New England

The Puritan Family

Visible Puritan Saints and Others

Democracies Without Democrats

The Dominion of New England

Salem Bewitched

Higher Education in New England

A Merchant’s World

The Middle Colonies: Economic Basis

The Middle Colonies: An Intermingling of Peoples

“The Best Poor Man’s Country”

The Politics of Diversity

Becoming Americans

Re-Viewing the Past

The Crucible


Were Puritan Communities Peaceable?

Chapter 3

America in the British Empire

The British Colonial System


The Navigation Acts

The Effects of Mercantilism

The Great Awakening

The Rise and Fall of Jonathan Edwards

The Enlightenment in America

Colonial Scientific Achievements

Repercussions of Distant Wars

The Great War for the Empire

Britain Victorious: The Peace of Paris

Burdens of an Expanded Empire

Tightening Imperial Controls

The Sugar Act

American Colonists Demand Rights

The Stamp Act: The Pot Set to Boiling

Rioters or Rebels?

Taxation or Tyranny?

The Declaratory Act

The Townshend Duties

The Boston Massacre

The Pot Spills Over

The Tea Act Crisis

From Resistance to Revolution

American Lives

Eunice Williams/Gannenstenhawi


Do Artists Depict Historical Subjects Accurately?

Chapter 4

The American Revolution

“The Shot Heard Round the World”

The Second Continental Congress

The Battle of Bunker Hill

The Great Declaration

1776: The Balance of Forces


The British Take New York City

Saratoga and the French Alliance

The War Moves South

Victory at Yorktown

Negotiating a Favorable Peace

National Government Under the Articles of Confederation

Financing the War

State Republican Governments

Social Reform

Effects of the Revolution on Women

Growth of a National Spirit

The Great Land Ordinances

National Heroes

A National Culture

Re-Viewing the Past

The Patriot


Was the American Revolution Rooted in Class Struggle?

Chapter 5

The Federalist Era: Nationalism Triumphant

Inadequacies of the Articles of Confederation

Daniel Shays’s “Little Rebellion”

To Philadelphia, and the Constitution

The Great Convention

The Compromises That Produced the Constitution

Ratifying the Constitution

Washington as President

Congress Under Way

Hamilton and Financial Reform

The Ohio Country: A Dark and Bloody Ground

Revolution in France

Federalists and Republicans: The Rise of Political Parties

1794: Crisis and Resolution

Jay’s Treaty

1795: All’s Well That Ends Well

Washington’s Farewell

The Election of 1796

The XYZ Affair

The Alien and Sedition Acts

The Kentucky and Virginia Resolves

Mapping the Past

Depicting History with Maps


What Ideas Shaped the Constitution?

Chapter 6

Jeffersonian Democracy

Jefferson Elected President

The Federalist Contribution

Thomas Jefferson: Political Theorist

Jefferson as President

Jefferson’s Attack on the Judiciary

The Barbary Pirates

The Louisiana Purchase

The Federalists Discredited

Lewis and Clark

The Burr Conspiracy

Napoleon and the British

The Impressment Controversy

The Embargo Act

Jeffersonian Democracy

Mapping the Past

A Water Route to the Pacific?


Did Thomas Jefferson Father a Child by His Slave?

Chapter 7

National Growing Pains

Madison in Power

Tecumseh and Indian Resistance

Depression and Land Hunger

Opponents of War

The War of 1812

Britain Assumes the Offensive

“The Star Spangled Banner”

The Treaty of Ghent

The Hartford Convention

The Battle of New Orleans

Victory Weakens the Federalists

Anglo-American Rapprochement

The Transcontinental Treaty

The Monroe Doctrine

The Era of Good Feelings

New Sectional Issues

New Leaders

The Missouri Compromise

The Election of 1824

John Quincy Adams as President

Calhoun’s Exposition and Protest

The Meaning of Sectionalism

Mapping the Past

North—South Sectionalism Intensifies


How Did Indians and Settlers Interact?

Chapter 8

Toward a National Economy

Gentility and the Consumer Revolution

Birth of the Factory

An Industrial Proletariat?

Lowell’s Waltham System: Women as Factory Workers

Irish and German Immigrants

The Persistence of the Household System

Rise of Corporations

Cotton Revolutionizes the South

Revival of Slavery

Roads to Market

Transportation and the Government

Development of Steamboats

The Canal Boom

New York City: Emporium of the Western World

The Marshall Court

Mapping the Past

The Making of the Working Class


Did a “Market Revolution” Transform Early Nineteenth-Century America?

Chapter 9

Jacksonian Democracy

“Democratizing” Politics

1828: The New Party System in Embryo

The Jacksonian Appeal

The Spoils System

President of All the People

Sectional Tensions Revived

Jackson: “The Bank . . . I Will Kill It!”

Jackson’s Bank Veto

Jackson Versus Calhoun

Indian Removals

The Nullification Crisis

Boom and Bust

Jacksonianism Abroad

The Jacksonians

Rise of the Whigs

Martin Van Buren: Jacksonianism Without Jackson

The Log Cabin Campaign

American Lives

Horace Greeley


For Whom Did Jackson Fight?

Chapter 10

The Making of Middle-Class America

Tocqueville: Democracy in America

The Family Recast

The Second Great Awakening

The Era of Associations

Backwoods Utopias

The Age of Reform

“Demon Rum”

The Abolitionist Crusade

Women’s Rights

The Romantic View of Life

Emerson and Thoreau

Edgar Allan Poe

Nathaniel Hawthorne

Herman Melville

Walt Whitman

Reading and the Dissemination of Culture

Education for Democracy

The State of the Colleges

Mapping the Past

Small Families in the Northeast, Large Families in the Frontier


Did the Antebellum Reform Movement Improve Society?

Chapter 11

Westward Expansion

Tyler’s Troubles

The Webster-Ashburton Treaty

The Texas Question

Manifest Destiny

Life on the Trail

California and Oregon

The Election of 1844

Polk as President

War with Mexico

To the Halls of Montezuma

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

The Fruits of Victory: Further Enlargement of the United States

Slavery: Storm Clouds Gather

The Election of 1848

The Gold Rush

The Compromise of 1850

Mapping the Past

The Political Geography of Slavery


Did the Frontier Change Women’s Roles?

Chapter 12

The Sections Go Their Ways

The South

The Economics of Slavery

Antebellum Plantation Life

The Sociology of Slavery

Psychological Effects of Slavery

Manufacturing in the South

The Northern Industrial Juggernaut

A Nation of Immigrants

How Wage Earners Lived

Progress and Poverty

Foreign Commerce

Steam Conquers the Atlantic

Canals and Railroads

Financing the Railroads

Railroads and the Economy

Railroads and the Sectional Conflict

The Economy on the Eve of Civil War

American Lives

Sojourner Truth


Did Slaves and Masters Form Emotional Bonds?

Chapter 13

The Coming of the Civil War

The Slave Power Comes North

Uncle Tom’s Cabin

Diversions Abroad: The “Young America” Movement

Stephen Douglas: “The Little Giant”

The Kansas-Nebraska Act

Know-Nothings, Republicans, and the Demise of the Two-Party System

“Bleeding Kansas”

Senator Sumner Becomes a Martyr for Abolitionism

Buchanan Tries His Hand

The Dred Scott Decision

The Proslavery Lecompton Constitution

The Emergence of Lincoln

The Lincoln-Douglas Debates

John Brown’s Raid

The Election of 1860

The Secession Crisis

Mapping the Past

Runaway Slaves: Hard Realities


Was the Civil War Avoidable?

Chapter 14

The War to Save the Union

Lincoln’s Cabinet

Fort Sumter: The First Shot

The Blue and the Gray

The Test of Battle: Bull Run

Paying for the War

Politics as Usual

Behind Confederate Lines

War in the West: Shiloh

McClellan: The Reluctant Warrior

Lee Counterattacks: Antietam

The Emancipation Proclamation

The Draft Riots

The Emancipated People

African American Soldiers

Antietam to Gettysburg

Lincoln Finds His General: Grant at Vicksburg

Economic and Social Effects, North and South

Women in Wartime

Grant in the Wilderness

Sherman in Georgia

To Appomattox Court House

Winners, Losers, and the Future

Re-Viewing the Past


Re-Viewing the Past

Cold Mountain


Why Did the South Lose the Civil War?

Chapter 15

Reconstruction and the South

The Assassination of Lincoln

Presidential Reconstruction

Republican Radicals

Congress Rejects Johnsonian Reconstruction

The Fourteenth Amendment

The Reconstruction Acts

Congress Supreme

The Fifteenth Amendment

“Black Republican” Reconstruction: Scalawags and Carpetbaggers

The Ravaged Land

Sharecropping and the Crop-Lien System

The White Backlash

Grant as President

The Disputed Election of 1876

The Compromise of 1877

Mapping the Past

The Politics of Reconstruction


Were Reconstruction Governments Corrupt?

Chapter 16

The Conquest of the West

The West After the Civil War

The Plains Indians

Indian Wars

The Destruction of Tribal Life

The Lure of Gold and Silver in the West

Big Business and the Land Bonanza

Western Railroad Building

The Cattle Kingdom

Open-Range Ranching

Barbed-Wire Warfare

American Lives

Nat Love


Was the Frontier Exceptionally Violent?

Chapter 17

An Industrial Giant

Essentials of Industrial Growth

Railroads: The First Big Business

Iron, Oil, and Electricity

Competition and Monopoly: The Railroads

Competition and Monopoly: Steel

Competition and Monopoly: Oil

Competition and Monopoly: Retailing and Utilities

American Ambivalence to Big Business

Reformers: George, Bellamy, Lloyd

Reformers: The Marxists

The Government Reacts to Big Business: Railroad Regulation

The Government Reacts to Big Business: The Sherman Antitrust Act

The Labor Union Movement

The American Federation of Labor

Labor Militancy Rebuffed

Whither America, Whither Democracy?

Mapping the Past

Were the Railroads Indispensable to Economic Growth?


Were the Industrialists “Robber Barons” or Savvy Entrepreneurs?

Chapter 18

American Society in the Industrial Age

Middle-Class Life

Skilled and Unskilled Workers

Working Women


Working-Class Family Life

Working-Class Attitudes

Working Your Way Up

The “New” Immigration

New Immigrants Face New Nativism

The Expanding City and Its Problems

Teeming Tenements

The Cities Modernize

Leisure Activities: More Fun and Games

Christianity’s Conscience and the Social Gospel

The Settlement Houses

Civilization and Its Discontents

Mapping the Past

Cholera: A New Disease Strikes the Nation


Did Immigrants Assimilate?

Chapter 19

Intellectual and Cultural Trends

Colleges and Universities

Revolution in the Social Sciences

Progressive Education

Law and History

Realism in Literature

Mark Twain

William Dean Howells

Henry James

Realism in Art

The Pragmatic Approach

The Knowledge Revolution

Re-Viewing the Past



Did the Frontier Engender Individualism and Democracy?

Chapter 20

Politics: Local, State, and National

Congress Ascendant

Recurrent Issues

Party Politics: Sidestepping the Issues

Lackluster Presidents: From Hayes to Harrison

Blacks in the South After Reconstruction

Booker T. Washington: A “Reasonable” Champion for Blacks

City Bosses

Crops and Complaints

The Populist Movement

Showdown on Silver

The Depression of 1893

The Election of 1896

The Meaning of the Election

Mapping the Past

The Election of 1896


Were City Governments Corrupt and Incompetent?

Chapter 21

The Age of Reform

Roots of Progressivism

The Muckrakers

The Progressive Mind

“Radical” Progressives: The Wave of the Future

Political Reform: Cities First

Political Reform: The States

State Social Legislation

Political Reform: The Woman Suffrage Movement

Political Reform: Income Taxes and Popular Election of Senators

Theodore Roosevelt: Cowboy in the White House

Roosevelt and Big Business

Roosevelt and the Coal Strike

TR’s Triumphs

Roosevelt Tilts Left

William Howard Taft: The Listless Progressive, or More Is Less

Breakup of the Republican Party

The Election of 1912

Wilson: The New Freedom

The Progressives and Minority Rights

Black Militancy

American Lives

Emma Goldman


Were the Progressives Forward-Looking?

Chapter 22

From Isolation to Empire

Isolation or Imperialism?

Origins of the Large Policy: Coveting Colonies

Toward an Empire in the Pacific

Toward an Empire in Latin America

The Cuban Revolution

The “Splendid Little” Spanish-American War

Developing a Colonial Policy

The Anti-Imperialists

The Philippine Insurrection

Cuba and the United States

The United States in the Caribbean and Central America

The Open Door Policy

The Panama Canal

Imperialism Without Colonies

American Lives

Frederick Funston


Did the United States Acquire an Overseas Empire for Economic Reasons?

Chapter 23

Woodrow Wilson and the Great War

Wilson’s “Moral” Diplomacy

Europe Explodes in War

Freedom of the Seas

The Election of 1916

The Road to War

Mobilizing the Economy

Workers in Wartime

Paying for the War

Propaganda and Civil Liberties

Wartime Reforms

Women and Blacks in Wartime

Americans: To the Trenches and Over the Top

Preparing for Peace

The Paris Peace Conference and the Versailles Treaty

The Senate Rejects the League of Nations


The Red Scare

The Election of 1920

American Lives

Harry S Truman


Did a Stroke Sway Wilson’s Judgment?

Chapter 24

Postwar Society and Culture: Change and Adjustment

Closing the Gates to New Immigrants

New Urban Social Patterns

The Younger Generation

The “New” Woman

Popular Culture: Movies and Radio

The Golden Age of Sports

Urban—Rural Conflicts: Fundamentalism

Urban—Rural Conflicts: Prohibition

The Ku Klux Klan

Sacco and Vanzetti

Literary Trends

The “New Negro”

Economic Expansion

The Age of the Consumer

Henry Ford

The Airplane

Re-Viewing the Past



Was the Decade of the 1920s One of Self-Absorption?

Chapter 25

The New Era: 1921—1933

Harding and “Normalcy”

“The Business of the United States Is Business”

The Harding Scandals

Coolidge Prosperity

Peace Without a Sword

The Peace Movement

The Good Neighbor Policy

The Totalitarian Challenge

War Debts and Reparations

The Election of 1928

Economic Problems

The Stock Market Crash of 1929

Hoover and the Depression

The Economy Hits Bottom

The Depression and Its Victims

The Election of 1932

Mapping the Past

FDR’s Political Revolution


What Caused the Great Depression?

Chapter 26

The New Deal: 1933—1941

The Hundred Days

The National Recovery Administration (NRA)

The Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA)

The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)

The New Deal Spirit

The Unemployed

Literature in the Depression

Three Extremists: Long, Coughlin, and Townsend

The Second New Deal

The Election of 1936

Roosevelt Tries to Undermine the Supreme Court

The New Deal Winds Down

Significance of the New Deal

Women as New Dealers: The Network

Blacks During the New Deal

A New Deal for Indians

The Role of Roosevelt

The Triumph of Isolationism

War Again in Europe

A Third Term for FDR

The Undeclared War

Re-Viewing the Past

Cinderella Man


Did the New Deal succeed?

Chapter 28

War and Peace

The Road to Pearl Harbor

Mobilizing the Home Front

The War Economy

War and Social Change

Minorities in Time of War: Blacks, Hispanics, and Indians

The Treatment of German and Italian Americans

Internment of the Japanese

Women’s Contribution to the War Effort

Allied Strategy: Europe First

Germany Overwhelmed

The Naval War in the Pacific

Island Hopping

Building the Atom Bomb

Wartime Diplomacy

Allied Suspicion of Stalin

Yalta and Potsdam

Re-Viewing the Past

Saving Private Ryan


Should the United States Have Used Atomic Bombs Against Japan?

Chapter 28

The American Century

Truman Becomes President

The Postwar Economy

The Containment Policy

The Atom Bomb: A “Winning” Weapon?

A Turning Point in Greece

The Marshall Plan and the Lesson of History

Dealing with Japan and China

The Election of 1948

Containing Communism Abroad

Hot War in Korea

The Communist Issue at Home


Dwight D. Eisenhower

The Eisenhower-Dulles Foreign Policy

McCarthy Self-Destructs

Asian Policy After Korea

Israel and the Middle East

Eisenhower and Khrushchev

Latin America Aroused

The Politics of Civil Rights

The Election of 1960

Re-Viewing the Past

Good Night, and Good Luck


Did Truman Needlessly Exacerbate Relations with the Soviet Union?

Chapter 29

From Camelot to Watergate

Kennedy in Camelot

The Cuban Crises

The Vietnam War

“We Shall Overcome”: The Civil Rights Movement

Tragedy in Dallas: JFK Assassinated

Lyndon Baines Johnson

The Great Society

Johnson Escalates the War

Opposition to the War

The Election of 1968

Nixon as President: “Vietnamizing” the War

The Cambodian “Incursion”

Détente with Communism

Nixon in Triumph

Domestic Policy Under Nixon

The Watergate Break-in

More Troubles for Nixon

The Judgment on Watergate: “Expletive Deleted”

The Meaning of Watergate

Mapping the Past

School Segregation After the Brown Decision


Would JFK Have Sent a Half-Million American Troops to Vietnam?

Chapter 30

Society in Flux

A Society on the Move

The Advent of Television

At Home and Work

The Growing Middle Class

Religion in Changing Times

Literature and Art

The Perils of Progress

New Racial Turmoil

Native-Born Ethnics

Rethinking Public Education

Students in Revolt

The Counterculture

The Sexual Revolution

Women’s Liberation

Mapping the Past

Roe v. Wade (1978) and the Abortion Controversy


Did Mass Culture Make Life Shallow?

Chapter 31

Running on Empty: The Nation Transformed

The Oil Crisis

Ford as President

The Fall of South Vietnam

Ford Versus Carter

The Carter Presidency

A National Malaise

Stagflation: The Weird Economy

Families Under Stress: Defeat of the Equal Rights Amendment

Cold War or Détente?

The Iran Crisis: Origins

The Iran Crisis: Carter’s Dilemma

The Election of 1980

Reagan as President

Four More Years

“The Reagan Revolution”

Change and Uncertainty


The New Merger Movement

“A Job for Life”: Layoffs Hit Home

A “Bipolar” Economy, a Fractured Society

The Iran-Contra Arms Deal

American Lives

Bill Gates


Did Reagan end the Cold War?

Chapter 32

Misdemeanors and High Crimes

The Election of 1988

Crime and Punishment

“Crack” and Urban Gangs

George H. W. Bush as President

The Collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe

The War in the Persian Gulf

The Deficit Worsens

Looting the Savings and Loans

Whitewater and the Clintons

The Election of 1992

A New Start: Clinton

Emergence of the Republican Majority

The Election of 1996

A Racial Divide

Violence and Popular Culture

Clinton Impeached

Clinton’s Legacy

The Economic Boom and the Internet

The 2000 Election: George W. Bush Wins by One Vote

Terrorism Intensifies

September 11, 2001

America Fights Back: War in Afghanistan

The Second Iraq War

The Election of 2004

The Imponderable Future

Mapping the Past

Twenty Years of Terrorism


Do Historians Ever Get it Right?


The Declaration of Independence

The Articles of Confederation

The Constitution of the United States of America

Amendments to the Constitution

Presidential Elections, 1789—2004


Picture Credits


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