16. Reconstruction, 1863-1877
"To Bind Up the Nation's Wounds"
Land and Labor
The African American Quest for Autonomy
DOCUMENTING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: "The Meaning of Freedom"
Johnson's Program of Reconciliation
White Southern Resistance and Black Codes
Expansion of Federal Authority and Black Rights
The Fourteenth Amendment and Escalating Violence
Radical Reconstruction and Military Rule
Impeaching a President
The Fifteenth Amendment and Women's Demands
The Struggle in the South
Freedmen, Yankees, and Yeomen
White Landlords, Black Sharecroppers
HISTORICAL QUESTION: "What Did the Ku Klux Klan Really Want?"
VISUALIZING HISTORY: "A Post-Slavery Encounter"
Grant's Troubled Presidency
Northern Resolve Withers
White Supremacy Triumphs
An Election and a Compromise
Conclusion: "A Revolution But Half Accomplished"
17. The Contested West, 1865-1900
Conquest and Empire in the West
Indian Removal and the Reservation System
The Decimation of the Great Bison Herds
Indian Wars and the Collapse of Comancher’a
The Fight for the Black Hills
BEYOND AMERICA'S BORDERS: "Imperialism, Colonialism, and the Treatment of the Sioux and the Zulu"
Forced Assimilation and Resistance Strategies
Indian Schools and the War against Indian Culture
The Dawes Act and Indian Land Allotment
Indian Resistance and Survival
Gold Fever and the Mining West
Mining on the Comstock Lode
The Diverse Peoples of the West
Moving West: Homesteaders and Speculators
Ranchers and Cowboys
Tenants, Sharecroppers, and Migrants
Commercial Farming and Industrial Cowboys
DOCUMENTING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: "Young Women Homesteaders and the Promise of the West"
Conclusion: The West in the Gilded Age
18. Business and Politics in the Gilded Age, 1865-1900
Old Industries Transformed, New Industries Born
Railroads: America's First Big Business
Andrew Carnegie, Steel, and Vertical Integration
John D. Rockefeller, Standard Oil, and the Trust
New Inventions: The Telephone and Electricity
VISUALIZING HISTORY: "The Vanderbilts and the Gilded Age"
From Competition to Consolidation
J. P. Morgan and Finance Capitalism
Social Darwinism, Laissez-Faire, and the Supreme Court
HISTORICAL QUESTION: "Social Darwinism: Did Wealthy Industrialists Practice What They Preached?"
Politics and Culture
Political Participation and Party Loyalty
Sectionalism and the New South
Gender, Race, and Politics
Corruption and Party Strife
Garfield's Assassination and Civil Service Reform
Reform and Scandal: The Campaign of 1884
Economic Issues and Party Realignment
The Tariff and the Politics of Protection
Railroads, Trusts, and the Federal Government
The Fight for Free Silver
Panic and Depression
Conclusion: Business Dominates an Era
19. The City and Its Workers, 1870-1900
The Rise of the City
The Urban Explosion: A Global Migration
Racism and the Cry for Immigration Restriction
The Social Geography of the City
SEEKING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: "Seeking Refuge: Russian Jews Escape the Pogroms"
At Work in Industrial America
America's Diverse Workers
The Family Economy: Women and Children
White-Collar Workers: Managers, "Typewriters," and Salesclerks
The Great Railroad Strike of 1877
The Knights of Labor and the American Federation of Labor
Haymarket and the Specter of Labor Radicalism
At Home and at Play
Domesticity and "Domestics"
City Growth and City Government
Building Cities of Stone and Steel
City Government and the "Bosses"
White City or City of Sin?
BEYOND AMERICA'S BORDERS: "The World's Columbian Exposition and Nineteenth-Century World's Fairs"
Conclusion: Who Built the Cities?
20. Dissent, Depression, and War, 1890-1900
The Farmers' Revolt
The Farmers' Alliance
The Populist Movement
The Labor Wars
The Homestead Lockout
The Cripple Creek Miners' Strike of 1894
Eugene V. Debs and the Pullman Strike
DOCUMENTING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: "The Press and the Pullman Strike: Framing Class Conflict"
Frances Willard and the Woman's Christian Temperance Union
Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, and the Movement for Woman Suffrage
The People's Party and the Election of 1896
The United States and the World
Markets and Missionaries
The Monroe Doctrine and the Open Door Policy
"A Splendid Little War"
The Debate over American Imperialism
BEYOND AMERICA'S BORDERS: "Regime Change in Hawai'i"
HISTORICAL QUESTION: "Did Terrorists Sink the Maine?"
Conclusion: Rallying around the Flag
21. Progressivism from the Grass Roots to the White House, 1890-1916
Civilizing the City
Progressives and the Working Class
SEEKING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: "Making the Workplace Safer: Alice Hamilton Explores the Dangerous Trades"
Progressivism: Theory and Practice
Reform Darwinism and Social Engineering
Progressive Government: City and State
Progressivism Finds a President: Theodore Roosevelt
The Square Deal
Roosevelt the Reformer
Roosevelt and Conservation
The Big Stick
The Troubled Presidency of William Howard Taft
VISUALIZING HISTORY: "The Birth of Photojournalism"
HISTORICAL QUESTION: "Progressives and Conservation: Should Hetch Hetchy Be Dammed or Saved?"
Woodrow Wilson and Progressivism at High Tide
Progressive Insurgency and the Election of 1912
Wilson's Reforms: Tariff, Banking, and the Trusts
Wilson, Reluctant Progressive
The Limits of Progressive Reform
Progressivism for White Men Only
Conclusion: The Transformation of the Liberal State
22. World War I: The Progressive Crusade at Home and Abroad, 1914-1920
Woodrow Wilson and the World
Taming the Americas
The European Crisis
The Ordeal of American Neutrality
The United States Enters the War
The Call to Arms
The War in France
The Crusade for Democracy at Home
The Progressive Stake in the War
Women, War, and the Battle for Suffrage
Rally around the Flag — or Else
SEEKING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: "Seeking to Serve: An American Woman in Wartime France"
DOCUMENTING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: "The Final Push for Woman Suffrage"
A Compromised Peace
Wilson's Fourteen Points
The Paris Peace Conference
The Fight for the Treaty
Democracy at Risk
Economic Hardship and Labor Upheaval
The Red Scare
The Great Migrations of African Americans and Mexicans
Postwar Politics and the Election of 1920
BEYOND AMERICA'S BORDERS: "Bolshevism"
Conclusion: Troubled Crusade
23. From New Era to Great Depression, 1920-1932
The New Era
A Business Government
Promoting Prosperity and Peace Abroad
Automobiles, Mass Production, and Assembly-Line Progress
The Roaring Twenties
The New Woman
The New Negro
Entertainment for the Masses
The Lost Generation
VISUALIZING HISTORY: "Advertising in a Consumer Age"
HISTORICAL QUESTION: "Was There a Sexual Revolution in the 1920s?"
SEEKING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: "The Quest for Home Ownership in Segregated Detroit"
Resistance to Change
Rejecting the Undesirables
The Rebirth of the Ku Klux Klan
The Scopes Trial
Al Smith and the Election of 1928
The Great Crash
Herbert Hoover: The Great Engineer
The Distorted Economy
The Crash of 1929
Hoover and the Limits of Individualism
Life in the Depression
The Human Toll
Denial and Escape
Conclusion: Dazzle and Despair
24. The New Deal Experiment, 1932-1939
Franklin D. Roosevelt: A Patrician in Government
The Making of a Politician
The Election of 1932
BEYOND AMERICA'S BORDERS: "Fascism: Adolf Hitler and National Socialism"
Launching the New Deal
The New Dealers
Banking and Finance Reform
Relief and Conservation Programs
SEEKING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: "Textile Workers Strike for Better Wages and Working Conditions"
Challenges to the New Deal
Resistance to Business Reform
Casualties in the Countryside
Politics on the Fringes
Toward a Welfare State
Relief for the Unemployed
Social Security and Tax Reform
Neglected Americans and the New Deal
The New Deal from Victory to Deadlock
The Election of 1936
Reaction and Recession
The Last of the New Deal Reforms
Conclusion: Achievements and Limitations of the New Deal
25. The United States and the Second World War, 1939-1945
Roosevelt and Reluctant Isolation
The Good Neighbor Policy
The Price of Noninvolvement
The Onset of War
Nazi Aggression and War in Europe
From Neutrality to the Arsenal of Democracy
Japan Attacks America
Mobilizing for War
Building a Citizen Army
Conversion to a War Economy
DOCUMENTING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: "Japanese Internment"
Turning the Tide in the Pacific
The Campaign in Europe
The Wartime Home Front
Women and Families, Guns and Butter
The Double V Campaign
Wartime Politics and the 1944 Election
Reaction to the Holocaust
BEYOND AMERICA'S BORDERS: Nazi Anti-Semitism and the Atomic Bomb"
Toward Unconditional Surrender
From Bombing Raids to Berlin
The Defeat of Japan
HISTORICAL QUESTION: "Why Did the Allies Win World War II?"
Conclusion: Allied Victory and America's Emergence as a Superpower
26. Cold War Politics in the Truman Years, 1945-1953
From the Grand Alliance to Containment
The Cold War Begins
The Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan
Building a National Security State
Superpower Rivalry around the Globe
DOCUMENTING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: "The Emerging Cold War"
Truman and the Fair Deal at Home
Reconverting to a Peacetime Economy
Blacks and Mexican Americans Push for Their Civil Rights
The Fair Deal Flounders
The Domestic Chill: McCarthyism
HISTORICAL QUESTION: "What Happened to Rosie the Riveter?"
SEEKING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: "An Immigrant Scientist Encounters the Anti-Communist Crusade"
The Cold War Becomes Hot: Korea
Korea and the Military Implementation of Containment
From Containment to Rollback to Containment
Korea, Communism, and the 1952 Election
An Armistice and the War's Costs
Conclusion: The Cold War's Costs and Consequences
27. The Politics and Culture of Abundance, 1952-1960
Eisenhower and the Politics of the "Middle Way"
Termination and Relocation of Native Americans
The 1956 Election and the Second Term
Liberation Rhetoric and the Practice of Containment
The "New Look" in Foreign Policy
Applying Containment to Vietnam
Interventions in Latin America and the Middle East
The Nuclear Arms Race
SEEKING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: "Operation Pedro Pan: Young Political Refugees Take Flight"
New Work and Living Patterns in an Economy of Abundance
Technology Transforms Agriculture and Industry
Burgeoning Suburbs and Declining Cities
The Rise of the Sun Belt
The Democratization of Higher Education
The Culture of Abundance
Consumption Rules the Day
The Revival of Domesticity and Religion
Television Transforms Culture and Politics
The Emergence of a Civil Rights Movement
African Americans Challenge the Supreme Court and the President
Montgomery and Mass Protes
DOCUMENTING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: "The Brown Decision"
Conclusion: Peace and Prosperity Mask Unmet Challenges
28. Reform, Rebellion, and Reaction, 1960-1974
Liberalism at High Tide
The Unrealized Promise of Kennedy's New Frontier
Johnson Fulfills the Kennedy Promise
Policymaking for a Great Society
Assessing the Great Society
The Judicial Revolution
The Second Reconstruction
The Flowering of the Black Freedom Struggle
The Response in Washington
Black Power and Urban Rebellions
A Multitude of Movements
Native American Protest
Latino Struggles for Justice
Student Rebellion, the New Left, and the Counterculture
Gay Men and Lesbians Organize
DOCUMENTING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: "Student Protest"
VISUALIZING HISTORY: "Anti-Establishment Clothing"
The New Wave of Feminism
A Multifaceted Movement Emerges
Feminist Gains Spark a Countermovement
BEYOND AMERICA'S BORDERS: "Transnational Feminisms"
Liberal Reform in the Nixon Administration
Extending the Welfare State and Regulating the Economy
Responding to Environmental Concerns
Expanding Social Justice
Conclusion: Achievements and Limitations of Liberalism
29. Vietnam and the End of the Cold War Consensus, 1961-1975
New Frontiers in Foreign Policy
Meeting the "Hour of Maximum Danger"
New Approaches to the Third World
The Arms Race and the Nuclear Brink
A Growing War in Vietnam
Lyndon Johnson's War against Communism
An All-Out Commitment in Vietnam
Preventing Another Castro in Latin America
The Americanized War
Those Who Served
A Nation Polarized
The Widening War at Home
The Tet Offensive and Johnson's Move toward Peace
The Tumultuous Election of 1968
BEYOND AMERICA'S BORDERS: "1968: A Year of Protest"
Nixon, Deetente, and the Search for Peace in Vietnam
Moving toward Detente with the Soviet Union and China
Shoring Up U.S. Interests around the World
Vietnam Becomes Nixon's War
The Peace Accords
The Legacy of Defeat
SEEKNG THE AMERICAN PROMISE: "From the Fall of Saigon to the House of Representatives"
Conclusion: An Unwinnable War
30. America Moves to the Right, 1969-1989
Nixon, Conservatism, and Constitutional Crisis
Emergence of a Grassroots Movement
Nixon Courts the Right
The Election of 1972
The Ford Presidency and the 1976 Election
SEEKING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: "A Mother Campaigns for a Say in Her Children's Education"
The "Outsider" Presidency of Jimmy Carter
Retreat from Liberalism
Energy and Environmental Reform
Promoting Human Rights Abroad
The Cold War Intensifies
Ronald Reagan and the Conservative Ascendancy
Appealing to the New Right and Beyond
Unleashing Free Enterprise
Winners and Losers in a Flourishing Economy
Continuing Struggles over Rights
Battles in the Courts and Congress
Feminism on the Defensive
The Gay and Lesbian Rights Movement
HISTORICAL QUESTION: "Why Did the ERA Fail?"
Ronald Reagan Confronts an "Evil Empire"
Militarization and Interventions Abroad
The Iran-Contra Scandal
A Thaw in Soviet-American Relations
DOCUMENTING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: "Protecting Gay and Lesbian Rights"
Conclusion: Reversing the Course of Government
31. The Promises and Challenges of Globalization, Since 1989
Domestic Stalemate and Global Upheaval: The Presidency of George H. W. Bush
Gridlock in Government
Going to War in Central America and the Persian Gulf
The Cold War Ends
The 1992 Election
SEEKING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: "Suing for Access: Disability and the Courts"
The Clinton Administration's Search for the Middle Ground
Accommodating the Right
Impeaching the President
The Booming Economy of the 1990s
The United States in a Globalizing World
Defining America's Place in a New World Order
Debates over Globalization
The Internationalization of the United States
BEYOND AMERICA'S BORDERS: "Jobs in a Globalizing Era"
President George W. Bush: Conservatism at Home and Radical Initiatives Abroad
The Disputed Election of 2000
The Domestic Policies of a "Compassionate Conservative"
The Globalization of Terrorism
Unilateralism, Preemption, and the Iraq War
The Obama Presidency: Reform and Backlash
VISUALIZING HISTORY: "Caricaturing the Candidates: Clinton and Obama in 2008"
Conclusion: Defining the Government's Role at Home and Abroad