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"The review questions at the end each chapter make for an excellent test review guide."
-Jerry Sheppard, Mount Olive College
|1||The Early Civilization of Mesopotamia and Egypt||1|
|2||An Age of Empires: The Middle East, 2000-1000 B.C.||34|
|3||The Middle East to the Persian Empire||54|
|4||The Emergence of Greek Civilization||77|
|5||The Wars of the Greeks||123|
|7||Philip, Alexander, and the Hellenistic World||189|
|9||The Building of an Empire||263|
|10||The Transformation of the Roman Republic||299|
|11||The Roman World from Augustus to the Third-Century Crisis||332|
|12||The Roman Peace||348|
|13||The Empire from the Third-Century Crisis to Justinian||381|
|14||The Transformed Empire||393|
Unfortunately, a similar set of shared presuppositions does not exist for the ancient world. In a majority of cases none of the institutions mentioned here existed in antiquity, and those that did functioned at such a rudimentary level that they counted for little. Even the ancient world's class system operated on a set of principles quite different from that of the modern state. Particularly in their classical formulations, ancient societies were tightly knit communities in which political, cultural, and religious life closely intermingled. Society was not something set apart from the state but was, instead, closely identified with it. As a result, it is possible to write of ancient society as an independent sphere of human activity in the modern sense only in a very limited way, but what this book seeks to do is to pursue the distinctive forms society took in the ancient world and especially the unusual relationship between society and the state that characterized the social order of antiquity. Detaileddescriptions of the highly integrated world of the classical period are given, placing special emphasis on its culture, social structures, moral values, and political processes. The inner workings of the Athenian democracy and the Roman Republic are discussed at length, and art, literature, and religion—especially how they functioned, vis--vis society—receive prominent attention. At the same time, recognizing that the closely unified societies of the classical period changed radically over the course of time, special consideration is given to the much-altered world of the Hellenistic period (third to second centuries B.C.) and the Roman Empire (first to fifth centuries A.D.). The last chapter describes the new society that began to make its appearance toward the end of antiquity, laying the foundations for the modern world.
In the years since the first edition of this textbook appeared, a great deal has been written on the social history of antiquity. Despite this outpouring, the social history of the ancient world remains at an early stage of its development. For example, any attempt to write a comprehensive survey of the family or gender relations from Sumerian to Byzantine times will quickly demonstrate the sketchiness of our sources and the lack of scholarly investigation into particular periods or areas. However, enormous strides have been made, and this new edition makes a special point of adding to and updating the social material in the text. Where appropriate, emphasis has been placed on the interconnections that permeate the history of the Near East, Greece, and Rome.
I owe special thanks to the following people, who at one stage or another in this book's publishing history made helpful critical suggestions: Thomas A. Anderson, Jr.; Richard Beal; John A. Brinkman; Stanley M. Burstein; T. F. Carney; Stefan Chrissanthos; Walter Donlan; H. A. Drake; Katherine F. Drew; Rory Egan; John K. Evans; Arther Ferrill; Gerald E. Kadish; Richard W. Kaeuper; Barbara Kellum; John A. Koumoulides; Eric Leichty; Michael Maas; W. J. McCoy; Richard E. Mitchell; Jasonne G. O'Brien; Kate Porteus; Chris Rasmussen; Lee Reams; Brigette Russell; and Joanne Scurlock. Thanks also to the Prentice Hall reviewers: Stephen Ruzicka, University of North Carolina at Greensboro and James Halverson, Judson College.