The Archaeology of Medieval Europe 1: The Eighth to Twelfth Centuries ADby James Graham-Campbell, Magdalena Valor
Pub. Date: 10/28/2007
Publisher: Aarhus University Press
The two volumes of The Archaeology of Medieval Europe will together comprise the first complete account of medieval archaeology across Europe. Archaeologists from academic institutions in fifteen countries are collaborating to produce these two books of sixteen thematic chapters each. In addition, every chapter will feature a number of 'box-texts', by specialist contributors, highlighting sites or themes of particular importance. The books will be comprehensively illustrated throughout, in both colour and b/w, including line drawings and specially commissioned maps. This ground-breaking set, which is divided chronologically into two (Vol. 1 extending from the Eighth to Twelfth Centuries AD, and Vol. 2 from the Twelfth to Sixteenth Centuries - to appear 2008), will enable readers to track the development of different cultures, and of regional characteristics, throughout the full extent of medieval Catholic Europe. In addition to revealing shared contexts and technological developments, the complete work will also provide the opportunity for demonstrating the differences that were inevitably present across the Continent - from Iceland to Italy, and from Portugal to Finland - and to study why such differences existed.
- Aarhus University Press
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Table of Contents
Foreword Else Roesdahl 11 Introduction James Graham-Campbell 13 Chapter 1 Medieval Archaeology at the Outset of the Third Millennium: Research and Teaching Hans Andersson Barbara Scholkmann Mette Svart Kristiansen 19 Different Countries: Different Medieval Archaeologies The Development of Medieval Archaeology Objectives and Research Topics The Position of the Discipline among other Academic Disciplines The Teaching of Medieval Archaeology The Theoretical Framework The European Perspective Archaeological Investigation: Data and interpretation; Archaeological excavation; Buildings archaeology; Artefacts; Scientific methods of investigation and dating Bibliography Box 1.1 Stratigraphic Relationships Mette Svart Kristiansen 38 Box 1.2 From Excavation to Publication Soren Frommer 40 Chapter 2 Peoples and Environments Lech Leciejewicz Magdalena Valor 46 The Natural Landscape: Geomorphology and natural resources; Climate, plants and animals; The function of the North, Baltic and Mediterranean Seas in inter-regional contacts Ethnography and Archaeology: North-West Europe; North-East Europe; Southern Europe Socio-Political Transformation and Economic Progress: the Environmental Consequences: Socio-political transformation; Economic progress Bibliography Box 2.1 The Norse Expansion across the North Atlantic Orri Vesteinsson 52 Box 2.2 Central and Northern Europe as seen by Early Medieval Travellers and Geographers Lech Leciejewicz 58 Box 2.3 Arabs and Berbers in al-Andalus Helena de Felipe 68 Chapter 3 Rural Settlement Jan Klapste Anne Nissen Jaubert 76 Introduction: Rural settlement forms; Continuity and change Rural Settlements as Internal Systems: Ruralsettlement stability; Building traditions; Building trends; Farmsteads as socio-economic units Rural Territories as Economic Space: Fields; Rural technology and innovation Rural Settlements in Relationship to Cemeteries and Churches or Chapels The Heritage of Early Medieval Rural Settlement Bibliography Box 3.1 Vorbasse, Denmark Jan Klapste Anne Nissen Jaubert 90 Box 3.2 The Diffusion of the Plough Jan Klapste Anne Nissen Jaubert 98 Chapter 4 Urban Settlement John Schofield Heiko Steuer 111 Part 1 Western Europe John Schofield 111 Introduction The Eighth and Ninth Centuries: Types of urban settlement; Patterns of public and private space; Religion in towns; Manufacturing and trade; Towns as 'central-places'; Conclusions for the eighth and ninth centuries The Tenth to Twelfth Centuries: Types of urban settlement; Patterns of public and private space; Religion in towns; Manufacturing and trade; Towns as 'central-places'; Conclusions for tenth to twelfth centuries Part 2 Central, Northern, Eastern and Southern Europe Heiko Steuer 129 Introduction Definition Phases of urban development Types of early urban settlement Population estimates Patterns of public and private space Towns as 'central-places'
Conclusions Bibliography Box 4.1 Lundenwic John Schofield 114 Box 4.2 Rome Riccardo Santangeli Valenzani 130 Box 4.3 Hedeby Heiko Steuer 140 Chapter 5 Housing Culture Else Roesdahl Barbara Scholkmann 154 Introduction The Archaeology of Housing Culture Sources Rural Housing Monastic Housing Urban Housing Aristocratic Housing Warm, Bright, Safe and Formal in Castles and Towns: Heating and lighting; Interior design; Food, water and waste; Leisure Concluding Remarks Bibliography Box 5.1 The Icelandic House Orri Vesteinsson 156 The Andalusian House Pilar Lafuente 157 Box 5.2 Heating Systems Else Roesdahl Barbara Scholkmann 174 Chapter 6 Food Sabine Karg Pilar Lafuente 181 Part 1 The South Pilar Lafuente 181 Introduction Foods of Animal Origin: Which animals were used? How were they eaten? Foods of Vegetable Origin: Which vegetables were eaten? How were they used? Food of Mineral Origin Preservation and Storage Preparation and Consumption of Food Part 2 The Rest of Europe Sabine Karg 192 Food from Fields Food from Gardens Food from Hedge and Forest Alcoholic Beverages Food from Domestic Animals Food from Wild Animals Bibliography Box 6.1 Archaeobotany and Archaeozoology Sabine Karg 184 Box 6.2 Beer and Wine Sabine Karg 199 Box 6.3 Sea Fishing and Long-Term Socio-Economic Trends in North-Western Europe James H Barrett 201 Chapter 7 Technology, Craft and Industry Ricardo Cordoba Jan Klapste Anne Nissen Jaubert James Graham-Campbell Jerzy Maik Radomir Pleiner Sabine Felgenhauer-Schmiedt Hans Krongaard Kristensen Jens Vellev 208 Introduction: Textiles; Tanning; Bone, antler and horn; Ironworking; Pottery; Glass, Ricardo Cordoba Watermills, Jan Klapste, Anne Nissen Jaubert and Ricardo Cordoba, with James Graham-Campbell Cloth Production, Jerzy Maik Iron and Ironworking, Radomir Pleiner Continental Ceramics: Introduction; Tableware; Kitchenware, Sabine Felgenhauer-Schmiedt The Production and Use of Bricks, Hans Krongaard Kristensen Salt, Jens Vellev Bibliography Chapter 8 Material Culture and Daily Life Sabine Felgenhauer-Schmiedt James Graham-Campbell 237 Political and Economic Foundations Vessels and Life-Styles: Ceramics for table and kitchen; Glass vessels; Metal vessels; Wooden artefacts Clothing and Jewellery Horse and Rider Tools Private Space Reading and Writing Gaming Summary Bibliography Box 8.1 Green-and-Brown Decorated Pottery in al-Andalus Pilar Lafuente 240 Box 8.2 Wooden Artefacts Jon Hather 246 Box 8.3 Women's Costume in South-Western Finland from Grave-Goods Jaana Riikonen 250 Chapter 9 Travel and Transport Jan Bill Else Roesdahl 261 Introduction Travel, Transport and Society Land Transport: Roads, fords and bridges; Riding, driving, carrying, walking - and animals; Winter transport Sea and River Transport: Organisation and routes in the Mediterranean area; Mediterranean shipbuilding traditions; Performance and transport capacity; Mediterranean harbours; Organisation and routes in Northern Europe; Northern shipbuilding traditions; Performance and transport capacity of North European ships; Harbours in Northern Europe Bibliography Box 9.1 Bridges Else Roesdahl 268 Box 9.2 The Gokstad Ship Arne Emil Christensen 280 Chapter 10 Trade and Exchange Paul Arthur Soren M Sindbaek 289 Part 1 The Mediterranean Region Paul Arthur 289 Introduction Ceramics Shipwrecks Coinage Collapse and Revival The Arabs Markets and Trading-Sites Fairs Gift-Exchange and Holy Relics Trade-Goods Development and Change Bibliography Part 2 Northern Europe Soren M Sindbaek 302 The Emporia Network The Urban Revival Places, Networks and Organisation Trade-Goods Bibliography Box 10.1 Commercial Amphorae Paul Arthur 291 Box 10.2 Stone-Trade Soren M Sindbaek 310 Chapter 11 Fortifications Johnny De Meulemeester Kieran O'Conor 316 Introduction Communal Fortifications: Refuge-sites Early State Fortifications: Garrisoned fortresses; Linear fortifications and territorial defences; Proto-urban and urban fortifications; Other communal or early state fortifications Private Fortifications: Castles; Motte castles and ring-work castles; Masonry castles Palaces, Carolingian Villas, Strongholds and Defended Farmsteads: Palaces and Carolingian villas; Strongholds and defended farmsteads Conclusions Bibliography Box 11.1 Hen Domen Wales Robert Higham 328 Box 11.2 Slavic Strongholds Jan Klapste 336 Chapter 12 The Display of Secular Power James Graham-Campbell Matthias Untermann 342 Part 1 Palaces Matthias Untermann 342 Introduction Merovingian and Carolingian Palaces Some other European Palaces Later Palaces and High-Status Architecture Part 2 Elite Activities and Symbols of Power James Graham-Campbell 350 Elite Activities: Hunting; Feasting; Sports, games and tournaments Symbols of Power: Regalia; Heraldry; Seals Bibliography Box 12.1 Secular Power in the Landscape Andrew Reynolds 352 Box 12.2 Crowned Heads James Graham-Campbell 360 Chapter 13 Religions Leszek Slupecki Magdalena Valor 366 Part 1 Pagan Religion in North, East and Central Europe, and Conversion to Christianity Leszek Slupecki 366 Introduction Pagan Beliefs: Mythologies; Rituals Pagan Sanctuaries and 'Central-Places'
Conversion Part 2 Christians, Muslims and Jews Magdalena Valor 380 Introduction Church Organisation: The pre-Carolingian period (700-751); From the Carolingian period to Pope Gregory VII's reform (751-1075); The Church from 1075 until 1200 Monasticism Pilgrimage Christian Artefacts Islam in the Western Mediterranean Area The Jewish Religion Bibliography Box 13.1 Gross Raden, Germany Leszek Slupecki 376 Box 13.2 Pilgrims Jose Avelino Gutierrez 386 Chapter 14 Religious Buildings Tadhg O'Keeffe Matthias Untermann 398 Introduction From Roman to Romanesque: Rome reborn? Churches of the Carolingian renaissance; A transitional era? The later tenth century; Romanesque; The end of Romanesque Categories of Christian Architecture: Monasteries and monastic planning Rebuildings The Evidence of Excavation Issues for the Future Bibliography Box 14.1 The Almohad Friday Mosque of Seville Magdalena Valor 400 Box 14.2 Danish Romanesque Churches: their Interior Arrangements and Fittings Hans Krongaard Kristensen 406 Chapter 15 Life, Death and Memory Thomas Meier James Graham-Campbell 420 Life and Disease: Life-expectancy and paleo-demography; Disease Medical Care Death and Burial: Rites de passage; Places of burial; Grave-markers and memorials; Types of burial; Grave-goods Memory Bibliography Box 15.1 Putting the People in the Picture: What Physical Anthropology can do for Archaeology Niels Lynnerup 428 Box 15.2 Enacting Resurrection: the Religious Topography of Church Burial Thomas Meier 436 Box 15.3 Charlemagne and the Epitaph of Pope Hadrian I Joanna Story 444 Afterword James Graham-Campbell 450 Index of Authors 453 Index: General James Graham-Campbell 455 Index: Peoples and Places Mette Sorensen 465
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