The Art and Science of Motivation: A Therapist's Guide to Working with Children

Overview

This book provides readers with both a theoretical and practical understanding of methods for engaging and working successfully with children with a range of difficulties. The authors present an innovative new paradigm for working with this group, to enhance motivation and engagement and achieve the best possible treatment outcomes. The challenges professionals may face are dearly addressed, and case studies place the key theoretical concepts in a richly human and personal ...

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The Art and Science of Motivation: A Therapist's Guide to Working with Children

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Overview

This book provides readers with both a theoretical and practical understanding of methods for engaging and working successfully with children with a range of difficulties. The authors present an innovative new paradigm for working with this group, to enhance motivation and engagement and achieve the best possible treatment outcomes. The challenges professionals may face are dearly addressed, and case studies place the key theoretical concepts in a richly human and personal context.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781849051255
  • Publisher: Kingsley, Jessica Publishers
  • Publication date: 11/15/2012
  • Pages: 256
  • Product dimensions: 5.90 (w) x 8.90 (h) x 0.70 (d)

Table of Contents

Contributing Authors 15

Foreword Professor Alan Hayes 17

Preface 19

Acknowledgments 21

Chapter 1 Understanding Motivation in the Context Of Engaging Children in Therapy Anne A. Poulsen Jenny Ziviani Monica Cuskelly 23

Overview 23

Introducing the SCOPE-IT model and the macrotheory of Self-Determination 24

The heart of the SCOPE-IT model: Motivation 27

Three basic psychological needs 28

Autonomy-"I have choices" 29

Relatedness-"I am connected to others" 32

Competence-"I can do things" 33

Causality orientations 34

Self-Determination Theory: The motivation continuum 36

Stage 1 Amotivation 43

Stage 2 External regulation 45

Stage 3 Introjected regulation 48

Stage 4 Identified regulation 50

Stage 5 Integrated regulation 53

Stage 6 Intrinsic motivation 55

Summary 57

Chapter 2 Children's Understanding of Purpose: A Matter of Choice Monica Cuskelly Anne A. Poulsen 59

Overview 59

Self-determined behavior 60

What constitutes autonomy? 60

Why is it important to promote autonomy? 62

What types of environments promote the development and use of autonomy-related self-determination skills? 66

Autonomy-supportive therapeutic environments 67

Challenges to providing an autonomy-supportive service 70

Groups who may require particular consideration with respect to autonomy support 71

Children whose parents adopt a controlling style 72

Children with a disability 72

Adolescents 73

Children from different cultural backgrounds 74

Challenges for autonomy-supportive therapeutic practice 76

Assessment 76

Areas where consequences are serious 76

Child goals that are unrealistic or at odds with those of the therapist 77

Working with families 78

Structure in therapy 80

Prior experience of autonomy-supportive environments 82

Does the use of reinforcement undermine motivation in therapy? 83

Summary 88

Chapter 3 Connecting: Nutriments from the Social Environment Jenny ziviani Anne A. Poulsen 91

Overview 91

The therapeutic relationship 92

Spheres of connection 92

Identifying connections 93

Socio-environmental influences 97

Family 98

School 100

Neighborhoods and community organizations 101

Motivational climates 102

Virtual connections 107

Building partnerships 109

Early days in the relationship: Setting goals as a collaborative venture 112

The ongoing relationship 115

Working with other health care practitioners 118

Moving forward 119

Practitioner self-care 119

Summary 121

Chapter 4 Achieving Success: Facilitating Skill Acquisition and Enabling Participation Craig Greber Jim Hinojosa Jenny Ziviani 123

Overview 123

Why is competence important? 124

Defining competence 125

Children's perceptions of their own competence 126

Self-theories 129

Enhancing self-perceptions of competence 136

Enhancing competence through skill acquisition 139

Stages of learning 139

Establishing effective practice routines with children 140

Mental practice 143

Teaching-learning strategies to support the development of competence 146

Summary 156

Chapter 5 Using Language to Motivate Marilyn K. Kertoy Anne A. Poulsen 159

Overview 159

How the therapist's language influences engagement 160

Getting started 161

Developing and strengthening the child-practitioner relationship through the use of language 164

Our language reveals more to others than we realize 167

Nonverbal messages used by practitioners 168

Verbal messages used by practitioners 170

Autonomy-enhancing language practices used by practitioners 171

Feedback and praise 172

Relatedness-enhancing language use by practitioners 174

Competence-enhancing language use by practitioners 175

Combining language and enabling strategies to address the three ARC components of need satisfaction throughout therapy 176

Children's language use in therapy 180

Developmental stages in the acquisition of children's language 180

Children's language and the Self-Determination Theory continuum 183

Amotivation 186

External regulation 186

Introjected regulation 187

Identified and integrated regulation 187

Intrinsic motivation 188

Children's nonverbal messages 188

Summary 190

Chapter 6 Know the Child: Maximizing Engagement and Persistence in Therapy Monica Cuskelly Gillian King 193

Overview 193

Engaging in therapy 194

What does engagement look like? 195

The role of assessment in understanding the child/family 199

Child characteristics affecting engagement in therapy 205

Readiness for change 206

Self awareness 209

Future time sense 210

Relationship with the therapist 211

Age and developmental status 213

Environmental factors affecting child engagement in therapy 214

Family environment 215

School and community environments 219

Therapist strategies to engage the child 220

Summary 222

Chapter 7 Structuring and Working with the Environment Winnie Dunn Jenny Ziviani 225

Overview 225

Temporal environment 225

Children's experience of time 227

Physical settings 229

Socio-cultural considerations 231

Environment and self-determination 232

Environmental intervention: A complex network of factors 236

Authentic settings, routines and generalization 236

Harnessing inherent environmental characteristics 237

Universal Design: Creating friendly and motivating environments for everyone 241

The design is useful and marketable to people with diverse abilities 241

The design accommodates a wide range of individual preferences and abilities 242

The design is easy to understand 243

The design communicates necessary information effectively 244

The design minimizes hazards and accidental or unintended actions 245

The design can be used efficiently and comfortably 246

Appropriate size and space is provided 247

Summary 248

Chapter 8 What Makes it Work? a Collaboration Jonathan Crockett Moira Boyle Jenny Ziviani 249

Overview 249

The therapist's voice 249

An individual journey 249

Meeting Jonathan and his family 250

Early days 251

Negotiating systems 252

A therapy focus based on psychological need support 255

Jonathan's voice 251

Where the rubber hit the road 257

Off to a "flying start": Negotiating the terrain 259

Beyond high school 261

What made this relationship work? 262

Conclusion 264

References 267

Index 285

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