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Architecture means The profession of Designing and constructing a building
The word architecture comes from the Latin Word Architectura and the Greek word Arkhitekton
You pick the colors
Saint Basil's Cathedral, Moscow, Russia. This cathedral was built by Ivan the Terrible. It was built in six years from 1556 to 1561 to commerate the capture of Kazan and Asktrakhan.
FACTS OF THE FIRST BUILDINGS
Draw a line from each fact to the correct building.
Gladiators battled here for over 400 years.
Built with 2.5 million blocks weighing 2 1/2 tons.
It was designed to hold 50,000 people.
Has a hole in the roof called an oculus.
Contains three orders of columns: Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian
Had the largest concrete dome for almost 1400 years.
DO I USE ALL OF THESE BUILDINGS?
Architects throughout time have designed buildings for a specific purpose. Many buildings were for the Gods of Greece. Several were built for Kings and Queens. Today building are built for everyone to use. Do you ever use these buildings? Find and circle the building type in the word search.
STYLE OF STRUCTURES
An architectural style is listed. Your challenge is to match with the appropriate building with the correct architectural style.
TOOLS OF THE TRADE
If you were going to build a house what construction materials would you use. Circle the parts that were needed in building your house.
NAME THAT EUROPEAN STRUCTURE
Structures are built in all different shapes and sizes. Draw a line to the correct picture.
Notre Dame du Haut
Tower of London
Leaning Tower of Pisa
THERE'S A HOLE IN THE ROOF!
PANTHEON Rome, Italy
Built: 118-127 CE
Facts: 1. The oldest completely intact building in the world.
2. Commissioned and partly designed by Emperor Hadrian.
3. Lets light in through a hole in the roof called an oculus.
4. Largest dome on the planet for almost 1400 years.
Are We Changing Styles Again?
Throughout the history of architecture new styles emerge. People are always looking for the newest and coolest style of the time. However, in the past, the styles did not change as fast as they do today. The Gothic style was used for most Catholic Cathedrals for 800 years. We are still designing building in the Greek styles and that was 2500 years ago.
NAME THE PARTS OF THE CATHEDRAL
The Christian cathedral is originally based on the Roman basilicas form. The Roman Basilica was used as a public building normally within the Forum. The Forum was the main section of the city that contained the commercial, government, and religious structures. The cathedral evolved over the centuries, but retained the Roman forms of the nave, aisle, and apse
WORD BANK: Spire, Nave, Rose Window, Apse, Transept, Buttress, Triforium
WHERE DOES EVERYONE WORSHIP?
Everyone that practices a religion has a central gathering place. Architecture has been important to the idenities of religions. Each religion has a distinct style that is shown in their buildings. Match the building with the identifying religion Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, Judism
NAME THAT COLUMN
WORD BANK Ionic, Corinthan, Doric
NAME THAT ARCHITECT
Architects are the primary designers of buildings today. Most architects design using certain building styles that clients recognize and select based on personal preference.
Research an architect and provide a short biography.
Select An Architect
Frank Lloyd Wright
Mies van der Rohe
I. M. Pei
Biography of the architect
List interesting facts about the architect and their famous buildings.
WHERE ARE WE AT?
Find the country where each structure is located
B. Great Wall
C. Hagia Sofia
F. Golden Gate
Modern Pilgrimage Chapel Notre-Dame du Haut
Located in Ronchamp, France
Architect: Le Corbusier
Date Completed: 1955
The chapel is the third on the site. The first was built in the 4th century and the second was destroyed during WWII.
The chapel's interior is flooded with light from stained glass windows in walls up to ten feet thick.
The roof resembles a nuns habit. The concrete roof stands on small steel rods. This allows light to flow under the roof and above the wall. On bright days, the roof ap- pears to be floating.
During rainstorms, water flows off the roof and creates water fountains.
If I become a building professional what would I be?
Pick three career paths and describe their jobs.
I LOVE SYMMETRY
Symmetry means equally divided or balanced.
Villa Capra or La Rotonda
Architect: Andrea Palladio
This building has four identical sides. It has a center dome which was the first for a house. The interior rooms were designed with one room proportion to the next. Each larger room is connected to one that is half its size. Proportion is the proper balance of objects.
Location: Vicenza, Italy
What kind of building am I?
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
1. I can be all different sizes and my choir raises the roof.
3 1 20 8 5 4 18 1 12
2. When the wind blows I get the SHAKES!
19 11 25 19 3 18 1 16 5 18
3. Children are always reading, writing, and running in me.
19 3 8 15 15 12
4.1 wish those senators would stop leaving messes at my desks.
3 1 16 9 20 1 12
Would everyone stop copying me?
Andrea Palladio (1508-1580)
Palladio was an Italian Renassiance architect that designed using the building styles of ancient Greece and ancient Rome. He started as a bricklayer, then became a humanist scholar, then finally an architect. A humanist scholar is a person that studies human nature and their values. As an architect Palladio revived the classical style. His designs led to most public, government, and financial building becoming classical in style for over 400 years. It is now called Palladian. Every time you see a government building or a bank with columns and a half round window you can thank Palladio.
Just call me T.J.
Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) had many interests. He was a farmer, inventor, philosopher, ambassador to France, architect, and third President of the United States. Jefferson believed his designs reflected that of the Roman Republic and would give stability to the new American Republic. Many of his buildings reflected the works of Palladio. Monticello, his home, is a symmetrical building with a central dome resembling the buildings of Palladio. He brought neoclassical design to the United States.
Places To Go and People To See
If you were living during the time periods you might have made these statements.
1. You could see the tallest building in the United States from my __________ Dearoom.
2. When visiting the great pyramids you need to travel to Giza, __________.
3. I visited __________ square and got to play with pigeons.
4. Once I rode an elevator in the __________ Tower and could see all of Paris.
5. I walked thousands of miles on the __________ of China.
6. I once fought to the death at the Colosseum in __________.
7. Once Ivan the Terrible told me he would poke out my eyes if I built any thing as beautiful as St. Basils in __________.
8. I forgot to dig the foundation deep enough and that bell tower is leaning pretty badly in __________, Italy.
9. We were digging and digging and all of a sudden we had built the Rock Church of Saint George in Lalibela, __________.
10. I once rode my swimming float 25 miles on the Pont du Gard going to __________, France.
NAME THAT ASIAN STRUCTURE
Asia is a large expanse of land with a wide variety of cultures. The structures of Asia are built with various purposes and many different materials. Draw a line connecting the structure to their intended purpose.
DID YOU KNOW SKYSCRAPERS MOVE IN THE WIND?
Skyscrapers can move a couple of feet depending on their height and construction materials. Over the last 100 years engineers have developed many construction methods and equipment to stabilize the building. The first skyscrapers were welded extremely tight to reduce the sway. The next group worked around a strong central steel core that connected into the frame. Today, many buildings are built with a super strong reinforced concrete core in the center. Some skyscrapers use a tuned mass damper which has a huge weight that shifts back and forth high in the building. As the wind pushes one direction the weight shifts to stabilize the building.
Let's Play Follow The Leader
Chartres Cathedral in France has a Labyrinth inlaid in the floor. A labyrinth is like a maze but has only one path from entry to exit. A maze is a game that makes you search for the correct path. Chartres labyrinths has been used as paths for prayer on one's knees.
I'm trapped and I can't get OUT!
Many English gardens have mazes created for entertainment. The oldest surviving hedge maze is at Hampton Court Palace. It was created for King William III in the 17th century.
I'm a SPY. I only write secret CRYPTOGRAMS.
Decode the message by finding each substitute letter or symbol.
Mies van der Rohe was a early designer of the modern glass skyscraper. He immigrated to the United States after the Nazi's closed the Bauhaus school of design. He then lead the Armour Institute which became the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT).
WHAT ARE THE PARTS OF A COLUMN
Columns have three parts: base, shaft, and capital. Columns were originally made of wood. The Greeks and Romans produced them in stone. Now, we produce columns out of steel, aluminum, fiberglass, and even plastic. Most columns are tapered, which means they are smaller at the top than the bottom. However, many ancient temples actually made them larger at the top and smaller at the bottom. This gave the optical illusion that the columns were the same size when standing and looking up at the temple.
I COMMAND YOU TO COLOR THE ANCIENT PYRAMIDS OF EGYPT!
The Great Pyramid of Egypt is located in the town of El Giza.
It was the burial tomb for the Sun God Khufu.
It is the oldest existing Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
It took 20 years to build and completed 2560 BC.
I Like to Sing and Dance
Sydney Opera House
Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
ARCHITECT: JORN UTZON
Many people think it resembles ship sails while others mention sea shells. The roof shells were created from cutting a sphere into pieces. It was the most controversial building in Australia. The architect and government battled over the design until he quit. He never saw the building after leaving in 1966. However, in 1999, Jorn Utzon was rehired to develop the design principles for the future of the opera house, but still never returned to Australia.
Facts: The roof is covered with over 1,000,000 ceramic tiles. The grand organ contains over 10,500 pipes. Designed - 1957, Opened - 1973, Start of remodel - 2001
Do I become a scientist or an architect?
Sir Christopher Wren
Sir Christopher Wren had many interests in his life. Early in his life, he was an astronomy professor. He was one of the founding members of the Royal Society. The Royal Society was one of the earliest organizations dedicated to all things science and mathematics. Other members of the Royal Society were physicist Sir Isaac Newton, the philosopher Robert Hooke, and inventor Robert Boyle.
After The Great Fire of 1666, Wren focused on the rebuilding of London. He completed hospitals, the Royal Observatory, Kensington Palace, additions to Hampton Court, and designed over 50 churches.
Architects design buildings for clients. Clients are people that hire architects to design a building to their needs and preferences. An architect meets with their new client to develop a program. The program is all the information needed to design the building exactly like the client wants and meets all the building health and safety codes.
Your challege is to make a short program for a house and draw a basic floor plan based on your requirements. Make a list of all the rooms you would need in your house.
ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING SYMBOLS
Dashed lines in an architectural drawing indicates that an item is above 3'-0" (three feet). Floor plans are drawn as if they are cut straight through at 3'-0". Just like cutting a piece of fruit and removing the top half.
SAMPLE FLOOR PLAN
Below is a sample apartment floorplan. It has been sketched to show locations of the main living spaces. Notice the bathroom and kitchen symbols. The symbols show the location of the sinks, stove, refrigerator, bathtub, and toilet. The last few symbols are the doors and windows.
How Architects Draw People.
Architects and Interior Designers draw all different sized people to fit a drawing's scale. The scale is the size of an object in relation to other items in a drawing. So architects draw people to fit various scales of drawings. People in an architectural drawing help you understand a building's size. You can then imagine yourself standing next to an amazing skyscraper. Try drawing people at all scales.
TIME PERIODS OF ARCHITECTURE
Periods of architecture are the basis of understanding world civilizations. Architecture is the foundation of human culture by providing us identifiers of their past.
3400 - 900 BCE Egyptians
850 - 297 BCE Greek
509 - 27 BCE Roman Republic
27 BCE - 410 CE Roman Empire
330 - 1200 Byzantium
700 - 1200 Romanesque / Norman
1100 - 1414 Gothic
1420 - 1580 Renaissance
1518 - 1652 Tudor
1620 - 1830 Baroque
1650 - 1790 Rococo
1715 - 1800 Palladian
1789 - 1859 Greek Revival
1860 - 1900 Arts and Crafts
1890 - 1905 Art Nouveau
1875 - High Rise
1892 - 1910 Prairie Style
1909 - 1919 Italian Futurism
1919 - 1935 Russian Constructivism
1910 - 1920 De Stijl
1919 - 1933 Bauhaus
1920 - 1955 Expressionism
1920 - 1973 Organic Geometry
1918 - 1960 Miesian
1920 - 1960 Modern
1920 - 1938 International Style
1952 - 1982 Brutalism
1929 - Skyscraper
1968 - 1990 Post Modern
1978 - 1990 Hi-Tech
1960 - Minimalism
1980 - Deconstruction
1995 - Sustainable
Draw an elevation of your house.
An elevation is a view looking straight at an object. Architects draw elevations of each side of building so they can be measured while being constructed. Your challenge is to draw the front of your home. Remember, homes can be houses, apartments, condos, and even mobile.
Excerpted from THE ASPIRING ARCHITECT by TRAVIS KELLY WILSON. Copyright © 2013 Travis Kelly Wilson. Excerpted by permission of Trafford Publishing.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
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