The Bass Handbook of Leadership: Theory, Research, and Managerial Applications / Edition 4

The Bass Handbook of Leadership: Theory, Research, and Managerial Applications / Edition 4

by Bernard M. Bass, Ruth Bass

ISBN-10: 0743215524

ISBN-13: 9780743215527

Pub. Date: 11/11/2008

Publisher: Free Press

For more than three decades, Bernard Bass’s handbook has been indispensable bible for every serious student of leadership.

For thirty-three years and through three editions, Bass & Stogdill's Handbook of Leadership has been the indispensable bible for every serious student of leadership. Since the third edition came out in 1990, the field of

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For more than three decades, Bernard Bass’s handbook has been indispensable bible for every serious student of leadership.

For thirty-three years and through three editions, Bass & Stogdill's Handbook of Leadership has been the indispensable bible for every serious student of leadership. Since the third edition came out in 1990, the field of leadership has expanded by an order of magnitude. This completely revised and updated fourth edition reflects the growth and changes in the study of leadership over the past seventeen years, with new chapters on transformational leadership, ethics, presidential leadership, and executive leadership. Throughout the Handbook, the contributions from cognitive social psychology and the social, political, communications, and administrative sciences have been expanded.

As in the third edition, Bernard Bass begins with a consideration of the definitions and concepts used, and a brief review of some of the betterknown theories. Professor Bass then focuses on the personal traits, tendencies, attributes, and values of leaders and the knowledge, intellectual competence, and technical skills required for leadership. Next he looks at leaders' socioemotional talents and interpersonal competencies, and the differences in these characteristics in leaders who are imbued with ideologies, especially authoritarianism, Machiavellianism, and self-aggrandizement. A fuller examination of the values, needs, and satisfactions of leaders follows, and singled out for special attention are competitiveness and the preferences for taking risks. In his chapters on personal characteristics, Bass examines the esteem that others generally accord to leaders as a consequence of the leaders' personalities.

The many theoretical and research developments about charisma over the past thirty years are crucial and are explored here in depth. Bass has continued to develop his theory of transformational leadership — the paradigm of the last twenty years — and he details how it makes possible the inclusion of a much wider range of phenomena than when theory and modeling are limited to reinforcement strategies. He also details the new incarnations of transformational leadership since the last edition.

Bass has greatly expanded his consideration of women and racial minorities, both of whom are increasingly taking on leadership roles.

A glossary is included to assist specialists in a particular academic discipline who may be unfamiliar with terms used in other fields.

Business professors and students, executives in every industry, and politicians at all levels have relied for years on the time-honored guidance and insight afforded by the Handbook.

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Table of Contents


In Memory of Bernard M. Bass



Part I


1. Concepts of Leadership

Myths, Legends, and Religious Texts • The Modern Study of Leadership • Universality of Leadership • Defining Leadership • Leadership, Headship, and Management • An Evolving, Expanding Conceptualization of Leadership • Summary and Conclusions

2. Types and Taxonomies

Types of Leadership in Small Groups • Types of Leadership in Organizations and Institutions • Taxonomies of Leaders According to Their Functions, Roles, Perceptions, and Behaviors • Taxonomies of Leaders According to Their Styles and Patterns of Behavior • Commonalities in Types and Taxonomies • Summary and Conclusions

3. Models and Theories of Leadership

Good and Bad Theories • Sources of Current Models and Theories • Methods and Measurements • Summary and Conclusions

Part II

Personal Attributes of Leaders

4. Traits of Leadership (1904-1970)

1904-1908 • Conclusions as of 1948 • Traits of Leadership (1948-1970) • Factor Analyses of the Traits of Leadership • Conclusions by 1970

5. Traits of Leadership (1970-2006)

Situationalism • Heritability, Genes, and Biological Bases of Leadership in Behavior • Personality Traits Correlated with Emergent and Effective Leadership • Task Competence • Socioeconomic and Interpersonal CompetenceSummary and Conclusions

6. Activity Level

Antecedents of Active Leadership • Effects of Active Leadership on Followers • The Motivation to Manage • Inactive or Laissez-Faire Leadership • Summary and Conclusions

7. Authoritarianism, Power Orientation, Machiavellianism, and Leadership

The Authoritarian Personality • Authoritarianism and Leadership • Power Motivation • Machiavellianism • Political Psychology and Leadership in Organizations • Summary and Conclusions

8. Values, Self-Esteem, Well-Being, and Leadership

Values • Motives • Concepts of the Self • Satisfaction with the Leadership Role • Health, Well-Being, and Leadership • Summary and Conclusions

9. Ethics and Leadership

Philosophies of Ethical Leadership • Ethical Leader Behavior • Ethics and Effectiveness • Spiritual Leadership • Moral Reasoning • Character • Vices of Leadership • Dealing with Ethical and Unethical Practices • Impact of the Internet • Summary and Conclusions

Part III

Personal Attributes of Leadership

10. Leadership and Accorded Status, Esteem, and Trust

Status • Esteem • Trust • Summary and Conclusions

11. Power and Leadership

Definitions of Social Power • Personal versus Positional Power • Varied Uses of Power • Power and Emergence as a Leader • The Bases of Power • Antecedents and Consequences of the Bases of Power • Summary and Conclusions

12. Leadership and the Distribution of Power

Importances of Differences in Power • Distribution of Power in Communities and Organizations • The Power of the Group • Power, Leadership, and Structure • Empowerment • Industrial Democracy • Power Sharing in Planning Change • Summary and Conclusions

13. Resolution of Conflict

Sources of Conflict • Conditions That Resolve or Reduce Conflicts • Managing Conflict • Legitimatization and Conflict • Constructive Conflict • Summary and Conclusions

14. Authority, Responsibility, Accountability, and Leadership

Authority • Responsibility • AccountabilityDelegation • Summary and Conclusions

15. Reinforcement and Instrumental Leadership

Leadership as a Social Exchange • Reinforcement (Instrumental) Leadership and Followership • Applying Contingent Reinforcement • Reinforcement and the Emergence of Leaders • The Dynamics of the Exchange Relationship • Limits to Contingent Reinforcement • Constraints on the Use and Impact of Feedback • Constraints on the Performance-Appraisal Interview • Implicit Theories of Leadership as Moderators of LMX • Summary and Conclusions

16. Followers and Mutual Influence on Leadership

The Leader's Influence • Followers' Impact on Leaders • Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) • The Reciprocal Relationship • Summary and Conclusions

Part IV

Styles of Leadership

17. Autocratic versus Democratic Leadership

The Two Opposing Approaches • Authoritarian and Democratic Leadership • Effects of Autocratic and Democratic Leadership • Antecedent Conditions That Moderate the Effects of Autocratic and Democratic Leadership • Large-Scale, Long-Term Comparisons of Autocratic and Democratic Systems • Summary and Conclusions

18. Directive versus Participative Leadership

Making Decisions • The Continuum • Aspects of Direction and Participation • Antecedents of Direction and Participation • General Effects on Benefits and Costs of Directive and Participative Leadership • Additional Contingent Effects of Directive and Participative Leadership • Deduced Models for Achieving Decision Quality or Subordinate Acceptance • Summary and Conclusions

19. Task versus Relations Orientation

Task, Relations, and Change Orientation • Antecedents of Task-, Relations-, and Change-Oriented Leadership • General Consequences of Relations-Oriented, Task-Oriented, and Change-Oriented Leadership • Blake and Mouton's Grid Theory • Situational Contingencies Affecting Outcomes • The Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory (SLT) • Fiedler's Contingency Model of Leadership • Summary and Conclusions

20. Initiation versus Consideration

Descriptive Factors • Psychometric PropertiesAlternative and Additional Scales • Behavioral Descriptions of the Ideal Leader • Antecedents and Correlates of Consideration and Initiation of Structure • General Effects on Productivity, Satisfaction, and Other Criteria • Contingencies in the Effects of Consideration and Initiation • Causal Effects • Summary and Conclusions

Part V

The "New" Leadership: Charismatic and Transformational Leadership

21. Charismatic Leadership

Concepts of Charismatic Leadership • The Charismatic Relationship Theories • Characteristics of Charismatic Leaders • Characteristics of Followers • The Emergence of Charisma • The Charismatic Leader in Complex Organizations: A Conceptual Examination • Empirical Studies of Charismatic Leadership • A Dynamic Model of the Charismatic Process of the Leader, the Followers, and Their Social Interaction • Inspirational Leadership • Summary and Conclusions

22. Transformational Leadership

Components of Transformational Leadership • Components of Transactional Leadership • The Model of the Full Range of LeadershipOther Concepts and Methods Relevant to Transformational and Transactional LeadershipAntecedents of Transformational and Transactional Leadership • Effects of Transformational and Transactional Leadership • Other Related Concepts and Propositions • Criticisms and Problems • Summary and Conclusions

Part VI

Management and Organizations

23. Managerial Work

Functions of Management and Leadership in Formal Organizations • What Leaders and Managers Do • Methods and Dimensions for Studying What Managers Do • Time Spent and Work Done by Managers • Mintzberg's Managerial Roles • Managerial Activities • Moderators of the Manager's Work, Functions, and Roles • Summary and Conclusions

24. Strategic and Executive Leadership

Upper-Level Management Theory • Agency Theory • Interplay between Strategy and Executive Leadership • Executive Leadership • Setting Policies and Strategies • Political Leadership • American Presidents as Leaders • Prime Ministers and Chancellors as LeadersSummary and Conclusions

25. Environment and Organizational Effects

Trait Approach versus Situation • Theories, Models, and Prescriptions • Leadership, Organization, and the External Environment • Organizations and Leadership • Leadership and the Organization's Internal Environment • Leadership and Organizational Culture • Summary and Conclusions

26. Leadership in Groups and Teams

Roles of the Leader • Functions of the LeaderTeams versus Groups • Effects of Groups and Teams on Their Leaders • The Effects of Leaders on the Group or Team • Summary and Conclusions

27. Effects of Task and Technology

Leadership in a Technology-Enabled Working Environment • The Leader's Competence and the Requirements of Tasks • Important Dimensions of Tasks • Sociotechnical SystemsLeadership and Phases in Group Problem Solving • Effects of Type of Task • Path-Goal Theory: The Explanation of Task Effects on Leadership • Summary and Conclusions

28. Stress Effects

The Nature of Stress • A Model of Group Responses to Stress • Leadership under Stress • Successful but Not Necessarily Effective Leadership • Stress and Effective Leaders • Summary and Conclusions

29. Effects of Space, Virtuality, and Substitutes for Leadership

Interaction Potential • Leadership and Physical Space • Leadership and Psychosocial Space • Networks • Electronic Communication Networking • E-Leadership • Leadership in Experimental Communication Networks • Statistical Proxies • Self-Management • Summary and Conclusions

30. Transfer and Succession

Persistence • Transfer of Leadership • Succession • Summary and Conclusions

Part VII

Diversity and Cultural Effects

31. Women as Leaders and Followers

Two Examples • Interest in Women Leaders • Then and Now • Increase in Management and Administration • Increase in MBAs • Society in Transition • Constraints on Opportunities for Leadership • Conflicting Stereotypes of Women and Managers • Differences in the Leadership Potential of Women and Men • Differences in Leadership Style between Women and Men • Moderating Effects • Career Advancement of Women Leaders and Managers • Summary and Conclusions

32. Minorities as Leaders and Followers

The Challenge of Diversity • African Americans and Leadership • Performance of Blacks and Whites as Leaders • Hispanics • Other Ethnic Minorities • Other Minorities • Summary and Conclusions

33. Globalization and Cross-National Effects

Issues of Consequence • Culture, Country, and Attributes of Leadership • Universality • Origins of Leaders • Cultural and Institutional Changes • Personal Values, Motives, and Goals • Differences in Leadership Across Cultures • Styles of Leadership • Leadership in the Multinational Firm • Summary and Conclusions


Development and Identification of Leaders and Leadership

34. Training and Development

Development of Leadership • Developmental Issues in Leadership • Educational InstitutionsCareer Issues • Value of Training and Development in Leadership • Assessing Organizational and Individual Needs • Off-the-Job Leadership Training and DevelopmentOn-the-Job Leadership Training and Development • Giving and Receiving Feedback • Expected Effects of Leadership Training and Education • Training and Education in Leadership Styles • Motivation to Learn Leadership • Programmatic ApplicationsEvaluation of Leadership Training and Education • Factors That Affect Training Outcomes • Summary and Conclusions

35. Assessment, Appraisal, and Selection

Purposes of Assessment • Varieties of Available Assessment Information • Importance of Effective Assessment and Appraisal • Importance of Acceptability of Appraisals and Feedback for Development • CEO Performance EvaluationJudgmental Approaches • Multiple Ratings Sources • Moderators of Judgments and Their Predictive Validity • Assessment Centers • Summary and Conclusions

Part IX

The Future

36. Looking Ahead

Expected Developments in Leadership Research • Considerations in Looking Ahead • Methodological Issues • A Future of Variety • Substantive Issues • Summary and Conclusions



Subject Index

Author Index

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