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Chapter 1 The Battle of the Atlantic: 1939-1941 4
Merchant shipping moved more safely in guarded convoys, but after the fall of Norway and France to the Germans in 1940, even Allied convoys fell victim to "wolf packs" of German U-boats and Luftwaffe aircraft flying from Atlantic bases. The fate of Britain hung in the balance.
Chapter 2 The War on the Arctic Convoys 16
Storms, sub-zero temperatures, and pack ice made the Arctic convoy runs to Russian ports bad enough, but U-boats, German surface ships, and Luftwaffe aircraft added to the misery of British merchant seamen transporting supplies to the Soviets.
Chapter 3 The Battle of the Atlantic: 1942-1945 44
Germany gradually lost the Battle of the Atlantic as its surface ships were either sunk or disabled and its U-boats were destroyed by convoy escorts equipped with radar and armed with mortars and depth charges, and long-range aircraft armed with bombs and anti-submarine torpedoes.
Timeline September 1939 - September 1945 56
Further Reading 62