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By the summer of 1864, Richmond, Virginia, was a city under siege. As Union General Ulysses S. Grant's powerful Army of the Potomac tightened its grip on the Confederate capital, General Robert E. Lee rushed the battered remnants of his Army of North Virginia into the city's outer defenses. Weakened by three years of constant fighting Lee's army was still dangerous, just weeks earlier it had inflicted horrendous losses on the Federals in the battles of the Wilderness and Sportsyvania. On June 3, east of Richmond near a tavern known as Cold Harbor, Grant's troops suffered 7,000 casualties in a matter of minutes while assaulting the Rebel lines. Still Grant's resources seemed endless while Lee's were reduced to a trickle along a tenuous lifetime to his south.