The Bible with Sources Revealed

The Bible with Sources Revealed

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by Richard Elliott Friedman

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One of the World's Foremost Bible Experts Offers a Groundbreaking Presentation of the Five Books of Moses

In The Bible with Sources Revealed, Richard Elliott Friedman offers a new, visual presentation of the Five Books of Moses -- Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy -- unlocking the complex and fascinating tapestry of their


One of the World's Foremost Bible Experts Offers a Groundbreaking Presentation of the Five Books of Moses

In The Bible with Sources Revealed, Richard Elliott Friedman offers a new, visual presentation of the Five Books of Moses -- Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy -- unlocking the complex and fascinating tapestry of their origins. Different colors and type styles allow readers to easily identify each of the distinct sources, showcasing Friedman's highly acclaimed and dynamic translation.

NOTE: This book is meant to be experienced in color and the eBook is not compatible with black and white devices.

Editorial Reviews

Library Journal
In an easily understandable manner accessible to the general public, Friedman (Hebrew and comparative literature, Univ. of California, San Diego; Who Wrote the Bible?, etc.) treats the complex, technical, and thorny problem in Old Testament interpretation concerning the existence of four separate literary sources in the Pentateuch. In the introduction he clearly spells out the book's four purposes: to present the evidence that biblical scholars use in describing the literary composition of the Pentateuch, describe the main characteristics of each literary source, identify each source in the biblical text of the Five Books of Moses, and show how each source contributes to deepen the Bible's spiritual message. The second chapter, "Collection of Evidence," discusses the central arguments that scholars employ in identifying the separate literary strands. The author then demonstrates how this scholarly theory works in practice by presenting the entire text of the Pentateuch in a fresh translation, using color-coding to identify the individual sources. A more scholarly treatment of this same problem can be found in Antony F. Campbell and Mark A. O'Brien's Sources of the Pentateuch: Texts, Introductions, Annotations. Friedman's book is very highly recommended for public libraries.-Charlie Murray, C.S.S., Fordham Univ., NY Copyright 2004 Reed Business Information.

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The Bible with Sources Revealed
Collection of Evidence The Seven Main Arguments

The process of identifying the biblical sources took centuries. The process of refining our identifications of these sources has been ongoing, and it continues to the present day. Initially, it was a tentative division based on simple factors: where the name of God appeared in the texts, similar stories appearing twice in the texts, contradictions of fact between one text and another. Accounts of this early identifying and refining may be found in many introductions to this subject and in my Who Wrote the Bible? The collection of evidence here is not a review of that history of the subject. It is a tabulation of the evidence that has emerged that establishes the hypothesis. It is grouped here in seven categories, which form the seven main arguments for the hypothesis in my judgment.

1. Linguistic

When we separate the texts that have been identified with the various sources, we find that they reflect the Hebrew language of several distinct periods.

The development of Hebrew that we observe through these successive periods indicates that:

  • The Hebrew of J and E comes from the earliest stage of biblical Hebrew.
  • The Hebrew of P comes from a later stage of the language.
  • The Hebrew of the Deuteronomistic texts comes from a still later stage of the language.
  • P comes from an earlier stage of Hebrew than the Hebrew of the book of Ezekiel (which comes from the time of the Babylonian exile).
  • All of these main sources come from a stage of Hebrew known as Classical Biblical Hebrew, which is earlier than the Hebrew of thepostexilic, Persian period (known as Late Biblical Hebrew).

This chronology of the language of the sources is confirmed by Hebrew texts outside the Bible. The characteristics of Classical Biblical Hebrew are confirmed through comparison with inscriptions that have been discovered through archaeology, which come from the period before the Babylonian exile (587 BCE). The characteristics of Late Biblical Hebrew are confirmed through comparison with the Hebrew of later sources such as the Dead Sea Scrolls.

Despite the power of this evidence, it is practically never mentioned by those who oppose the hypothesis.

2. Terminology

Certain words and phrases occur disproportionately — or even entirely — in one source but not in others. The quantity of such terms that consistently belong to a particular source is considerable. Thus:

The mountain that is called Sinai in J and P (twenty times) is called Horeb or "the Mountain of God" in E and D (fourteen times). In thirty-four occurrences of these names, there is no exception to this distinction.

The phrase "in that very day" (beesem hayyôm hazzeh) occurs eleven times in the Torah. Ten of the eleven are in P. (And the eleventh is in R, in a passage that R modeled on P; Deut 32:48.)

The phrase "the place where YHWH sets his name" or "the place where YHWH tents his name "occurs ten times in D but never in J,E,or P.

The Bible with Sources Revealed
. Copyright (c) by Richard Friedman . Reprinted by permission of HarperCollins Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved. Available now wherever books are sold.

Meet the Author

Richard Elliott Friedman is professor of Hebrew and Comparative Literature and holds the Katzin Chair at the University of California, San Diego. One of the premier biblical scholars in the country, he received his doctorate at Harvard and was a visiting fellow at Oxford and Cambridge. Author of The Hidden Face of God, The Hidden Book in the Bible, Commentary on the Torah, The Exile and Biblical Narrative, and the bestselling Who Wrote the Bible?, Friedman is also the president of the Biblical Colloquium West. A consultant to universities, journals, encyclopedias, and publishers, he is also the editor of four books on biblical studies and has authored over fifty articles, reviews, and notes in scholarly and popular publications.

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The Bible with Sources Revealed: A New View into the Five Books of Moses 3.5 out of 5 based on 0 ratings. 4 reviews.
TedMorgan More than 1 year ago
Professor Friedman does what I had to do by myself decades ago with one of my study Bibles. He indicates the sources of Torah with color and type. Not everyone thinks this part of scholarship means much to lay people. Robert Alter seems to be one who takes it with bit of reserve. However, I wish this had been available when I was a young university student. Of course, at that time, Friedman was himself a young university student. This is a great resource for Sunday school teachers and leaders of small Bible study groups.
Anonymous More than 1 year ago
Once yoi get passed the intro (which is fascinating though also free) the whole book relys on color coding ro highlight the various sources, which if course arent duplicated on the nook and no attempt Is made to notate them in a monotone friendly manner. The authors translation is interesting buts it's still the same torah we've all read a million times. I am going to try and get a refund nd get this book in print.
Anonymous More than 1 year ago
Anonymous More than 1 year ago