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The Brain-Targeted Teaching Model for 21st-Century Schools
     

The Brain-Targeted Teaching Model for 21st-Century Schools

by Mariale M. Hardiman
 

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ISBN-10: 1412991986

ISBN-13: 9781412991988

Pub. Date: 02/15/2012

Publisher: SAGE Publications

A powerful guide for applying brain research for more effective instruction

The Brain-Targeted Teaching Model for 21st-Century Schools serves as a bridge between research and practice by providing a cohesive, proven, and usable model of effective instruction. Compatible with other professional development programs, this model shows how to apply educational and

Overview

A powerful guide for applying brain research for more effective instruction

The Brain-Targeted Teaching Model for 21st-Century Schools serves as a bridge between research and practice by providing a cohesive, proven, and usable model of effective instruction. Compatible with other professional development programs, this model shows how to apply educational and cognitive neuroscience principles into classroom settings through a pedagogical framework. The model’s six components are:

(1) Establish the emotional connection to learning

(2) Develop the physical learning environment

(3) Design the learning experience

(4) Teach for the mastery of content, skills, and concepts

(5) Teach for the extension and application of knowledge

(6) Evaluate learning

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9781412991988
Publisher:
SAGE Publications
Publication date:
02/15/2012
Edition description:
New Edition
Pages:
256
Sales rank:
330,528
Product dimensions:
7.00(w) x 9.90(h) x 0.70(d)

Table of Contents

List of Expert Teachers by Chapter xi

Foreword Martha Bridge Denckla xiii

Preface xvii

Acknowledgments xxiii

About the Author xxv

Introduction: The Emerging Field of Neuroeducation and 21st-century Schools 1

1 Information From the Neuro- and Cognitive Sciences That Educators Should Know: Separating Neuromyth From Neuroscience 5

Neuromyth in Education 6

Some of Us Are Left-Brained; Some of Us Are Right-Brained 6

Listening to Mozart Will Make Your Baby Smarter 7

After Critical Periods of Development, Learning Shuts Down 8

We Only Use 10% of Our Brain 9

Teachers Should Assess and Teach to Each Child's Learning Style 10

We Are Born With All the Brain Cells We Will Ever Have 11

Important Themes From the Neuro- and Cognitive Sciences That Educators Should Know 11

Plasticity 11

Neurogenesis 11

Emotion and Stress 12

The Role of Attention in Learning 12

Executive Function 13

The Importance of Movement and Learning 13

Arts and Learning 13

Adolescents, Sleep, and Learning 14

Creativity 15

2 Brain Structure and Function 17

Brain Facts 17

Brain Cells: Neurons and Glial Cells 18

Cerebral Organization 20

Hemispheric Differences 23

From Research to Practice 24

3 The Brain-Targeted Teaching Model for 21st-Century Schools 25

Overview of the Brain-Targeted Teaching Model 27

Brain-Target One: Establishing the Emotional Climate for Learning 27

Brain-Target Two: Creating the Physical Learning Environment 27

Brain-Target Three: Designing the Learning Experience 27

Brain-Target Four: Teaching for Mastery of Content, Skills, and Concepts 28

Brain-Target Five: Teaching for the Extension and Application of Knowledge-Creativity and Innovation in Education 28

Brain-Target Six: Evaluating Learning 29

Brain-Targeted Teaching: Research to Practice 29

What Does a Brain-Targeted Teaching Unit Look Like in the Classroom? 29

4 Brain-Target One: Establishing the Emotional Climate for Learning 33

Neural Systems Underlying Emotion 35

How We Perceive Fear and Threat 35

Effects of Stress on Learning 37

Stress and School Environments 38

The Impact of Positive Emotions 39

Emotions and the Adolescent 40

Implementing Brain-Target One: Establishing the Emotional Climate for Learning 41

Strategies for Promoting a Positive Learning Environment 41

Emotional Connection to Learning Goals and Objectives 52

What Does a Brain-Targeted Teaching Unit Look Like in the Classroom? 53

5 Brain-Target Two: Creating the Physical Learning Environment 59

Attention and Novelty 60

The Effects of Environmental Features on Attention and Learning 63

Lighting in the Classroom 63

Sound in the Learning Environment 64

Scent in the Classroom 67

The Effects of Movement on Attention 69

Order and Beauty in the Classroom 69

What Does a Brain-Targeted Teaching Unit Look Like in the Classroom? 71

6 Brain-Target Three: Designing the Learning Experience 79

Cognitive Development and Big-Picture Thinking 81

Planning a Brain-Targeted Teaching Learning Unit 82

Instructional Decision-Making: Content Choices for Learning Goals and Objectives 84

Learning Activities 84

Evaluating Learning 86

Use of Graphic Organizers in the Brain-Targeted Teaching Model 86

What Does a Brain-Targeted Teaching Unit Look Like in the Classroom? 91

7 Brain-Target Four: Teaching for Mastery of Content, Skills, and Concepts 95

Learning and Memory 96

Types of Memory Processes 97

Neurobiology of Learning and Memory 102

Arts Integration for Mastery of Content, Skills, and Concepts 103

Repeated Rehearsal 105

Elaboration 106

Generation 107

Enactment 108

Production 110

Effort After Meaning 111

Pictorial Representation 112

Emotion and Memory 114

Pedagogical Strategies for Forming Strong Memories 115

Mnemonics 115

Desirable Difficulties 116

Chunking 117

Interleaving 118

Brain-Targeted Teaching Learning Units 119

What Does a Brain-Targeted Teaching Unit Look Like in the Classroom? 119

8 Brain-Target Five: Teaching for the Extension and Application of Knowledge-Creativity and Innovation in Education 125

Twenty-First Century Skills 127

Creativity and Innovation in the Classroom 128

What Do the Brain Sciences Tell Us About Higher-Order Thinking and Creativity? 131

Content Versus Process in the 21st-century Skills Movement 135

What Does This Mean for Teachers? 137

Brain- Target Five Activities 139

Brain-Target Five Summary 140

What Does a Brain-Targeted Teaching Unit Look Like in the Classroom? 141

9 Brain-Target Six: Evaluating Learning 145

Research to Practice: Evaluation to Enhance Learning 146

Frequent and Timely Feedback 146

Active Retrieval of Information 149

Spacing Effects 151

Multiple Kinds of Assessments 153

Portfolio Assessments 154

Student Journals 155

Performance Assessments 156

What Does a Brain-Targeted Teaching Unit Look Like in the Classroom? 161

10 Implementing Brain-Targeted Teaching in a School and Classroom 169

Brain-Targeted Teaching in the School: Getting Started 170

Instructional Leadership and Support 171

Rate Your Brain Targets 174

What Does a School Implementing Brain-Targeted Teaching Look Like? 175

Brain-Target One-Emotional Climate for Learning 175

Brain-Target Two-Physical Environment 175

Brain-Target Three-Learning Design 176

Brain-Target Four-Teaching for Mastery of Content, Skills, and Concepts 176

Brain-Target Five-Teaching for the Extension and Application of Knowledge: Creativity and Innovation in Education 177

Brain-Target Six-Evaluating Learning 177

Brain-Targeted Teaching in Teacher Preparation Programs: A Story From a Teacher Educator 177

Appendix I Alignment of Brain-Targeted Teaching With Cognitive Taxonomies, Teaching Standards, and Learning Frameworks 181

Cognitive Taxonomies 181

Bloom's Taxonomy 182

Dimensions of Learning 182

Depth of Knowledge 183

Alignment With Brain-Targeted Teaching 183

Teaching Standards, and Teaching and Learning Frameworks 183

Interstate Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (InTASC) Standards 184

Framework for Teaching 184

Universal Design for Learning (UDL) 185

Appendix II Brain-Targeted Teaching Implementation Checklist 189

References 197

Index 213

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