The C++ Programming Language / Edition 4

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Overview

The new C++11 standard allows programmers to express ideas more clearly, simply, and directly, and to write faster, more efficient code. Bjarne Stroustrup, the designer and original implementer of C++, has reorganized, extended, and completely rewritten his definitive reference and tutorial for programmers who want to use C++ most effectively.

The C++ Programming Language, Fourth Edition, delivers meticulous, richly explained, and integrated coverage of the entire language—its facilities, abstraction mechanisms, standard libraries, and key design techniques. Throughout, Stroustrup presents concise, “pure C++11” examples, which have been carefully crafted to clarify both usage and program design. To promote deeper understanding, the author provides extensive cross-references, both within the book and to the ISO standard.

New C++11 coverage includes

  • Support for concurrency
  • Regular expressions, resource management pointers, random numbers, and improved containers
  • General and uniform initialization, simplified for-statements, move semantics, and Unicode support
  • Lambdas, general constant expressions, control over class defaults, variadic templates, template aliases, and user-defined literals
  • Compatibility issues

Topics addressed in this comprehensive book include

  • Basic facilities: type, object, scope, storage, computation fundamentals, and more
  • Modularity, as supported by namespaces, source files, and exception handling
  • C++ abstraction, including classes, class hierarchies, and templates in support of a synthesis of traditional programming, object-oriented programming, and generic programming
  • Standard Library: containers, algorithms, iterators, utilities, strings, stream I/O, locales, numerics, and more
  • The C++ basic memory model, in depth

This fourth edition makes C++11 thoroughly accessible to programmers moving from C++98 or other languages, while introducing insights and techniques that even cutting-edge C++11 programmers will find indispensable.

This book features an enhanced, layflat binding, which allows the book to stay open more easily when placed on a flat surface. This special binding method—noticeable by a small space inside the spine—also increases durability.


The most popular book ever written on C++ is back and updated. Straight from the creator himself, this book includes all the changes and innovations in the latest draft standard of C++. With concrete examples and a straightforward teaching style, the author makes it easy for you to transition into the world of C++. You should be familiar with basic programming concepts before you tackle this comprehensive tour.

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Editorial Reviews

Victor J. Duvanenko
There is absolutely no doubt that Bjarne Stroustrup's The C++ Programming Language, Third Edition is a must-have book. If you are programming in C++, you will refer to it every other day. If you are learning C++, you need to dedicate time to read one chapter a week. This third edition is much more approachable than its predecessors and has gems of insight sprinkled throughout. Furthermore, it includes a good introduction to Standard Template Libraries (STL) and describes the various new C++ features...the book is very well done, and we thank Bjarne Stroustrup for his tireless effort for over a decade to improve the lives of programmers.
Dr. Dobb's Electronic Review of Computer Books
Booknews
Stroustrup, creator of C++, covers standard C++ and the key programming and design techniques supported by C++, including every major language feature and the standard library. Suitable for those new to the language while adding advanced information and techniques for the more advanced programmers, this hardcover edition includes two new appendixes on locales and standard library exception safety. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR booknews.com
Victor J. Duvanenko

The Gospel According to Bjarne

Bjarne Stroustrup's The C++ Programming Language, Third Edition (Addison-Wesley, 1997) has been available for several months. This work, by the creator of C++, is the definitive treatment of the subject and has been since its first edition in 1987. I must confess that I did not care for the first edition. I had expected a tutorial approach as elegant as the classic K&R white book. But then, K&R was about C, a programming language that supported a familiar programming model. The C++ programming model was new to most of us ten years ago, and Stroustrup's first edition was daunting, to say the least. Looking at it now, I find it far less so and much easier to read.

Comparing the first and third editions of The C++ Programming Language provides insight into how the C++ language has grown and changed in the past decade. The third edition has almost three times the number of pages and a slightly different organization. Whereas the first edition included a 67-page language reference manual at the end, the third edition includes only a language grammar section to represent formal language definition. This is appropriate. The ANSI/ISO Standard document, which is now the formal language and library definition, is itself about 750 pages long. Stroustrup plans to publish The Annotated C++ Language Standard (coauthored by Andrew Koenig, the ANSI C++ committee's Project Editor) sometime this year.

The third edition takes a tutorial approach with many of Stroustrup's personal programming philosophies. The author's explanations of how he uses language features provide examples for learning the behavior of those features. He also explains code idioms that some programmers routinely use but that he finds inappropriate.

As much as possible, the third edition reflects Standard C++. When small language features are found to be missing, particularly new ones, Stroustrup pledges to add them to a future printing.

The book includes many code examples. There is no diskette or CD-ROM, because Stroustrup avoids a teaching approach wherein readers compile and run examples. His examples are mostly code fragments that demonstrate the points he makes and the issues he addresses. The code fragments are readable, meaningful, and neither frivolous nor cute, and since you do not compile them, you need not worry that your compiler does not fully support Standard C++. There are four parts to the body of the book: "Part I: Basic Facilities;" "Part II: Abstract Mechanisms;" "Part III: The Standard Library;" and "Part IV: Design Using C++." Even if you are already a seasoned C++ programmer, Part IV, which is a rewrite of several chapters from the second edition, is worth the price of the book. It describes Stroustrup's philosophies on the design and development cycle of a software project involving C++. In his words, Part IV aims "to bridge the gap between would-be language-independent design and programming that is myopically focused on details."

The three appendixes are: "A: The C++ Grammar;" "B: Compatibility;" and "C: Technicalities." Appendix B discusses the differences between C and C++ and explains how the languages have become more compatible over time. Some of this convergence results from changes being made to the C specification (double-slash comments and no implicit int, for example). The appendix also discusses the issues related to porting C++ code from older C++ implementations, advising that, where possible, you should use the latest implementation of a compiler so that newer features are available to you.

Appendix C is about technical details that a programmer faces that are not necessarily language issues. I particularly like the discussion on the problems associated with traditional multidimensioned arrays as compared to using STL containers to achieve the same result without the headaches.

This book is an essential addition to a C++ programmer's library. It is not for dummies, and it wouldn't be my first choice for an entry-level, self-help tutorial on C++ for beginning programmers. It is, however, an excellent textbook for programmers who are self-motivated and students who study under the watchful care of a skilled instructor. As an experienced C++ programmer, I find the book useful as a reference to language usage and behavior. The author invented the language and then stayed close to the standardization and innovation process for the duration, always maintaining a careful vigilance over the evolution of his brainchild. Consequently, this book serves, for those who do not care to pore over the ANSI/ISO document (or the promised annotated version), as the authority on the Standard C++ language, how it works, and how you should use it.--Dr. Dobb's Electronic Review of Computer Books

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780321563842
  • Publisher: Addison-Wesley
  • Publication date: 5/24/2013
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 4
  • Pages: 1346
  • Sales rank: 71,111
  • Product dimensions: 7.50 (w) x 9.10 (h) x 1.70 (d)

Meet the Author

Bjarne Stroustrup (www.stroustrup.com) is the designer and original implementer of C++, as well as the author of Programming: Principles and Practice Using C++ (Addison-Wesley, 2009), The C++ Programming Language (Addison-Wesley, 1985, 1991, 1997, 2000), and many popular and academic publications. Dr. Stroustrup is a University Distinguished Professor at Texas A&M University and the holder of the College of Engineering Chair in Computer Science. He is a member of the U.S. National Academy of Engineering, an IEEE Fellow, and an ACM fellow. His research interests include distributed systems, design, programming techniques, software development tools, and programming languages. He is actively involved in the ISO standardization of C++.

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Read an Excerpt

The C++ Programming Language, Third Edition Bjarne Stroustrup

Preface Programming is understanding.
- Kristen Nygaard

I find using C++ more enjoyable than ever. C++'s support for design and programming has improved dramatically over the years, and lots of new helpful techniques have been developed for its use. However, C++ is not just fun. Ordinary practical programmers have achieved significant improvements in productivity, maintainability, flexibility, and quality in projects of just about any kind and scale. By now, C++ has fulfilled most of the hopes I originally had for it, and also succeeded at tasks I hadn't even dreamt of.

This book introduces standard C++* and the key programming and design techniques supported by C++. Standard C++ is a far more powerful and polished language than the version of C++ introduced by the first edition of this book. New language features such as name spaces, exceptions, templates, and run-time type identification allow many techniques to be applied more directly than was possible before, and the standard library allows the programmer to start from a much higher level than the bare language.

About a third of the information in the second edition of this book came from the first. This third edition is the result of a rewrite of even larger magnitude. It offers something to even the most experienced C++ programmer; at the same time, this book is easier for the novice to approach that its predecessors were. The explosion of C++ use and the massive amount of experience accumulated as a result makes this possible.

The definition of an extensive standard library makes a difference to the way C++ concepts can be presented. As before, this book presents C++ independently of any particular implementation, and as before, the tutorial chapters present language constructs and concepts in a "bottom up" order so that a construct is used only after it has been defined. However, it is much easier to use a well-designed library than it is to understand the details of its implementation. Therefore the standard library can be used to provide realistic and interesting examples well before a reader can be assumed to understand its inner workings. the standard library itself is also a fertile source of programming examples and design techniques.

This book presents every major C++ language feature and the standard library. It is organized around language and library facilities. However, features are presented in the context of their use. That is, the focus is on the language as the tool for design and programming rather than on the language in itself. This book demonstrates key techniques that make C++ effective and teaches the fundamental concepts necessary for mastery. Except where illustrating technicalities, examples are taken from the domain of systems software. A companion, The Annotated C++ Language Standard, presents the complete language definition together with annotations to make it more comprehensible.

The primary aim of this book is to help the reader understand how the facilities offered by C++ support key programming techniques. The aim is to take the reader far beyond the point where he or she gets code running primarily by copying examples and emulation programming styles from other languages. Only a good understanding of the ideas behind the language facilities leads to mastery. Supplemented by implementation documentation, the information provided is sufficient for completing significant real-world projects. The hope is that this book will help the reader gain new insights and become a better programmer and designer.

Acknowledgements
In addition to the people mentioned in the acknowledgment section of the first and second editions, I would like to thank Matt Austern, Hans Boehm, Don Caldwell, Lawrence Crowl, Alan Feuer, Andrew Forrest, Tim Griffin, Peter Juhl, Brian Kernighan, Andrew Koenig, Mike Mowbray, Rob Murray, Lee Nackman, Joseph Newcomer, Alex Stepanov, David Vandevoorde, Peter Weinberger, and Chris Van Wyk for commenting on draft chapters of this third edition.

I would also like to thank the volunteers on the C++ standards committees who did an immense amount of constructive work to make C++ what it is today. It is slightly unfair to single out individuals, but it would be even more unfair not to mention anyone, so I'd like to especially mention Mike Ball, Dag Brück, Sean Corfield, Ted Goldstein, Kim Knutilla, Andrew Koenig, Josée Lajoie, Dmitry Lenkov, Nathan Myers, Martin O'Riordan, Tom Plum, Jonathan Shopiro, John Spicer, Jerry Schwarz, Alex Stepanov, and Mike Vilot, as people who each directly cooperated with me over some part of C++ and its standard library.

Bjarne Stroustrup Murray Hill, New Jersey

*At the time of writing, the C++ Standard is still only a "Final Committee Draft Standard." However, no significant changes to the language or the standard library are anticipated.

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Table of Contents

Preface to the Fourth Edition v

Preface to the Third Edition ix

Preface to the Second Edition xi

Preface to the First Edition xii

Part I: Introductory Material 1

Chapter 1: Notes to the Reader 3

Chapter 2: A Tour of C++: The Basics 37

Chapter 3: A Tour of C++: Abstraction Mechanisms 59

Chapter 4: A Tour of C++: Containers and Algorithms 87

Chapter 5: A Tour of C++: Concurrency and Utilities 111

Part II: Basic Facilities 133

Chapter 6: Types and Declarations 135

Chapter 7: Pointers, Arrays, and References 171

Chapter 8: Structures, Unions, and Enumerations 201

Chapter 9: Statements 225

Chapter 10: Expressions 241

Chapter 11: Select Operations 273

Chapter 12: Functions 305

Chapter 13: Exception Handling 343

Chapter 14: Namespaces 389

Chapter 15: Source Files and Programs 419

Part III: Abstraction Mechanisms 447

Chapter 16: Classes 449

Chapter 17: Construction, Cleanup, Copy, and Move 481

Chapter 18: Overloading 527

Chapter 19: Special Operators 549

Chapter 20: Derived Classes 577

Chapter 21: Class Hierarchies 613

Chapter 22: Run-Time Type Information 641

Chapter 23: Templates 665

Chapter 24: Generic Programming 699

Chapter 25: Specialization 721

Chapter 26: Instantiation 741

Chapter 27: Templates and Hierarchies 759

Chapter 28: Metaprogramming 779

Chapter 29: A Matrix Design 827

Part IV: The Standard Library 857

Chapter 30: Standard Library Summary 859

Chapter 31: STL Containers 885

Chapter 32: STL Algorithms 927

Chapter 33: STL Iterators 953

Chapter 34: Memory and Resources 973

Chapter 35: Utilities 1009

Chapter 36: Strings 1033

Chapter 37: Regular Expressions 1051

Chapter 38: I/O Streams 1073

Chapter 39: Locales 1109

Chapter 40: Numerics 1159

Chapter 41: Concurrency 1191

Chapter 42: Threads and Tasks 1209

Chapter 43: The C Standard Library 1253

Chapter 44: Compatibility 1267

Index 1281

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Preface

PREFACE:

The C Programming Language, Third Edition

Bjarne Stroustrup


Preface


Programming is understanding.
- Kristen Nygaard

I find using C more enjoyable than ever. C's support for design and programming has improved dramatically over the years, and lots of new helpful techniques have been developed for its use. However, C is not just fun. Ordinary practical programmers have achieved significant improvements in productivity, maintainability, flexibility, and quality in projects of just about any kind and scale. By now, C has fulfilled most of the hopes I originally had for it, and also succeeded at tasks I hadn't even dreamt of.

This book introduces standard C* and the key programming and design techniques supported by C. Standard C is a far more powerful and polished language than the version of C introduced by the first edition of this book. New language features such as name spaces, exceptions, templates, and run-time type identification allow many techniques to be applied more directly than was possible before, and the standard library allows the programmer to start from a much higher level than the bare language.

About a third of the information in the second edition of this book came from the first. This third edition is the result of a rewrite of even larger magnitude. It offers something to even the most experienced C programmer; at the same time, this book is easier for the novice to approach that its predecessors were. The explosion of C use and the massive amount of experience accumulated as a result makes this possible.

The definition of an extensive standard library makesadifference to the way C concepts can be presented. As before, this book presents C independently of any particular implementation, and as before, the tutorial chapters present language constructs and concepts in a "bottom up" order so that a construct is used only after it has been defined. However, it is much easier to use a well-designed library than it is to understand the details of its implementation. Therefore the standard library can be used to provide realistic and interesting examples well before a reader can be assumed to understand its inner workings. the standard library itself is also a fertile source of programming examples and design techniques.

This book presents every major C language feature and the standard library. It is organized around language and library facilities. However, features are presented in the context of their use. That is, the focus is on the language as the tool for design and programming rather than on the language in itself. This book demonstrates key techniques that make C effective and teaches the fundamental concepts necessary for mastery. Except where illustrating technicalities, examples are taken from the domain of systems software. A companion, The Annotated C Language Standard, presents the complete language definition together with annotations to make it more comprehensible.

The primary aim of this book is to help the reader understand how the facilities offered by C support key programming techniques. The aim is to take the reader far beyond the point where he or she gets code running primarily by copying examples and emulation programming styles from other languages. Only a good understanding of the ideas behind the language facilities leads to mastery. Supplemented by implementation documentation, the information provided is sufficient for completing significant real-world projects. The hope is that this book will help the reader gain new insights and become a better programmer and designer.

Acknowledgements
In addition to the people mentioned in the acknowledgment section of the first and second editions, I would like to thank Matt Austern, Hans Boehm, Don Caldwell, Lawrence Crowl, Alan Feuer, Andrew Forrest, Tim Griffin, Peter Juhl, Brian Kernighan, Andrew Koenig, Mike Mowbray, Rob Murray, Lee Nackman, Joseph Newcomer, Alex Stepanov, David Vandevoorde, Peter Weinberger, and Chris Van Wyk for commenting on draft chapters of this third edition.

I would also like to thank the volunteers on the C standards committees who did an immense amount of constructive work to make C what it is today. It is slightly unfair to single out individuals, but it would be even more unfair not to mention anyone, so I'd like to especially mention Mike Ball, Dag Brück, Sean Corfield, Ted Goldstein, Kim Knutilla, Andrew Koenig, Josée Lajoie, Dmitry Lenkov, Nathan Myers, Martin O'Riordan, Tom Plum, Jonathan Shopiro, John Spicer, Jerry Schwarz, Alex Stepanov, and Mike Vilot, as people who each directly cooperated with me over some part of C and its standard library.

Bjarne Stroustrup
Murray Hill, New Jersey


*At the time of writing, the C Standard is still only a "Final Committee Draft Standard." However, no significant changes to the language or the standard library are anticipated.



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Introduction

This introduction gives an overview of the major concepts and features of the C++ programming language and its standard library. It also provides an overview of this book and explains the approach taken to the description of the language facilities and their use. In addition, the introductory chapters present some background information about C++, the design of C++, and the use of C++.
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