The Changing HIV/AIDS Landscape: Selected Papers for The World Bank's Agenda for Action in Africa, 2007-2011

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HIV/AIDS reverses life expectancy gains, erodes productivity, consumes savings and dilutes growth efforts, threatening the realization of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Africa.The report is the result of an extensive analytical and consultative process begun in 2006, that engaged more than 1,000 people from over 30 countries and many institutions mostly in Africa, as well as UN agencies, multilateral and bilateral donors, and foundations. The report reaffirms the Bank's commitment to combating HIV/AIDS in Africa, moving from its initial emergency response to the next phase, including the goal to provide at least US $250 million annually and to create an Africa HIV/AIDS Incentive Fund to enhance the evidence base, promote the multisectoral response and provide technical support, analysis and policy advice to countries.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780821376515
  • Publisher: World Bank Publications
  • Publication date: 6/12/2009
  • Pages: 496
  • Product dimensions: 7.40 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Table of Contents

Contributors xv

Acknowledgments xvi

Abbreviations xvii

Introduction 1

I Epidemiology and Technology 7

1 HIV Epidemiology: Recent Trends and Lessons David Wilson Shilpa Challa 9

Improved Surveillance 9

From Epidemiology to Interventions: What Is Working? 18

Conclusions 23

References 27

2 The Evolution of HIV/AIDS Programs: Recent and Ongoing Developments in Selected Areas Albertus Voetberg 29

Prevention 30

Treatment 45

Monitoring and Evaluation 49

Summary of Implications 52

References 54

II Economic Aspects and Economic Policy Issues 61

3 Links between HIV/AIDS and Development Jorge Saba Arbache 63

How May HIV/AIDS Affect Development? Main Theoretical Channels 66

Empirical Evidence 69

Concluding Remarks 76

Notes 77

References 77

4 Demographic and Socioeconomic Patterns of HIV/AIDS Prevalence in Africa Kathleen Beegle Damien de Walque 81

Methodological Issues 82

(Un)Established Links between Socioeconomic Status and HIV 88

Conclusion 98

Notes 100

References 101

5 HIV/AIDS and Social Capital in a Cross-Section of Countries Antonio C. David 105

Links between Social Capital and Development 106

Social Capital and HIV/AIDS 107

The Empirical Model 109

Conclusion 117

Notes 121

References 121

6 Fiscal Space and the Sustainability of HIV/AIDS Programs in Sub-Saharan Africa Antonio C. David 123

Financing HIV/AIDS Expenditures and the Challenges of Scaling Up Aid 124

Fiscal Space, Sustainability, and HIV/AIDS Programs 128

Country Case Studies 132

Conclusion 155

Notes 156

References 157

III Policy Challenges 159

7 The Financial Architecture of the Response to the HIV Epidemic: Challenges andSustainability Issues Rene Bonnel 161

Summary 161

The Response to HIV and the Mobilization of Resources 164

The Proliferation of Global Programs 176

The Way Forward 190

Notes 192

References 193

8 Impact of and Response to HIV/AIDS: Public Policy Challenges Markus Haacker 197

Overview of the Global AIDS Epidemic 198

Effect of HIV/AIDS and the Government's Capacities 202

Scaling Up the Response to HIV/AIDS 210

Conclusions 220

Notes 222

References 223

9 Gender and HIV/AIDS A. Waafas Ofosu-Amaah Nilufar Egamberdi Arunima Dhar 227

Gender-Based Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS 228

Institutional Responses, Strategies, and Actions 239

Good Practices and Promising Approaches 240

Conceptual and Institutional Challenges for Gender Mainstreaming 245

Looking Ahead: A Poverty-Focused Strategic Approach 248

Notes 260

References 260

10 The Private Sector and HIV/AIDS in Africa: Recent Developments and Implications for Policy Frank G. Feeley III Sydney Rosen Patrick J. Connelly 267

Impact on and Response to HIV by Employers 269

Lessons for Policy 284

Notes 291

References 291

11 Community Initiatives and HIV/AIDS Elizabeth Ninan Jean J. Delion 295

What Are Community Initiatives? 297

HIV/AIDS Services Provided at the Community Level 299

Benefits and Characteristics of Community Initiatives 301

Challenges and Constraints in Scaling Up Community Initiatives 304

Recommendations for External Funding Agencies 315

Note 317

References 317

IV Strengthening National Health Systems 321

12 HIV/AIDS and Human Resources for Health Christopher H. Herbst Agnes Soucat Kate Tulenko 323

Demand for Health Workers in Sub-Saharan Africa 324

Supply and Performance of Health Workers in Sub-Saharan Africa 327

Impact of HIV/AIDS on the Health Worker Shortage in Africa 331

Reducing the Demand for and Increasing the Supply of Health Workers 347

Need for Supportive and Enabling Fiscal and Political Environments 356

Conclusion 359

Notes 360

References 361

13 Linkages between HIV/AIDS, Sexual and Reproductive Health, Tuberculosis, and Nutrition Elizabeth L. Lule Richard M. Seifman Carolyn J. Shelton Tim Clary 369

Linking Sexual Reproductive Health and HIV/AIDS Programs 371

Linking Tuberculosis and HIV Programs 382

Linking Nutrition and HIV/AIDS Programs 395

Conclusion 403

Notes 404

References 404

14 Strengthening Health Systems: The Role of Supply Chains in Addressing the HIV Epidemic Sangeeta Raja James Bates 411

Characteristics of HIV and Public Health Supply Chains 413

Problems with Healthcare Supply Chain Systems 415

Review of the Approaches of Addressing Supply Chains 418

Framework for Planning a Comprehensive Improvement in Supply Chains 422

Conclusion 424

Notes 425

References 425

V Future 427

15 The Potential Impact of HIV/AIDS Interventions on the HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Africa: A Simulation Exercise for the World Bank Lori Bollinger John Stover 429

Current Status of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic 430

Description of Scenarios 431

Conclusions and Recommendations 448

Notes 449

References 450

Index 453

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