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Individual volumes provide essential background reading for courses covering specific eras and periods. The complete nine-volume series is ideal for general courses in history and Western civilization sequences.
The Call to Conversion in a Hostile Environment
The three texts in the following section illuminate the motives and the experience of conversion. They also testify to the predominately Greek character that the western Church retained well into the fourth century. The authors of two of the texts, a teacher from Palestine and his disciple from Syria, met in Rome, and the author of a segment of the third text may have been a Levantine whom a splinter group elected bishop of Rome. All three texts display the convert's zeal to discredit his former attachments and to magnify his new faith, and the thirst for conflict even—perhaps especially—if it led to martyrdom.
Justin Martyr (died about 165) was born into a non-Christian Greek family in the Palestinian city now known as Nablus. He was an avid student of philosophy, especially of Platonism, from a relatively early age. The decisive moment in his conversion came on the road to Ephesus when a mysterious old man revealed to him the immortality of the soul and directed him to the sacred writings of the Christians. Justin became an itinerant teacher, finally settling in Rome, where he was martyred. He is known to have written eight treatises, of which three survive. Two of these are apologies. The following selections come from his first apology, which was written about 150–55.
Tatian (flourished 170) was a widely traveled Syrian who became a disciple of Justin Martyr at Rome. Subsequently, he returned to the Near East, where he founded a Christian sect known for its esoteric doctrines and austere practices. His vehemence contrasts with Justin's eventempered presentation.
The Letter to Diognetus, probably written late in the second century, appears to have been unknown in Antiquity. It survived in only one manuscript, which was destroyed in 1870. Its time and place of origin are unknown. Chapters 11 and 12 are unlike earlier chapters in the treatise. They may come from another document, perhaps a sermon on Easter or the Epiphany. Some scholars have proposed that the author was the celebrated Hippolytus of Rome (died 235), who, like Justin and Tatian, was born in the Near East and traveled to Rome. He was a prolific writer. Distinguished by his learning and rigor, Hippolytus was elected pope by a faction in the Roman Church. He was subsequently reconciled with his opponents, and died in exile under persecution.
1. Justin Martyr, First Apology
To the Emperor Titus Aelius Adrianus Antoninus Pius Augustus Caesar, and to his son Verissimus the philosopher, and to Lucius the philosopher, the natural son of Caesar, and the adopted son of Pius, a lover of learning, and to the sacred senate, with the whole people of the Romans, I, Justin, the son of Priscus and grandson of Bacchius, natives of Flavia Neapolis in Palestine, present this address and petition in behalf of those of all nations who are unjustly hated and wantonly abused, myself being one of them.
2. Justice Demanded
Reason directs those who are truly pious and philosophical to honour and love only what is true, declining to follow traditional opinions, if these be worthless. For not only does sound reason direct us to refuse the guidance of those who did or taught anything wrong, but it is incumbent on the lover of truth, by all means, and if death be threatened, even before his own life, to choose to do and say what is right. Do you, then, since ye are called pious and philosophers, guardians of justice and lovers of learning, give good heed, and hearken to my address; and if ye are indeed such, it will be manifested. For we have come, not to flatter you by this writing, nor please you by our address, but to beg that you pass judgment, after an accurate and searching investigation, not flattered by prejudice or by a desire of pleasing superstitious men, nor induced by irrational impulse or evil rumours which have long been prevalent, to give a decision which will prove to be against yourselves. For as for us, we reckon that no evil can be done us, unless we be convicted as evildoers, or be proved to be wicked men; and you, you can kill, but not hurt us.
3. Claim of Judicial Investigation
But lest any one think that this is an unreasonable and reckless utterance, we demand that the charges against the Christians be investigated, and that, if these be substantiated, they be punished as they deserve; [or rather, indeed, we ourselves will punish them.] But if no one can convict us of anything, true reason forbids you, for the sake of a wicked rumour, to wrong blameless men, and indeed rather yourselves, who think fit to direct affairs, not by judgment, but by passion. And every sober-minded person will declare this to be the only fair and equitable adjustment, namely, that the subjects render an unexceptionable account of their own life and doctrine; and that, on the other hand, the rulers should give their decision in obedience, not to violence and tyranny, but to piety and philosophy. For thus would both rulers and ruled reap benefit. For even one of the ancients somewhere said, "Unless both rulers and ruled philosophize, it is impossible to make states blessed." It is our task, therefore, to afford to all an opportunity of inspecting our life and teachings, lest, on account of those who are accustomed to be ignorant of our affairs, we should incur the penalty due to them for mental blindness; and it is your business, when you hear us, to be found, as reason demands, good judges. For if, when ye have learnt the truth, you do not what is just, you will be before God without excuse.
4. Christians Unjustly Condemned for Their Mere Name
By the mere application of a name, nothing is decided, either good or evil, apart from the actions implied in the name; and indeed, so far at least as one may judge from the name we are accused of, we are most excellent people. But as we do not think it just to beg to be acquitted on account of the name, if we be convicted as evil-doers, so, on the other hand, if we be found to have committed no offence, either in the matter of thus naming ourselves, or of our conduct as citizens, it is your part very earnestly to guard against incurring just punishment, by unjustly punishing those who are not convicted. For from a name neither praise nor punishment could reasonably spring, unless something excellent or base in action be proved. And those among yourselves who are accused you do not punish before they are convicted; but in our case you receive the name as proof against us, and this although, so far as the name goes, you ought rather to punish our accusers. For we are accused of being Christians, and to hate what is "excellent" (Chrestian) is unjust. Again, if any of the accused deny the name, and say that he is not a Christian, you acquit him, as having no evidence against him as a wrong-doer; but if any one acknowledge that he is a Christian, you punish him on account of the acknowledgment. Justice requires that you inquire into the life both of him who confesses and of him who denies, that by his deeds it may be apparent what kind of man each is. For as some who have been taught by the Master, Christ, not to deny Him, give encouragement to others when they are put to the question, so in all probability do those who lead wicked lives give occasion to those who, without consideration, take upon them to accuse all the Christians of impiety and wickedness. And this also is not right. For of philosophy, too, some assume the name and the garb who do nothing worthy of their profession; and you are well aware, that those of the ancients whose opinions and teachings were quite diverse, are yet all called by the one name of philosophers. And of these some taught atheism; and the poets who have flourished among you raise a laugh out of the uncleanness of Jupiter with his own children. And those who now adopt such instruction are not restrained by you; but, on the contrary, you bestow prizes and honours upon those who euphoniously insult the gods.
5. Christians Charged with Atheism
Why, then, should this be? In our case, who pledge ourselves to do no wickedness, nor to hold these atheistic opinions, you do not examine the charges made against us; but, yielding to unreasoning passion, and to the instigation of evil demons, you punish us without consideration or judgment. For the truth shall be spoken; since of old these evil demons, effecting apparitions of themselves, both defiled women and corrupted boys, and showed such fearful sights to men, that those who did not use their reason in judging of the actions that were done, were struck with terror; and being carried away by fear, and not knowing that these were demons, they called them gods, and gave to each the name which each of the demons chose for himself. And when Socrates endeavoured, by true reason and examination, to bring these things to light, and deliver men from the demons, then the demons themselves, by means of men who rejoiced in iniquity, compassed his death, as an atheist and a profane person, on the charge that "he was introducing new divinities;" and in our case they display a similar activity. For not only among the Greeks did reason (Logos) prevail to condemn these things through Socrates, but also among the Barbarians were they condemned by Reason (or the Word, the Logos) Himself, who took shape, and became man, and was called Jesus Christ; and in obedience to Him, we not only deny that they who did such things as these are gods, but assert that they are wicked and impious demons, whose actions will not bear comparison with those even of men desirous of virtue.
6. Charge of Atheism Refuted
Hence are we called atheists. And we confess that we are atheists, so far as gods of this sort are concerned, but not with respect to the most true God, the Father of righteousness and temperance and the other virtues, who is free from all impurity. But both Him, and the Son who came forth from Him and taught us these things, and the host of the other good angels who follow and are made like to Him, and the prophetic Spirit, we worship and adore, knowing them in reason and truth, and declaring without grudging to every one who wishes to learn, as we have been taught.
7. Each Christian Must Be Tried by His Own Life
But some one will say, Some have ere now been arrested and convicted as evil-doers. For you condemn many, many a time, after inquiring into the life of each of the accused severally, but not on account of those of whom we have been speaking. And this we acknowledge, that as among the Greeks those who teach such theories as please themselves are all called by the one name "Philosopher," though their doctrines be diverse, so also among the Barbarians this name on which accusations are accumulated is the common property of those who are and those who seem wise. For all are called Christians. Wherefore we demand that the deeds of all those who are accused to you be judged, in order that each one who is convicted may be punished as an evil-doer, and not as a Christian; and if it is clear that any one is blameless, that he may be acquitted, since by the mere fact of his being a Christian he does no wrong. For we will not require that you punish our accusers; they being sufficiently punished by their present wickedness and ignorance of what is right.
8. Christians Confess Their Faith in God
And reckon ye that it is for your sakes we have been saying these things; for it is in our power, when we are examined, to deny that we are Christians; but we would not live by telling a lie. For, impelled by the desire of the eternal and pure life, we seek the abode that is with God, the Father and Creator of all, and hasten to confess our faith, persuaded and convinced as we are that they who have proved to God by their works that they followed Him, and loved to abide with Him where there is no sin to cause disturbance, can obtain these things. This, then, to speak shortly, is what we expect and have learned from Christ, and teach. And Plato, in like manner, used to say that Rhadamanthus and Minos would punish the wicked who came before them; and we say that the same thing will be done, but at the hand of Christ, and upon the wicked in the same bodies united again to their spirits which are now to undergo everlasting punishment; and not only, as Plato said, for a period of a thousand years. And if any one say that this is incredible or impossible, this error of ours is one which concerns ourselves only, and no other person, so long as you cannot convict us of doing any harm.
9. Folly of Idol Worship
And neither do we honour with many sacrifices and garlands of flowers such deities as men have formed and set in shrines and called gods; since we see that these are soulless and dead, and have not the form of God (for we do not consider that God has such a form as some say that they imitate to His honour), but have the names and forms of those wicked demons which have appeared. For why need we tell you who already know, into what forms the craftsmen, carving and cutting, casting and hammering, fashion the materials? And often out of vessels of dishonour, by merely changing the form, and making an image of the requisite shape, they make what they call a god; which we consider not only senseless, but to be even insulting to God, who, having ineffable glory and form, thus gets His name attached to things that are corruptible, and require constant service. And that the artificers of these are both intemperate, and, not to enter into particulars, are practiced in every vice, you very well know; even their own girls who work along with them they corrupt. What infatuation! that dissolute men should be said to fashion and make gods for your worship, and that you should appoint such men the guardians of the temples where they are enshrined; not recognizing that it is unlawful even to think or say that men are the guardians of gods.
10. How God Is to Be Served
But we have received by tradition that God does not need the material offerings which men can give, seeing, indeed, that He Himself is the provider of all things. And we have been taught, and are convinced, and do believe, that He accepts those only who imitate the excellences which reside in Him, temperance, and justice, and philanthropy, and as many virtues as are peculiar to a God who is called by no proper name. And we have been taught that He in the beginning did of His goodness, for man's sake, create all things out of unformed matter; and if men by their works show themselves worthy of this His design, they are deemed worthy, and so we have received-of reigning in company with Him, being delivered from corruption and suffering. For as in the beginning He created us when we were not, so do we consider that, in like manner, those who choose what is pleasing to Him are, on account of their choice, deemed worthy of incorruption and of fellowship with Him. For the coming into being at first was not in our own power; and in order that we may follow those things which please Him, choosing them by means of the rational faculties He has Himself endowed us with, He both persuades us and leads us to faith. And we think it for the advantage of all men that they are not restrained from learning these things, but are even urged thereto. For the restraint which human laws could not effect, the Word, inasmuch as He is divine, would have effected, had not the wicked demons, taking as their ally the lust of wickedness which is in every man, and which draws variously to all manner of vice, scattered many false and profane accusations, none of which attach to us.
17. Christ Taught Civil Obedience
And everywhere we, more readily than all men, endeavor to pay to those appointed by you the taxes both ordinary and extraordinary, as we have been taught by Him; for at that time some came to Him and asked Him, if one ought to pay tribute to Caesar; and He answered, "Tell me, whose image does this coin bear?" And they said, "Caesar's"; And again He answered them, "Render therefore to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's." Whence to God alone we render worship, but in other things we gladly serve you, acknowledging you as kings and rulers of men, and praying that with your kingly power you be found to possess also sound judgment. But if you pay no regard to our prayers and frank explanations, we shall suffer no loss, since we believe (or rather, indeed, are persuaded) that every man will suffer punishment in eternal fire according to the merit of his deed, and will render account according to the power he has received from God, as Christ intimated when He said, "To whom God has given more, of him shall more be required."
Excerpted from University of Chicago Readings in Western Civilization, Volume 3: The Church in the Roman Empire by Karl F. Morrison. Copyright © 1986 The University of Chicago. Excerpted by permission of The University of Chicago Press.
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The Call to Conversion in a Hostile Environment
1. Justin Martyr, First Apology
2. Tatian, Address to the Greeks
3. Letter to Diognetus
From Persecuted to Persecutor
4.The Martyrdom of Saint Perpetua
5. Eusebius of Caesarea, The Ecclesiastical History
6 Athanasius, History of the Arians
7. Sozomen, Ecclesiastical History
8. Codex Theodosianus, 16.1.1
9. Augustine, Letter 185: On the Correction of the Donatists
Relations between Church Government and Imperial Administration
10. Eusebius of Caesarea, Life of Constantine the Great
11. Ambrose Letter 51: To Theodosius
12. Codex Theodosianus, 16.2.41
13. Jerome, Letter 1: To Innocent
14. Augustine, The City of God
15. Pope Gelasius I, Letter to the Emperor Anastasius
Christianity and Paganism
16. Augustine, The City of God
17. Codex Theodosianus, 18.104.22.168
18. Jerome, Against Vigilantius
19. Athanasius, Discourse 3 against the Arians
20. John Chrysostom, Homilies Concerning the Statues
21. Sozomen, Ecclesiastical History
22. Codex Theodosianus, 15.4.1
23. Ambrose Letters 17 and 18
24. Augustine, Letter 29
25. Gregory I, Dialogues
26. Justinian, Codex, 22.214.171.124
27. Athanasius, Life of Saint Anthony
28. Augustine, Confessions
29. Tertullian, On the Apparel of Women
30. Didaskalia Apostolorum
31. Codex Theodosianus, 16.2.27
32. Augustine, Confessions
33. John Chrysostom, Letter to Olympias
34. Aetheria, The Pilgrimage of Etheria
35. Eusebius of Caesarea, The Ecclesiastical History
36. Irenaeus of Lyon, Against Heresies
37. Cyprian of Carthage, Letter 68 (64): To Florentius Pupianus, On Calumniators
38. Pope Leo I, Sermon 3: On the Anniversary of His Elevation to the Pontificate
Index of Names