The Cicero Spy Affair: German Access to British Secrets in World War II

Overview

The episode of the opportunistic valet of Britain's ambassador to neutral Turkey during World War II—dubbed Cicero for the eloquence of the top-secret material he appropriated from his employer Sir Hughe Knatchbull-Hugessen and sold to the Nazis—is a staple of intelligence lore. Yet this remarkable and sometimes comical story has often been recounted with little regard for the facts, most prominently in the popular film Five Fingers. Now, historian and former intelligence officer Richard Wires presents the first ...

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Overview

The episode of the opportunistic valet of Britain's ambassador to neutral Turkey during World War II—dubbed Cicero for the eloquence of the top-secret material he appropriated from his employer Sir Hughe Knatchbull-Hugessen and sold to the Nazis—is a staple of intelligence lore. Yet this remarkable and sometimes comical story has often been recounted with little regard for the facts, most prominently in the popular film Five Fingers. Now, historian and former intelligence officer Richard Wires presents the first full and objective account of the Cicero spy episode, offering closure to past discrepancies and credible solutions to remaining mysteries. Copiously documented, The Cicero Spy Affair provides readers with the true chronology of events and places them in an international context. It is a story set in the hotbed of intrigue that was wartime Turkey, replete with a dramatic car chase, a series of colorful mistresses ever loyal to their lover the spy, and an old-school British ambassador whose documents are photographed at night as he plays the piano in the drawing room and/or slips into a sleeping pill-induced slumber.

Despite the affair's amusing aspects, it is also a sobering tale in which there are no winners and from which there are serious lessons to be learned. Germany never made use of the highly sensitive British documents it obtained during this crucial four-month period of the war because the handling of the information was caught up in a bitter and wasteful personal rivalry between Ribbentrop and Schellenberg. It was sheer luck for the British that their war effort did not sustain any significant damage. For, while the book states definitively that security regarding the Allied invasion of Normandy was not breached in the Cicero affair, Germany did gain a potential advantage concerning campaigns in the Aegean and the Balkans. This embarrassed the British greatly, especially since Cicero walked away a free man. However, the greedy valet—the most highly paid spy in history at that time—did not achieve his goals, either; he discovered some years later that the British banknotes he insisted on as payment were counterfeited by the Germans as part of a larger counterfeiting project. Cicero died a desperate man, deeply in debt—a fitting anticlimax for an espionage episode resulting in neither bodily injury nor strategic impact, but in humiliation on all sides.

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Editorial Reviews

Library Journal
Wartime spying is one of the most intriguing areas in the historiography of World War II, and Wires (emeritus, history, Ball State Univ.) has given us the best account yet of the remarkable espionage career of Elyesa Bazna, a valet who in 1943-44 microfilmed dozens of top-secret papers belonging to the unsuspecting British Ambassador to Turkey, Sir Hughe Knatchbull-Hugessen. Bazna, whose code name was Cicero, sold the film to the Germans for an estimated $1.2 million. Unfortunately for Bazna, however, the Germans paid him in counterfeit British notes, and he ended up with very little for his efforts. Wires explains in careful detail how Bazna developed his contacts within the German government and how interdepartmental competition fostered German skepticism of the information--which, for the most part, they eventually ignored. This is a great tale, all the more so because it is true. Recommended for general collections and those strong in World War II studies.--Edward Goedeken, Iowa State Univ. Lib., Ames Copyright 1999 Cahners Business Information.
Booknews
Cicero was the nom-de-guerre of the valet of Britain's ambassador to neutral Turkey during World War II, because of the eloquence of the top-secret material he appropriated from his boss and sold to the Nazis. Correcting some misinformation in such popular accounts as the film , Wires (history, Ball State U.) offers a chronology of events and places them in an international context. The car chases, colorful mistresses, secret photographs, and knockout pills are still there. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

Meet the Author

Professor Emeritus of History at Ball State University and Executive Director of the London Centre.

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Table of Contents

Preface
1 The "Notorious" Case
2 Turkey and the Powers
3 The Volunteer Spy
4 Selling the Secrets
5 Germany's Intelligence Labyrinth
6 Questions and Doubts in Berlin
7 Operation Bernhard
8 Cicero's Outstanding Period
9 The Contest for Turkey
10 Searching for an Agent
11 Cicero's Last Achievements
12 An American Spy
13 Denouement and Aftermath
14 The Affair in Retrospect
Notes
Filmography
Selected Bibliography
Index
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