The Complete History of Railroads

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781615306817
  • Publisher: Britannica Educational Publishing
  • Publication date: 12/15/2011
  • Series: Transportation and Society Series
  • Pages: 176
  • Age range: 15 - 17 Years
  • Product dimensions: 6.20 (w) x 9.10 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Table of Contents

Introduction xii

Chapter 1 The First Railroads 1

Early European Railroads 1

The Stockton and Darlington Railway 2

The Liverpool and Manchester Railway 5

Characteristics of British Railroads 5

The Rocket 6

The Railroad in Continental Europe 7

Early American Railroads 10

The Orient Express 11

The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad 14

Boston Railroads 15

The South Carolina Railroad 16

Chapter 2 The Development of Modern Railroads 18

American Railroads 18

Expansion into the Interior 19

The Transcontinental Railroad 20

The Pacific Railway Acts 22

Advances in Traction Systems 23

Railway Company Mergers 24

Canadian Railroads 27

The Canadian National Railway Company 33

Modern Railways Around the World 34

Diesel-Electric Locomotion and Electronic Systems 35

Growth in Developing Countries 37

High-Speed Passenger Lines 38

Maglev 45

Japan's Bullet Train 46

Chapter 3 Locomotives 48

Steam Locomotives 49

Electric Traction 50

Big Boy 51

Advantages and Disadvantages 53

Types of Traction Systems 54

Diesel Traction 61

Diesel Development 63

Elements of the Diesel Locomotive 64

Types of Diesel Motive Power 66

Traction Operating Methods 68

Turbine Propulsion 69

Chapter 4 Railroad Cars 71

Freight Cars 71

Passenger Cars 74

Brake Systems 76

Automatic Body Tilting 77

Cars for Daytime Service 79

Cars for Overnight Travel 81

Intermodal Vehicles 81

The Pullman Car 82

Development 83

Operations 84

Passenger Intermodals 87

Chapter 5 Railroad Tracks and Roadways 88

Location and Construction 88

Rail 91

Rail Fittings 93

Sleepers (Crossties) 93

Track Maintenance 94

Operations and Control 95

Communications 95

Signaling 98

The Automated Hump Yard 106

Chapter 6 The Elements of Bridge Design 108

Basic Forms 109

Beam 111

Worlds Longest-Span Beam Bridges 111

Truss 113

Arch 113

Worlds Longest-Span Arch Bridges 113

Suspension 115

World's Longest-Span Suspension Bridges 115

Cantilever 120

World's Longest-Span Cantilever Bridges 120

Cable-Stay 123

World's Longest-Span Cable-Stayed Bridges 123

Materials 125

Wood and Stone 125

Iron and Steel 126

Concrete 126

Construction 127

Beam Bridges 127

Arch Bridges 128

Suspension Bridges 128

Cantilever Bridges 129

The Forth Bridge 130

Cable-Stayed Bridges 130

Performance in Service 131

Live Load and Dead Load 132

Forces of Nature 132

Chapter 7 Bridge Design in the Industrial Age 134

Iron and Steel, 1779-1929 134

Iron 134

The Britannia Bridge 138

Steel 139

The First Concrete Bridges 145

The Brooklyn Bridge 146

Reinforced Concrete 147

Prestressed Concrete 152

Steel After 1931 155

Long-Span Suspension Bridges 155

Truss Bridges 157

Cable-Stayed Bridges 158

German Designs 158

U.S. Designs 159

Japanese Long-Span Bridges 160

Osaka Harbour 160

Island Bridges 161

The Akashi Strait Bridge 163

Chapter 8 Early Railroad Engineers 164

Great Britain 164

Richard Trevithick 164

George Stephenson 167

The United States 169

Oliver Evans 169

Peter Cooper 172

John Jervis 174

Chapter 9 Railroad Tycoons of the Gilded Age 176

The Erie Railroad Company 177

Jay Gould 178

Daniel Drew 180

James Fisk 181

The New York Central Railroad Company 182

Cornelius Vanderbilt 183

William Vanderbilt 185

The Northern Pacific and Great Northern Railways 186

Jay Cooke 188

Henry Villard 189

J.P. Morgan 190

James J. Hill 193

The Central Pacific and Southern Pacific Railroads 193

Collis P. Huntington 196

Leland Stanford 197

Mark Hopkins 197

Charles Crocker 198

The Union Pacific Railroad 200

OakesAmes 202

Edward H. Harriman 203

Chapter 10 Great Railroad Bridge Builders 204

The 19th Century 204

Robert Stephenson 204

William Fairbairn 205

Isambard Kingdom Brunei 206

Charles Ellet 208

James Eads 209

Benjamin Baker 212

John Fowler 213

John Augustus Roebling 214

Gustave Eiffel 216

The 20th Century 217

Gustav Lindenthal 217

Othmar Ammann 217

Ralph Freeman 219

Ralph Modjeski 219

Robert Maillart 221

Conclusion 222

Glossary 223

Bibliography 226

Index 229

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