The ComSoc Guide to Passive Optical Networks: Enhancing the Last Mile Access / Edition 1

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Describes the major architectures, standards, and technologies of Passive Optical Networks (PONs)

The ComSoc Guide to Passive Optical Networks provides readers with a concise explanation of the key features of Passive Optical Networks (PONs); the different types of PON architectures and standards; key issues of PON devices, management, and implementation; and the promising business opportunities in access networks.

Written for a broad audience, ranging from developers to users, this indispensable book provides an understanding o the evolutionary path of PON access systems and their positioning with respect to the cable, copper, and wireless competitors for broadband access networks. In addition, The ComSoc Guide to Passive Optical Networks:

  • Provides brief, high-level overviews of the architectures and applications of Fiber-to-the-Home (FTTH) or Fiber-to-the-Curb (FTTC) access networks and the alternative HFC, subscriber line, and WiMAX access systems
  • Awards readers with a clear understanding of what BPON, GPON, WDM-PON and EPON are and how they work, together with an introduction to their respective standards
  • Carefully defines all acronyms and technical terms, making the book accessible to those who may not be specialists in this area
  • Gives readers an appreciation of the last mile problems in telecommunications access networks, and the opportunities in optical-wireless integration
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Product Details

Meet the Author

Stephen Weinstein, PhD, is an independent consultant (Communication Theory and Technology Consulting LLC) advising industrial clients and law firms. An IEEE Life Fellow, he invented the data-driven echo cancellation technique used in voiceband modems and pioneered the application of the Fast Fourier Transform to OFDM/DMT modulation.

Yuanqiu Luo, PhD, is a staff engineer in the advanced technology department of Futurewei (Huawei) Technologies. She is a co-editor of ITU-T Recommendations G.987 and G.987.3 and a clause editor of IEEE Standard 802.1AS. A recipient of the IEEE Standards Award in 2011, Dr. Luo has authored more than forty publications.

Ting Wang, PhD, is Department Head for NEC Laboratories America, Inc. Active in the IEEE Communications Society, Dr. Wang is Vice Chair of the Integrated Fiber & Wireless Technologies Committee, and is author of more than one hundred published papers.

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Table of Contents

Preface xi

1 PON in the Access Picture 1

1.1 Why Passive Optical Network (PON) for the Last Mile Access? 1

1.2 Services and Applications 4

1.2.1 Displacement of Legacy High-Speed Access Services 4

1.2.2 Internet Protocol (IP) over PON 6

1.2.3 Triple Play and Quadruple Play 6

1.2.4 Multimedia Conferencing and Shared Environments 8

1.2.5 Backhaul Services 8

1.2.6 Cloud-Based Services 10

1.3 Legacy Access Technologies 10

1.3.1 Hybrid Fiber-Coax (HFC) Cable Data System 10

1.3.2 Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) 13

1.3.3 Broadband over Powerline (BoPL) 15

1.3.4 Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) 16

1.4 Fiber-Optic Access Systems 18

1.4.1 PON as a Preferred Optical Access Network 20

1.5 PON Deployment and Evolution 22

References 24

2 PON Architecture and Components 27

2.1 Architectural Concepts and Alternatives 27

2.1.1 Topologies 27

2.1.2 Downstream and Upstream Requirements 30

2.1.3 BPON, GPON, and EPON Systems 30

2.1.4 Medium Access Techniques 34

2.2 Passive and Active PON Components 37

2.2.1 Passive Optical Coupler 37

2.2.2 Splitter 38

2.2.3 Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG) 40

2.2.4 Optical Line Termination (OLT) 41

2.2.5 ONU/ONT 41

2.3 Management and Control Elements 43

2.3.1 Bandwidth Allocation 43

2.3.2 Quality of Service (QoS) 44

2.3.3 Deployment and Maintenance 46

2.3.4 Problems and Troubleshooting 47

References 50

3 Techniques and Standards 53

3.1 BPON Overview 55

3.1.1 Basic Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Concepts 56

3.2 The Full Service Access Network (FSAN) (ITU-T G.983) BPON Standard 58

3.2.1 Downstream Transmission 62

3.2.2 Upstream Transmission 64

3.2.3 Management Functions 65

3.2.4 Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) 65

3.2.5 Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation (DBA) 67

3.2.6 Protection Switching 67

3.3 GPON 68

3.3.1 GPON Encapsulation Method (GEM) 69

3.3.2 Downstream Transmission 70

3.3.3 Upstream Transmission 72

3.3.4 Ranging 73

3.3.5 Security 74

3.4 EPON 74

3.4.1 EPON Switched Ethernet 77

3.4.2 1000BASE-PX10,1000BASE-PX20, and 10G EPON PMD Types 78

3.4.3 Medium Access Control (MAC) 79

3.4.4 Comparison of 1G EPON and GPON 83

3.4.5 Service Interoperability in EPON (SIEPON) 85

References 86

4 Recent Advances and Looking to the Future 87

4.1 Interoperability 87

4.1.1 Implementing 1:1 and 1:N Interoperability Testing 89

4.1.2 Management and Quality-of-Service (QoS) Challenges 91

4.2 Wavelength Division Multiplexed PON (WDM-PON) 91

4.2.1 Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing (CWDM)-PON and Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM)-PON 93

4.2.2 WDM Devices 95

4.3 Subcarrier PON 97

4.4 Long-Reach PON 100

4.5 Optical-Wireless Integration 100

4.5.1 Architecture 101

4.5.2 Integration Modes, Benefits, and Challenges 103

4.5.3 Support of Next-Generation Cellular Mobile 106

4.5.4 The Future of Optical-Wireless Integration 107

4.6 Scaling Up PON to Much Higher Transmission Rates 108

4.7 Conclusion 111

References 111

Appendix: Excerpts from the IEEE 10Gbps EPON Standard 802.3av-2009 115

Index 183

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