Using the metaphor of the socially constructed organization of space, this text takes a broad view of the evolution of urban America, from its historical roots to the present. It examines how policies respond to and affect the organization of space, and it looks to the future of American cities.
"How has a nation that began with few cities, small in scale but noted for their wealth and power... become one characterized by so many large cities, filled with so much poverty and despair," asks Bartlett, who directs the urban studies program at Smith College, in this thoughtful exercise in American urban history. Presenting a colorful overview of the spatial organization of major U.S. metropolitan areas spanning the past 200 years, Bartlett predicts that cities will continue to lose jobs, population and economic activity to suburbs and to "edge cities" on their periphery, creating multinodal metropolitan webs that will be increasingly dependent on automobiles. Rejecting fashionable solutions to today's urban crisis, he argues that "urban enterprise zones" are based on an illusory belief that we can bring back to "central cities" large numbers of low-skill, high-wage jobs. Central cities, Bartlett argues, will never again be the economic hubs they once were. He also maintains that retrofitted rail systems (San Francisco's BART; Washington, D.C.'s Metro)--heavily subsidized and expensive to operate--are not a sound solution to urban sprawl. Bartlett's blueprint for reversing urban decline is sketchy. He calls for equalizing school expenditures across the entire metropolitan web, providing educational opportunities so that inner-city youth will acquire marketable skills and dispersing the poor into the larger community via affordable low-income housing. His lucid prose, and his ability to lay out, in basic terms, the intricate problems facing U.S. cities, make this not only a useful overview, but one whose prognosis for the fate of urban America is largely convincing. (Sept.)
Bartlett (economics and urban studies, Smith Coll.; Economics and Power: An Inquiry into Markets and Human Relations, Cambridge Univ., 1989) argues that a number of mostly economic factors encourage people to congregate, resulting in the current problems of urban poverty, unemployment, and alienation. Bartlett uses examples ranging from Civil War battles to the experiences of low-income families to illustrate the "logic of location," or why technology and economic interests have led to the current urban crisis. He goes on to recommend a more holistic approach to urban policy in order to address inequities in education finance, the disconnection between education and employment, a youth culture that does not encourage academic achievement, and the concentration of the poor in inner cities. He recommends federal investment in programs to disperse the poor and build mixed-income neighborhoods in cities and suburbs. An engaging analysis of the urban crisis from a perspective that readers will appreciate, even if they disagree.--William L. Waugh, Georgia State Univ., Atlanta
Using a metaphor of exploring space as it is socially organized in cities, the author begins by examining the evolution of urban America from the colonial era to the present, emphasizing how both technological change and public policies have affected the shape of cities. He concludes by exploring future prospects for cities as the national economy and its labor markets continue to evolve. He stresses that solutions must come from adapting cities to the future. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.
More than half a decade has passed since Gorbachev launched his "prerestroika" programme to reform the Soviet Union, but the struggle between reformers and conservatives continues to rage while the final outcome, and even the goals of the programme, remains a mystery. Whatever the outcome of this transformation, its impact will reverberate well beyond the borders of the USSR to shape US security and commercial policies into the next century. This edited volume brings together original essays by US-Soviet relations scholars and international business and security experts to explore the many complex and critical issues that the United States must confront in developing its commercial and security policies for the next decade.