The Carolingian "renaissance" of the late eighth and ninth centuries, in what is now France, western Germany and northern Italy, transformed medieval European culture. At the same time it engendered a need to ensure that clergy, monks and laity embraced orthodox Christian doctrine. This book examines Carolingian thinking on the critical issue of the Passion. It considers how changes in the understanding of the Crucifixion are reflected in a range of contemporary writings, and the impact of those developments on a selection of artistic representations of the crucified Christ.
List of illustrations; Preface; List of abbreviations; 1. Introduction; 2. The passion and Christological inquiry at the court of Charlemagne; 3. The crucified God in the Gellone Sacramentary and Hrabanus Maurus' In honorem sanctae crucis; 4. The crucified Christ in later Carolingian literature; 5. For whom did Christ die?: the controversy over divine predestination; 6. One-time sacrifice, daily food and drink: the controversy over the eucharist; 7. Three later Carolingian crucifixion images; 8. Conclusion; Select bibliography; Index.