The Cultural Dimension of International Business / Edition 5

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780131927674
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 2/10/2005
  • Edition description: REV
  • Edition number: 5
  • Pages: 224
  • Sales rank: 1,276,080
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 8.96 (h) x 0.42 (d)

Meet the Author

Gary Ferraro, Professor Emeritus of Anthropology at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, received his BA in history from Hamilton College and his MA and PhD degrees from Syracuse University. He has been a Fulbright Scholar at the University of Swaziland in Southern Africa (1979-80) and again at Masaryk University in the Czech Republic (2003), and has served twice as a visiting professor of anthropology in the University of Pittsburgh's Semester at Sea Program, a floating university that travels around the world. He has conducted research for extended periods of time in Kenya and Swaziland and has traveled widely throughout many other parts of the world. He has served as a consultant/trainer for such organizations as USAID, the Peace Corps, the World Bank, IBM, Georgia Pacific, Duke Energy, and J.M. Huber, among others. From l996 to 2000 Dr. Ferraro served as the Director of the Intercultural Training Institute at UNC-Charlotte, a consortium of cross cultural trainers/educators from academia and business, designed to help regional organizations cope with cultural differences at home and abroad. In 2000 he became the president of Intercultural Associates, a private firm specializing in cross cultural training, consulting, and coaching. In addition to a number of articles in professional journals, he is the author of:


· THE CULTURAL DIMENSION OF INTL. BUSINESS (l990, l994, l998, 2002, 2006, and 2010)

· CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY: AN APPLIED PERSPECTIVE (1992, 1995, 1998, 2001, 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010)




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Table of Contents

Preface vii

1 Cultural Anthropology and International Business 1

Introduction: Global Connections 1

The Anthropological Perspective 6

Cultural Anthropology and Business 10

Culture and International Business 12

The Need for Greater Awareness of the Cultural Environment 14

International Competency-A National Problem 16

2 Culture and International Business: A Conceptual Approach 19

Culture Defined 19

Culture Is Learned 21

Culture Influences Biological Processes 23

Cultural Universals 26

Economic Systems 26

Marriage and Family Systems 27

Educational Systems 29

Social Control Systems 29

Supernatural Belief Systems 30

Cultural Change 31

Ethnocentrism 35

Cultures Are Integrated Wholes 37

Some Precautions 41

Corporations Also Have Cultures 43

Cultural Differences in Business: Challenges and Opportunities 48

Crass-Cultural Scenarios 50

3 Communicating across Cultures: Language 53

The Need for Linguistic Proficiency in International Business 54

Linguistic Diversity 58

Language and Culture 60

The Influence of Culture on Language 60

The Influence of Language on Culture 62

Language Mirrors Values 64

Linguistic Style 66

Language and Social Context 69

Some Additional Complicating Factors 72

Slang 72

Euphemisms 73

Proverbs 74

Verbal Dueling 75

Humor 76

Conversational Taboos 77

New Modes of Communication in the Twenty-First Century 78

Conclusion 79

Cross-Cultural Scenarios 80

4 Communicating across Cultures: The Nonverbal Dimension 82

The Nature of Nonverbal Communication 82

Body Posture 85

Hand Gestures 88

Facial Expressions 91

Gaze 93

Proxemics 95

Bodily Contact (Touching)98

Conclusion 102

Cross-Cultural Scenarios 103

5 Contrasting Cultural Values 106

The Individual-Collective Dimension 109

How This Value Plays Out in the Two Types of Societies 110

Implications for Business 112

The Equality-Hierarchy Dimension 113

How This Value Plays Out in the Two Types of Societies 114

Implications for Business 115

The Tough-Tender Dimension 116

How This Value Plays Out in the Two Types of Societies 117

Implications for Business 119

The Uncertainty-Avoidance Dimension 120

How This Value Plays Out in the Two Types of Societies 122

Implications for Business 123

The Time Dimension 123

Precise versus Loose Reckoning of Time 123

Sequential versus Synchronized Time 125

Past, Present, and Future Orientations 126

How This Value Plays Out in Different Types of Societies 128

Implications for Business 129

Conclusion 129

Cross-Cultural Scenarios 130

6 Negotiating across Cultures 134

The Nature of Cross-Cultural Negotiation 136

Where to Negotiate 137

Effective Strategies for International Negotiators 139

Avoid Cultural Cluelessness 139

Concentrate on Long-Term Relationships, Not Short-Term Contracts 140

Focus on the Interests behind the Positions 141

Avoid Overreliance on Cultural Generalizations 143

Be Sensitive to Timing 144

Remain Flexible 146

Prepare Carefully 147

Learn to Listen, Not Just Speak 149

Be Realistic about How Others View Us 150

Act Ethically and with Integrity 153

The Use of Interpreters 155

The Global Negotiator 156

Cross-Cultural Scenarios 157

7 Coping with Culture Shock 160

The Nature of Culture Shock 160

Minimizing Culture Shock 166

Cross-Cultural Scenarios 172

8 Developing Global Managers 175

Selection 178

Communication Skills 179

Personality Traits 180

Motivation 180

Family Circumstances 180

CCT 183

Repatriation 187

Global Managers for the Twenty-First Century 190

Cross-Cultural Scenarios 196

Appendix A Cross-Cultural Scenario Discussions 199

Appendix B Locating Relevant Cultural Information 209

The Traditional Anthropological Approach 209

Culture-Specific Associations 210

Some Country-Specific Sources 210

U.S. Government Sources 211

Sources of Country-Specific News and Current Events 211

The Electronic Library 212

Human Resources for Culture-Specific Information 213

One's Own Company 213

Academia 213

Foreign Trade Offices 214

Private-Sector Consultants and Trainers 214

The Search for Cultural Information Upon Arrival 215

In-Country Documentary Resources 215

In-Country Human Resources 216

Conclusion 217

References 218

Photo Credits 222

Index 223

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