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"Jean Eisenstaedt takes us on a bold and exciting journey into the world of general relativity, bringing insight and wit to a difficult subject. His explanation of the geometrical nature of the theory is masterful. Eisenstaedt is one of the few historians who has tackled in a clear way how the physics community first accepted relativity, then ignored it, and now uses it as an everyday tool in their work."—Jeffrey Crelinsten, The Impact Group, Toronto, and author of Einstein's Jury: The Race to Test Relativity
"Eisenstaedt's very readable book offers an excellent introduction to the fascinating history of general relativity, written by one of the leading experts in the field. Taking a broad perspective, it shows how Einstein's theory emerges from a long historical tradition, and how it continues to pose challenging problems to this day."—Jürgen Renn, Director of the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science, Berlin
"Jean Eisenstaedt's book is highly significant for the history of science because it is really the first serious look at the evolution of concepts in the history of general relativity after Einstein's death. It was the development of the concept of the black hole between the late 1950s and late 1960s that constituted the real birth of general relativity, and this story and the lead up to it is the story that Eisenstaedt tells here with unmatched authority. This book is, then, a founding text that sets out the historical context of this fascinating issue. The story of the discovery of black holes is a remarkable intellectual parable in itself, and Eisenstaedt tells it brilliantly."—Daniel J. Kennefick, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, and coeditor of the Einstein Papers Project
"Beginning with Einstein's early work on a general theory of relativity at the start of the twentieth century, Eisenstaedt's book guides us through the attempts of several generations of relativists to resolve and detect this fascinating theory's strange physical consequences. From Schwarzschild's 'magical sphere' to Wheeler's 'black hole,' fifty years of scientific indifference and even opposition to this puzzling branch of physics elapsed before relativistic cosmology was reborn at last, and the theory of general relativity recaptured the public spotlight."—Diana Kormos Buchwald, Einstein Papers Project, Caltech
"In this English translation, Eisenstaedt . . . reviews how Einstein developed the theory that would supplant Newton's principles of gravity. The author reviews the period from the 1920s to the 1950s, during which Einstein confronted his critics. Finally, Eisenstaedt ponders what will become of general relativity as today's physicists search for a unifying theory of the quantum and gravitational domains."—Science News
Praise for the original, French edition: "With its limpid prose, this book reads like a novel. . . . It is a treasure for all those who seek to understand Einstein's theory."—Ciel & Espace
"What makes his book stand out among the legion of other titles on Einstein and relativity is the historical context into which Eisenstaedt places his scientific discussion."—Library Journal
Praise for the original, French edition: "Eisenstaedt's book . . . takes us into the universe of an exceptional theory, and offers an irresistible chance to delve into the mind of one of the most brilliant scientists of the twentieth century."—Bulletin critique du livre en franais
Praise for the original, French edition: "Virtually free of mathematical formulas, this book offers accessible reading . . . to all amateur scientists who are by definition curious spirits. . . . A big 'thank you' to Jean Eisenstaedt for this excellent work!"—L'Astronomie
Praise for the original, French edition: An accessible and precisely written book for all non-mathematicians who wish to comprehend the complexities raised by the theory of relativity."—Aldéran
"A faithful history of Einstein's astonishing theory of gravitation based on curvature of the four-dimensional space-time in which we live, created when no observed datum pointed in that direction. . . . For professionals in other fields, energetic readers, and college-level students."—Choice
"This book gives a lucid account of the struggle to find the right concepts to understand how the speed of light can be independent of the motion of its source."—D. Lynden-Bell, The Observatory Magazine
A new scientific theory does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it. Max Planck
General relativity, that is, Einstein's theory of gravitation, has long been considered incomprehensible. There are many reasons for that opinion, and if they are certainly not all technical, they are not merely ideological either. Rethinking space-time-accepting that geometry is not the one our senses (and our education) have taught us and that the universe is curved-requires a true intellectual effort.
Things had gotten off to a bad start with special relativity, which was not an easy theory either, to say the least. In 1959, four years after Einstein's death, the distinguished theoretical physicist Max von Laue revealed to Margot Löwenthal, Albert's daughter-in-law, his difficulty in understanding Einstein's 1905 article on special relativity and the forty years it had taken him to succeed: "[S]lowly but steadily a new world opened before me. I had to spend a great deal of effort on it.... And epistemologicaldifficulties in particular gave me much trouble. I believe that only since about 1950 have I mastered them."
This admission of Max von Laue, a Nobel physicist familiar with Einstein's work and author of some excellent books on relativity, should help us, as we begin our journey through The Curious History of Relativity, to accept our own difficulty in approaching relativity. We are not alone in this situation. Many before us have faced similar obstacles and have resisted relativity's ideas, logic, and consequences-and made plenty of mistakes which, I hope, will help us to better understand the theory.
The difficulty in understanding "the" theory of relativity (special and general relativity were often confused) was so widespread at the turn of the century that it gave rise to a story, probably apocryphal but soon reaching mythical proportions, in which only three persons could understand Einstein's theory. But it appears that the myth was based on a true story....
On 6 November 1919, at Carlton House in London, the extraordinary meeting of the Royal Society devoted to the results of the English expeditions and chaired by J. J. Thomson has just ended: general relativity has been "verified." Eddington, the hero of the day and the center of attention, chats with his colleagues. Ludwik Silberstein, a small, bearded man, well-known relativist, and author of a decent treatise on special relativity, who also had an inclination for debate and heated discussions and was very sure of himself and his quick mind, joins the group and exchanges a few polite words with an amused Eddington. The atmosphere is light, full of jesting remarks. Silberstein then asks Eddington:
Isn't it true, my dear Eddington, that only three persons in the world understand relativity?" Silberstein confidently expects the obvious, polite reply, "But, apart from Einstein, who, my dear Silberstein, who, if not you ... and I, if you allow me."
Eddington, however, remains aloof, silent, amused. Silberstein insists: "Professor Eddington, you must be one of the three persons in the world who understand general relativity." To which Eddington, unruffled, replies, "On the contrary, I am trying to think who the third person is!"
More than two centuries earlier, a student passed Newton on a Cambridge street and observed in a hushed voice: "There goes the man who has written a book that neither he nor anyone else understands."
Definitely, gravitation does not appear to be an accessible subject. And yet, relativity is not as difficult to understand as public rumor has it, nor is it the only theory to resist comprehension or to make us wonder. By learning about the difficulties experienced by the brightest, we may perhaps more easily accept our own and come to terms with the limits of our understanding. In short, we may progress.
Excerpted from The Curious History of Relativity by Jean Eisenstaedt Copyright © 2006 by Princeton University Press. Excerpted by permission.
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INTRODUCTION: A Difficult Theory 1
CHAPTER ONE: The Speed of Light and Classical Physics 4
CHAPTER TWO: Light and the Structure of Space-Time 24
CHAPTER THREE: Toward a New Theory of Gravitation 58
CHAPTER FOUR: Einstein's Principles 76
CHAPTER FIVE: The Birth of General Relativity 103
CHAPTER SIX: General Relativity: A Physical Geometry 138
CHAPTER SEVEN: Relativity Verified: Mercury's Anomaly 149
CHAPTER EIGHT: Relativity Verified: The Deflection of Light Rays 167
CHAPTER NINE: Relativity Verified: The Line Shift 196
CHAPTER TEN: The Crossing of the Desert 213
CHAPTER ELEVEN: An Unpopular Theory 244
CHAPTER TWELVE: The Rejection of Black Holes 255
CHAPTER THIRTEEN: Paths in Schwarzschild's Space-Time 284
CHAPTER FOURTEEN: No Ordinary Stars 310
CHAPTER FIFTEEN: Gravitation, Astrophysics, and Cosmology 325
AFTERWORD: The Paths of General Relativity 346
Name Index 361
Posted February 10, 2009
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