The Dead Sea Scrolls Study Edition

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The Dead Sea Scrolls Study Edition is a practical reference tool to facilitate access to the Qumran collection of the Dead Sea Scrolls. It contains newly edited Hebrew and Aramaic transcriptions and English translations of the non-biblical scrolls on facing pages, arranged by serial number from Cave 1 to Cave 11. In addition, it offers a summary of the contents of the biblical scrolls from Qumran. Each Q-number is provided with a heading which contains the essential information on the text and selected bibliographical references. Although unidentified and unclassified fragments have been omitted, and no snippets of manuscripts have been reproduced, this edition aims to be complete for the non-biblical scrolls. The work is primarily intended for classroom use and for use by specialists from other disciplines who need a reliable compendium to all the materials found. It will also be useful as a companion for those studying the original manuscripts using the microfiche or CD-ROM editions of the scrolls.
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Editorial Reviews

Currents in Theology & Mission
Will serve students and scholars well as the most complete, easily accessible texts of the Qumran manuscripts.... This edition belongs in the library of every New Testament student and on the shelves of every college, university, and seminary library. It deserves wide use, even by general readers. Nothing illuminates more than the reading of original texts. The two editors, both at the Qumran Institute at the University of Groningen, the Netherlands, deserve thanks for an immensely helpful edition.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780802844934
  • Publisher: Eerdmans, William B. Publishing Company
  • Publication date: 8/28/1999
  • Edition description: Study Edition
  • Pages: 1361
  • Sales rank: 1,149,189
  • Product dimensions: 6.30 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 2.90 (d)

Table of Contents


Preface to the Paperback Edition....................xiv
Key to Symbols....................xxii
Text and Translation 1Q1–4Q273....................1
Text and Translation 4Q274–11Q31....................628
Index of Manuscripts....................1311
Index of Titles....................1325
Index of Cave 1 Manuscripts without Serial Numbers....................1360
Index of Manuscripts not found near Qumran....................1361
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First Chapter

The Dead Sea Scrolls


Copyright © 1997 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands
All right reserved.

ISBN: 978-0-8028-4493-4


This book is intended as a practical tool to facilitate access to the Qumran collection of Dead Sea Scrolls. As such, it is primarily intended for classroom use and for the benefit of specialists from other disciplines (scholars working on the Hebrew Bible, the New Testament or Rabbinic literature, specialists on Semitic languages, on the History of Judaism or on the History of Religions, among others) who need a reliable compendium of all the relevant materials found in this collection. As such, it is not intended to compete with, let alone to replace, the editio princeps of the materials published in the series Discoveries in the Judaean Desert or outside this series, or the preliminary publications of materials which have not yet appeared in the DJD Series. The plates printed in the critical editions, as well as the transcriptions, translations and commentaries of the first editors are, and will always remain, the basis of all serious work on the Scrolls.

Whereas the evidence of the biblical manuscripts from Qumran will be shortly available in The Qumran Bible by E. Ulrich, this book offers a fresh transcription and an English translation of all the relevant non-biblical texts found at Qumran, arranged by serial number from Cave 1 to Cave 11. By biblical scrolls we understand here the copies of the books that subsequently emerged as the traditional Hebrew Bible, as well as the remains of tefillin and mezuzot which only contain quotations of those biblical books. In several cases the distinction between biblical and non-biblical texts is not clear-cut. Thus, the so-called Reworked Pentateuch consists mainly of the biblical text of the pentateuchal books, be it sometimes in a different order, but also has some sections with material that is not included in the Hebrew Bible; likewise, we have included the non-biblical psalms from the Psalms Scrolls 4Q88, 11Q5 and 11Q6. Not included are the scant remains of Ben Sira from Cave 2. The inclusion in the edition of these 'additions' does not imply a judgment on their 'biblical' or 'non-biblical' character. In three cases we have included texts not found at Qumran, but related to manuscripts from Qumran; this goes for the remains of the mediaeval copies of the Damascus Document and the Aramaic Levi Document found in the Cairo Genizah, and for the copy of the Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice recovered at Masada.

The transcriptions of the material included in this edition are fresh transcriptions made by the authors, though it is a very pleasant duty to recognize the debt to all previous work by teachers and colleagues. Our transcriptions rely not only on the identification and placement of the many tens of thousands of fragments achieved by the original editors of the non-biblical scrolls, who arranged the fragments for the photographs made by the Palestine Archaeological Museum in the 1950s and 1960s, and the subsequent editions of these materials by the original editors, but also on all the editions done by other scholars.

Although we have consulted the available editions of the individual manuscripts, the responsibility for the transcriptions here presented is entirely ours. We have checked all the proposed readings against the photographs accessible to us: the photographs provided by the published editions, the photographs included in the Brill microfiche edition and the photographs available in the Oxford-Brill's CD-ROM. In most cases one will find no or few significant differences from other transcriptions because these readings are imposed by the univocal manuscript evidence. In the case of ambiguous manuscript evidence, and in view of the practical purpose of this book, we have often adopted the suggestions of previous editors, rather than presenting alternative readings for the sake of originality and difference, even when such readings would be palaeographically or otherwise possible. The restorations of the text offered in the transcriptions are on the whole relatively sparse. The main exceptions are reconstructions based upon the preserved text of parallel copies of the same manuscript.

A considerable part of the materials was already accessible in translation in The Dead Sea Scrolls Translated. That translation has served as the base-text of the translations presented in this edition, but has been thoroughly checked and corrected by the authors. Of the greatest help for this revision was the Dutch translation by A.S. van der Woude included in F. García Martínez & A.S. van der Woude, De Rollen van de Dode Zee Ingeleid en in het Nederlands vertaald (Kampen: Kok, 1994, 1995). Although we have consulted most other translations of individual manuscripts, the responsibility for the translations here presented is also ours. The practical purpose of the book has shaped the final translation: to a large extent literal, neutral and close to the transcribed text, even if the outcome lacks finesse and is less fluent than some other presently available translations. On the whole the translation aims to be a translation of the transcribed text on the facing page. Exceptions have been made for texts like Tobit, Jubilees and 1 Enoch, where the translation fills in the lacunae on the basis of the known non-Hebrew versions for the benefit of the readers. Although we have tried to be generally consistent in the translation of technical terms, we have not established a chart of translation-equivalents to avoid imposing an uniform meaning upon texts which may be of different origin or of different epochs. Other differences of translation, and also, to some extent, method of transcription, may be attributed to the procedure followed by the authors: each author prepared his own lot, and revised the lot of the other author.

The practical purpose of the book has also governed the selection and the presentation of the materials. We have selected the materials on the basis of their extensiveness and interest, discarding most of the minute fragments which add little to our knowledge. On some occasions we have hesitantly opted for the inclusion of very small and insignificant fragments, only to provide some idea of the material remains of certain compositions, and in order not to leave too many entries empty. On the other hand, larger but, in our opinion, less interesting fragments from manuscripts have been omitted. This means that, in general, we present the largest fragments of a manuscript, and a selection of the smaller ones. Even so, many Q numbers from the different caves are exclusively made up of unidentified or unclassified fragments, and we have not attempted to reproduce these snippets. In spite of this, we consider this edition relatively complete for the non-biblical scrolls, and as such it could be useful as a companion volume with transcriptions and translations for the users of the microfiche or the CD-ROM editions of the photographs of the manuscripts.

This same practical purpose has governed the presentation of the transcriptions. We have avoided all diacritical marks which indicate the degree of certainty of a reading. Readings which in our view are sufficiently assured or have a high degree of probability, even if the remains are minimal, are transcribed outside square brackets. When we are not reasonably assured of a reading, we have noted the letter within square brackets, as a reconstruction, or replaced it by one or more dots. We have not reproduced the extent of lacunae; three dots within square brackets ([...]) indicate any amount of missing text and three dots outside square brackets (]...[) any amount of unreadable (either undecipherable or meaningless) letters or words. Readings corrected by a copyist are indicated within accolades. The text printed within accolades ({...}) may represent erasures, letters with cancellation dots, or text otherwise marked by the copyist as not to be read. One particular type of scribal correction, the overwriting and reshaping of individual letters, has not always been presented in the transcription. The indication vacat in the transcription, and Blank in the translation, indicate any amount of space left blank in the manuscript, either intentionally (as indication of a new paragraph) or accidentally. Words written above the line or in Palaeohebrew characters in the manuscript are reproduced as such in our transcription. In only a limited number of cases we have indicated obvious mistakes in the text which have not been corrected by the copyist. Text presented within angled brackets (< >) was written in the manuscripts, but should, in our opinion, be read otherwise or be deleted. Text within round brackets either presents our addition to the text, or indicates our corrected reading of the preceding word or words.

The materials are arranged according to cave and serial number. For the materials which do not have a serial number (1QIsaa, 1QIsab, 1QHa, 1QM, 1QS, 1QapGen, 1QpHab, and the three included non-Qumranic texts) we have adopted the procedure of the Companion Volume to the microfiche edition, placing them in the immediate vicinity of the corresponding materials which do have a serial number.

Each entry is provided with a heading which contains a summary of essential information:

1 Cave number and number of the manuscript, short title (when available) and official or descriptive title; it should be noted that the titles of the not yet officially published manuscripts are still subject to change;

2 bibliographical data of the editio princeps or of the preliminary edition;

3 main PAM or SHR photographs of the manuscript;

4 place where the manuscript is kept and Inventory Number of the manuscripts in the Rockefeller Museum;

5 other copies of the composition from the same cave or from other caves, when extant;

6 when appropriate, other relevant bibliographical data.

In the entries corresponding to biblical manuscripts the heading is followed by the references of the texts preserved on the individual fragments as published in the DJD Series. For the biblical manuscripts from Cave 4 which have not yet been published in the DJD Series the contents are indicated without linking them to concrete fragments, because the precise numbering of the fragments has not yet been fixed. In the entries corresponding to non-biblical manuscripts, the headings are followed by the transcription of the fragments with the translation in the facing page.

Only the more relevant PAM photographs are indicated. The information on the photographs and Museum Inventory numbers is mainly based on the data given in The Dead Sea Scrolls Catalogue. Documents, Photographs and Museum Inventory Numbers, Compiled by Stephen A. Reed, Revised and Edited by Marilyn J. Lundberg with the collaboration of Michael B. Phelps (SBL Resources for Biblical Study 32; Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1994). This information has been checked and corrected when necessary with the Companion Volume to the Dead Sea Scrolls Microfiche Edition, Edited by Emanuel Tov with the Collaboration of Stephen Pfann, Second Revised Edition, Leiden: E.J. Brill – IDC, 1995, and with the information provided in the bibliographical database of The Dead Sea Scrolls. Electronic Reference Library, Volume I, Edited by Timothy H. Lim in consultation with Philip S. Alexander, (Oxford University Press & Brill Academic Publishers, 1997). We also wish to thank Emanuel Tov for providing us with a copy of his updated desk-copy of the inventory of photographs and museum inventory numbers. Only the photographs available in the microfiche edition or in the CD-ROM are indicated, not other extant photographic collections of DSS materials.

It is a pleasant duty to acknowledge the help and to thank accordingly the many institutions and individuals who have contributed to the completion of this volume. First and foremost all the original editors of the manuscripts whose names appear at the beginning of each entry: without their pioneering work this book would not have been possible. It would also not have been possible without the intensive work done for almost fifty years by a large community of scholars who dedicated their efforts to increasing our understanding of these texts. Although we have been forced to restrict to a minimum the bibliographical references, excluding many names and many contributions, we are deeply indebted to each and all of these scholars, and we gladly acknowledge the influence of their work on our transcriptions and translations.

Hans van der Meij, Pim Rietbroek and the technical staff of Brill Academic Publishers, have been very actively involved in all the phases of the production of this book; their interest and the constant care with which they have followed the whole process have been instrumental in the completion of the book; they have earned the thanks of the readers as well as our own.

It is also a pleasure to thank the "Dirección General de Investigación y Desarrollo" of the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science, which funded the stay for a sabbatical semester in 1997 of F. García Martínez at the Instituto Universitario de Ciencias de las Religiones de la Universidad Complutense, and to its Director Julio Trebolle Barrera, who allowed this editor to work undisturbed on this book. Likewise, we are indebted to the "Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen" which granted E.J.C. Tigchelaar an academy fellowship for a Qumran research project.

Finally, we acknowledge and thank the unfailing support of the Theological Faculty of the Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, our academic home base, which, with its Qumran Instituut, has established the ideal conditions for research. It is a pleasure to present this book as a token of the contribution of our Qumran Instituut in Groningen to the celebrations of the fiftieth anniversary of the Scrolls, and to dedicate it to A.S. van der Woude, the founder and former Director of the Qumran Instituut, on the occasion of his seventieth birthday.

The Authors Groningen, October 1997

Excerpted from The Dead Sea Scrolls Copyright © 1997 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands. Excerpted by permission of WILLIAM B. EERDMANS PUBLISHING COMPANY. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

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