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The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Part II

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Edward Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire occupies an immortal place in the pantheon of historical masterpieces. This six-disc recording covers the final three volumes of Gibbon's work, tracing ten centuries in the life of the eastern half of the empire, whose capital city was Constantinople. Among the many figures who stride across Gibbon's stage here are the emperor Justinian I, a noble statesman and successful warrior, brought low by his lascivious wife, the former prostitute Theodora; the murdering...

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Overview

Edward Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire occupies an immortal place in the pantheon of historical masterpieces. This six-disc recording covers the final three volumes of Gibbon's work, tracing ten centuries in the life of the eastern half of the empire, whose capital city was Constantinople. Among the many figures who stride across Gibbon's stage here are the emperor Justinian I, a noble statesman and successful warrior, brought low by his lascivious wife, the former prostitute Theodora; the murdering Basil I, a peasant who nonetheless proved himself a worthy figure upon which to drape the purple; and the final emperor of all, Constantine XI, who died on the battlements of Constantinople in 1453, valiantly fighting a losing battle to prevent the Turks from gaining a city they had craved for centuries. It is still the work that sets the standard for all histories of the period.

Music: Schumann, Raff

This first volume covers the last two hundred years of the Roman Empire leading up to its collapse.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9789626341223
  • Publisher: Naxos Audiobooks
  • Publication date: 5/28/1997
  • Format: CD
  • Edition description: Abridged, 6 CDs
  • Product dimensions: 5.55 (w) x 4.89 (h) x 0.95 (d)

Meet the Author

Hans-Friedrich Mueller is the William D. Williams Professor of Classics at Union College in Schenectady, New York, and the author of Roman Religion in Valerius Maximus.

Daniel J. Boorstin, Pulitzer Prize–winning historian and Librarian of Congress emeritus, is the author of many books, including The Creators and The Discoverers.
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Read an Excerpt

Chapter I
The Extent of the Empire in the Age of the Antonines Introduction.


The extent and military force of the empire in the age of the Antonines. In the second century of the Christian Era, the empire of Rome comprehended the fairest part of the earth and the most civilized portion of mankind. The frontiers of that extensive monarchy were guarded by ancient renown and disciplined valor. The gentle but powerful influence of laws and manners had gradually cemented the union of the provinces. Their peaceful inhabitants enjoyed and abused the advantages of wealth and luxury. The image of a free constitution was preserved with decent reverence: the Roman senate appeared to possess the sovereign authority, and devolved on the emperors all the executive powers of government. During a happy period of more than fourscore years [a.d. 98–180], the public administration was conducted by the virtue and abilities of Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, and the two Antonines. It is the design of this, and of the two succeeding chapters, to describe the prosperous condition of their empire; and afterwards, from the death of Marcus Antoninus, to deduce the most important circumstances of its decline and fall, a revolution which will ever be remembered, and is still felt by the nations of the earth.

The principal conquests of the Romans were achieved under the republic; and the emperors, for the most part, were satisfied with preserving those dominions which had been acquired by the policy of the senate, the active emulation of the consuls, and the martial enthusiasm of the people. The seven first centuries were filled with a rapid succession of triumphs; but it was reserved forAugustus to relinquish the ambitious design of subduing the whole earth, and to introduce a spirit of moderation into the public councils. Inclined to peace by his temper and situation, it was easy for him to discover that Rome, in her present exalted situation, had much less to hope than to fear from the chance of arms; and that, in the prosecution of remote wars, the undertaking became every day more difficult, the event more doubtful, and the possession more precarious, and less beneficial.

Happily for the repose of mankind, the moderate system recommended by the wisdom of Augustus was adopted by the fears and vices of his immediate successors. Engaged in the pursuit of pleasure, or in the exercise of tyranny, the first Caesars seldom showed themselves to the armies, or to the provinces; nor were they disposed to suffer that those triumphs which their indolence neglected should be usurped by the conduct and valor of their lieutenants. The military fame of a subject was considered as an insolent invasion of the Imperial prerogative; and it became the duty, as well as interest, of every Roman general to guard the frontiers entrusted to his care without aspiring to conquests which might have proved no less fatal to himself than to the vanquished Barbarians.

The only accession which the Roman empire received during the first century of the Christian Era was the province of Britain. In this single instance, the successors of Caesar and Augustus were persuaded to follow the example of the former, rather than the precept of the latter. The proximity of its situation to the coast of Gaul seemed to invite their arms; the pleasing though doubtful intelligence of a pearl fishery attracted their avarice; and as Britain was viewed in the light of a distinct and insulated world, the conquest scarcely formed any exception to the general system of continental measures. After a war of about forty years, undertaken by the most stupid, maintained by the most dissolute, and terminated by the most timid of all the emperors, the far greater part of the island submitted to the Roman yoke. The various tribes of Britain possessed valor without conduct, and the love of freedom without the spirit of union. They took up arms with savage fierceness; they laid them down, or turned them against each other, with wild inconsistency; and while they fought singly, they were successively subdued. Neither the fortitude of Caractacus, nor the despair of Boadicea, nor the fanaticism of the Druids could avert the slavery of their country, or resist the steady progress of the Imperial generals, who maintained the national glory when the throne was disgraced by the weakest, or the most vicious of mankind. Such was the state of the Roman frontiers, and such the maxims of Imperial policy, from the death of Augustus to the accession of Trajan. That virtuous and active prince had received the education of a soldier and possessed the talents of a general. The peaceful system of his predecessors was interrupted by scenes of war and conquest; and the legions, after a long interval, beheld a military emperor at their head. The first exploits of Trajan were against the Dacians, the most warlike of men, who dwelt beyond the Danube and who, during the reign of Domitian, had insulted with impunity the Majesty of Rome. To the strength and fierceness of Barbarians they added a contempt for life, which was derived from a warm persuasion of the immortality and transmigration of the soul. Decebalus, the Dacian king, approved himself a rival not unworthy of Trajan; nor did he despair of his own and the public fortune till, by the confession of his enemies, he had exhausted every resource both of valor and policy. This memorable war, with a very short suspension of hostilities, lasted five years [a.d. 101–106]; and as the emperor could exert, without control, the whole force of the state, it was terminated by an absolute submission of the Barbarians. The new province of Dacia . . . formed a second exception to the precept of Augustus.

Trajan was ambitious of fame; and as long as mankind shall continue to bestow more liberal applause on their destroyers than on their benefactors, the thirst of military glory will ever be the vice of the most exalted characters. The praises of Alexander, transmitted by a succession of poets and historians, had kindled a dangerous emulation in the mind of Trajan. Like him, the Roman emperor undertook an expedition against the nations of the East; but he lamented with a sigh that his advanced age scarcely left him any hopes of equaling the renown of the son of Philip. Yet the success of Trajan, however transient, was rapid and specious. The degenerate Parthians, broken by intestine discord, fled before his arms. He descended the River Tigris in triumph, from the mountains of Armenia to the Persian Gulf. He enjoyed the honor of being the first, as he was the last, of the Roman generals who ever navigated that remote sea. His fleets ravaged the coast of Arabia; and Trajan vainly flattered himself that he was approaching towards the confines of India. Every day the astonished senate received the intelligence of new names and new nations that acknowledged his sway. They were informed that . . . the rich countries of Armenia, Mesopotamia, and Assyria were reduced into the state of provinces. But the death of Trajan soon clouded the splendid prospect; and it was justly to be dreaded that so many distant nations would throw off the unaccustomed yoke when they were no longer restrained by the powerful hand which had imposed it.

It was an ancient tradition that when the Capitol was founded by one of the Roman kings, the god Terminus (who presided over boundaries, and was represented, according to the fashion of that age, by a large stone) alone, among all the inferior deities, refused to yield his place to Jupiter himself. A favorable inference was drawn from his obstinacy, which was interpreted by the augurs as a sure presage that the boundaries of the Roman power would never recede. During many ages, the prediction, as it is usual, contributed to its own accomplishment. But though Terminus had resisted the majesty of Jupiter, he submitted to the authority of the emperor Hadrian. The resignation of all the eastern conquests of Trajan was the first measure of his reign . . . ; and, in compliance with the precept of Augustus, once more established the Euphrates as the frontier of the empire. Censure, which arraigns the public actions and the private motives of princes, has ascribed to envy a conduct which might be attributed to the prudence and moderation of Hadrian. The various character of that emperor, capable, by turns, of the meanest and the most generous sentiments, may afford some color to the suspicion. It was, however, scarcely in his power to place the superiority of his predecessor in a more conspicuous light than by thus confessing himself unequal to the task of defending the conquests of Trajan.

Notwithstanding this difference in their personal conduct, the general system of Augustus was equally adopted and uniformly pursued by Hadrian and by the two Antonines. They persisted in the design of maintaining the dignity of the empire without attempting to enlarge its limits. By every honorable expedient they invited the friendship of the Barbarians; and endeavored to convince mankind that the Roman power, raised above the temptation of conquest, was actuated only by the love of order and justice. During a long period of forty-three years, their virtuous labors were crowned with success; and if we except a few slight hostilities that served to exercise the legions of the frontier, the reigns of Hadrian and Antoninus Pius offer the fair prospect of universal peace. The Roman name was revered among the most remote nations of the earth. The fiercest Barbarians frequently submitted their differences to the arbitration of the emperor; and we are informed by a contemporary historian that he had seen ambassadors who were refused the honor which they came to solicit of being admitted into the rank of subjects.

The terror of the Roman arms added weight and dignity to the moderation of the emperors. They preserved peace by a constant preparation for war; and while justice regulated their conduct, they announced to the nations on their confines that they were as little disposed to endure as to offer an injury. The military strength which it had been sufficient for Hadrian and the elder Antoninus to display was exerted against the Parthians and the Germans by the emperor Marcus. The hostilities of the Barbarians provoked the resentment of that philosophic monarch, and, in the prosecution of a just defense, Marcus and his generals obtained many signal victories, both on the Euphrates and on the Danube. The military establishment of the Roman empire, which thus assured either its tranquility or success, will now become the proper and important object of our attention.

In the purer ages of the commonwealth, the use of arms was reserved for those ranks of citizens who had a country to love, a property to defend, and some share in enacting those laws which it was their interest as well as duty to maintain. But in proportion as the public freedom was lost in extent of conquest, war was gradually improved into an art, and degraded into a trade. The legions themselves, even at the time when they were recruited in the most distant provinces, were supposed to consist of Roman citizens. That distinction was generally considered either as a legal qualification or as a proper recompense for the soldier; but a more serious regard was paid to the essential merit of age, strength, and military stature. . . . After every qualification of property had been laid aside, the armies of the Roman emperors were still commanded, for the most part, by officers of liberal birth and education; but the common soldiers, like the mercenary troops of modern Europe, were drawn from the meanest, and very frequently from the most profligate, of mankind.
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Table of Contents

Acknowledgments
List of Maps and Illustrations
Introduction
Critical Foreword
The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
Preface of the Author 3
1 The Extent of the Empire in the Age of the Antonines 11
2 Of the Internal Prosperity of the Roman Empire in the Age of the Antonines 19
3 The Constitution in the Age of the Antonines 38
4 The Cruelty, Follies, and Murder of Commodus 58
5 Sale of the Empire to Didius Julianus 70
6 Death of Severus, Tyranny of Caracalla, Usurpation of Macrinus 83
7 Tyranny of Maximin, Rebellion, Civil Wars, Death of Maximin 104
8 State of Persia and Restoration of the Monarchy 125
9 State of Germany Until the Barbarians 133
10 Emperors Decius, Gallus, Aemilianus, Valerian, and Gallienus 143
11 Reign of Claudius, Defeat of the Goths 164
12 Reigns of Tacitus, Probus, Carus, and His Sons 179
13 Reign of Diocletian and His Three Associates 195
14 Six Emperors at the Same Time, Reunion of the Empire 213
15 Progress of the Christian Religion 237
16 Conduct Towards the Christians, from Nero to Constantine 276
17 Foundation of Constantinople 317
18 Character of Constantine and His Sons 344
19 Constantius Sole Emperor 359
20 Conversion of Constantine 376
21 Persecution of Heresy, State of the Church 401
22 Julian Declared Emperor 425
23 Reign of Julian 436
24 The Retreat and Death of Julian 454
25 Reigns of Jovian and Valentinian, Division of the Empire 466
26 Progress of the Huns 490
27 Civil Wars, Reign of Theodosius 509
28 Destruction of Paganism 522
29 Division of Roman Empire Between Sons of Theodosius 540
30 Revolt of the Goths 546
31 Invasion of Italy, Occupation of Territories by Barbarians 563
32 Emperors Arcadius, Eutropius, Theodosius II 578
33 Conquest of Africa by the Vandals 594
34 Attila 604
35 Invasion by Attila 610
36 Total Extinction of the Western Empire 620
37 Conversion of the Barbarians to Christianity 643
38 Reign of Clovis 659
39 Gothic Kingdom of Italy 691
40 Reign of Justinian 699
41 Conquests of Justinian, Character of Belisarius 725
42 State of the Barbaric World 736
43 Last Victory and Death of Belisarius, Death of Justinian 747
44 Idea of the Roman Jurisprudence 762
45 State of Italy Under the Lombards 788
46 Troubles in Persia 800
47 Ecclesiastical Discord 815
48 Succession and Characters of the Greek Emperors 855
49 Conquest of Italy by the Franks 869
50 Description of Arabia and Its Inhabitants 893
51 Conquests by the Arabs 944
52 More Conquests by the Arabs 961
53 Fate of the Eastern Empire 982
54 Origin and Doctrine of the Paulicians 1003
55 The Bulgarians, the Hungarians, and the Russians 1012
56 The Saracens, the Franks, and the Normans 1020
57 The Turks 1029
58 The First Crusade 1047
59 The Crusades 1075
60 The Fourth Crusade 1094
61 Partition of the Empire by the French and Venetians 1104
62 Greek Emperors of Nice and Constantinople 1108
63 Civil Wars and the Ruin of the Greek Empire 1123
64 Moguls, Ottoman Turks 1136
65 Timour or Tamerlane 1153
66 Union of the Greek and Latin Churches 1169
67 Schism of the Greeks and Latins 1187
68 Reign of Mohammed the Second, Extinction of Eastern Empire 1197
69 State of Rome from the Twelfth Century 1219
70 Final Settlement of the Ecclesiastical State 1232
71 Prospect of the Ruins of Rome in the Fifteenth Century 1243
Table of Roman Emperors 1253
A Note on the Illustrations 1259
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